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中国生育政策实质法治化探究

时间:2015-12-26 来源:未知 作者:陈赛楠 本文字数:3509字
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题目:中国生育政策实质法治化探究
引言 第一章:我国计划生育的法治化
2.1 2.2:生育权保障角度下的计划生育
2.3:计划生育法治化与社会公平
第三章:我国计划生育法治化的展望
结论/参考文献:国内计划生育政策立法保障研究结论与参考文献
  摘 要
  
  形式法治注重形式合法性。建立一套注重效率、明确、自治的规则体系,可以有效地限制权力的行使并为人们的行为提供预期,有助于法治的实现。在法治化程度不断加深之时,复杂的社会状况与预定的法律规则、日益强化的公权力与权利、普惠与特惠之间的冲突不断出现。法律的封闭性被迫开放,向实质法治化深化,将人权保障、公平正义的价值因素纳入到法治的范畴中。由于实质法治中的诸如人权、民主、公平、宪政等概念的含义无法进行一般程度的定义,对恶法的评价也没有一个具体的标准,想要全面实现实质法治是不现实的。实质法治是对形式法治有限度的修正和补充,最后也要依靠形式的具体规则来实现。在具体领域的法治化进程中,实质法治更容易发挥积极的作用。
  
  计划生育作为我国上个世纪 60、70 年代开始的一项人口政策,经过四十多年的相关立法及其实践,已经初步建立了一套从中央到地方的计划生育法律体系。可以说,我国计划生育事业已经走向了法治化的道路,并且达到了形式法治的要求。但是长期的计划生育工作一般都是以行政指令的方式实现,其工作的重点也主要体现在国家行政权力对公民生育行为的限制。为避免公权力对公民权利的过分侵害,计划生育事业的进行需要将保障人权与社会公平考虑进来,找到计划生育事业与实质法治价值精神的契合点。将实质法治中的人权保护与社会公平价值作为考量我国当前计划生育工作的尺度,客观评价我国计划生育实质法治化的现状,发现不足并提出我国计划生育政策可能调整的方向和思路。
  
  我国现行生育政策包括严格的“一孩政策”和有条件的“二孩政策”,对公民生育权的限制过于严格,并且规定了相应的处罚措施,如征收社会抚养费或给予行政处分。在具体的计划生育工作中,存在诸多行政权力侵害公民生育权的现象,而公民往往也对计划生育政策有所排斥,对计生部门不信任使其计划生育工作不能得到很好的开展。计划生育政策在制度设计上存在违背社会公平的情况,如因二胎生育条件标准不统一而产生的特殊身份之“特权”,忽视了生育权利的人格平等性;社会抚养费征收上的标准不统一,对国家工作人员计划外生育行为的行政处分机制等都在一定程度上违背社会公平的实质法治价值追求。计划生育相关制度需要向保障人权与维护社会公平的方向进行调整。
  
  计划生育事业纳入实质法治的框架内,首先需要改变以往指令性的政策模式,减少国家公权力对公民生育活动的强制限制,充分尊重公民的生育意愿,保障公民在计划生育工作中的主体地位;改变以惩罚为主的计划生育保障措施,建立普惠制的社会保障制度与特惠制的奖励扶助机制。协助公民解决因计划生育所遇到的困难,提高公民实行计划生育所获得的收益,以利益引导的方式促使我国公民自主、负责地进行生育活动。对相关违背社会公平的制度逐步调整和取消,使计划生育政策的制定符合“合理性”、“民主性”、“统一性”,将计划生育事业与人权保障、社会公平的实质法治价值相契合。
  
  关键词:
  
  计划生育政策,实质法治化,人权,社会公平
  
  Abstract
  
  The formal approach to rule of law focus on the formal legitimacy. Building anefficiency, clear, autonomous system of rules will help realizing the rule of law byrestraining the misuse of power and providing anticipations to people's behaviors.
  
  With the process of the achievement of the rule of law, the conflicts between thediverse society and its steady rules, the collides of growing powers and the people'srights, and the differences between divergent of universal or specific welfare,gradually cause the law to surrender its nature of formal closure, and to consider thevalue of the human rights, the fairness and just, in order to realize the substantivejustice.Since the definitions of the human rights, democracy, fair, constitutionalismare still controversial, there is hardly a criterion for distinguishing the evil law, whichis important to make the fully achievement of sustentative justice no longer anunrealistic goal.Sustentative justice is merely an amendment or a revise to the formaljustice, whose realization still depend on every actual rules. But the sustentativejustice is more likely to be activated in the process of law-ruling.
  
  Family planning, a population controlling policy starting from the late 60s, hasinitially established a central-to-local legal system after a more than four decades oflegislation and legal practice.In some extend, the family planning policy had built awhole level legal system and reached the minimum standard of formal justice. Butthose long time of practice of family planning was driven by administrativeinstructions, the priority of the administrative orders is to restrict the reproductionbehavior by the power. To preserve the rights of citizens from the misuse ofauthorities, it is a necessity to take the fundamental human rights and fairness intoconsider in the after practice of family planning policy, in order to reach a union placebetween the formal rules and the essence of sustentative justice. In order to find out apossible adjustment approach or tack, a criterion considering the sustentative justicevalue like human rights and the social fairness should be used to measure andobjectively evaluate the present situation of the family planning policy practiceIncluding the One Child policy and the Conditional Two Child policy, theexisting family planning policy restraints the right of citizens' child-bearing rightrigidly by stipulating the punishments such as the administrative disposals, or moresocial expenditure.In the practice of the family planning policy, it exists a great dealof infringements of civil child-bearing rights. In addition, the citizen not only repelthis policy, but also mistrust the family planning department, which lead to thedifficulty in practicing the policy.The policy has many violations of social fairness,for example, the privilege generated by the standard disunity, which ignores thepersonality equality in pregnant right. Also, the different standards in posing thesocial expenditure go against the chase of sustentative social justice. The familyplanning policy needs to change its shipping line to the protection of human rightsand social fairness.
  
  Aiming to bring the family planning policy into the domain of sustentativejustice, what needs to be done is to change the former politic pattern, which reducesthe power that compulsively restraint of the civil child-bearing right, so the cavils'willing of bearing could be fully respected, and the civil dominant position could beguaranteed. Secondly, punishment-oriented family planning policy needs to bechanged and a universal welfare system and a specific mechanism in rewarding &supporting should be built up.Leading the civil to follow the family policyresponsibly spontaneously by assisting the civil to solve the difficulties by practicingthe family planning policy, and rise up the interests generated by following thepolicy.Gradually cancel the regulation system what betray the social fairness, thefamily policy could facing the demand of reason, democracy and unity, so as thedemand of protect the human rights and the value of social sustentative justice.
  
  Key words:
  
  The Family Planning Policy Sustentative Justice Human Rights SocialFairnes


  目 录
  
  引 言
  
  一、 我国计划生育的法治化
  
  (一)我国计划生育政策的变革过程
  
  (二)我国现行计划生育制度与形式法治
  
  (三)我国现行计划生育制度与实质法治
  
  二、 我国计划生育法治化过程中的不足
  
  (一)计划生育与权利保护
  
  (二)生育权保障角度下的计划生育
  
  (三)计划生育法治化与社会公平
  
  三、 我国计划生育法治化的展望
  
  (一)改变传统指令性的工作观念
  
  (二)尊重公民的生育权利
  
  (三)调整有悖社会公平的制度
  
  结 论
  
  参考文献
  
  致 谢
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