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                          我国城市流动人口变动的新特点及服务管理创新办法

                          时间:2017-08-08 来源:理论与改革 作者:梁勇,马冬梅 本文字数:12681字

                            摘要:在工业化和现代化进程中, 农村人口向城市迁移与流动在世界范围内普遍存在, 中国也不例外。伴随着我国现代化和城市化的不断推进, 人口流动更加频繁活跃。日益增多的流动人口在给我国城市经济社会注入巨大活力的同时, 也对政府及相关部门的服务管理提出了新的、更高的要求。现阶段这一群体在基本构成、流动规模、迁移模式和空间流向等方面都表现出了一些新特点。针对这些特点及变化趋势, 提出发挥政府、社区、社工机构和流动人口自身等多元主体的共同作用, 加强对流动人口的服务管理, 以促进这一群体更好地融入城市社会。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   GUANJIANCI:XIANJIEDUAN; CHENGSHILIUDONGRENKOU; FUWUGUANLI; CHUANGXIN;

                          人口学

                            The Current New Features of Change of Urban Migrant Population and the Service Management Innovation in China

                            LIANG Yong MA Dong-mei

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Abstract:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   In the process of industrialization and modernization, the migration and flow of rural population to cities are widespread in the world, not excepting China. With the advancement of China's modernization and urbanization, population mobility has become more and more frequent and active. While the increasing number of floating population injects great vitality into the urban economy and society of the country, it also puts forward new and higher demands on the service management of the government and related departments. At present, this group has shown some features in terms of basic composition, flow scale, migration pattern and spatial flow direction. In response to these characteristics and trends, this paper has proposed that multiple roles of government, community, social work organizations and the floating population itself should be fulfilled to strengthen the service management in order to promote the integration of this group into the urban society.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Keyword:

                            Current stage; Urban migrant population; Service management; Innovation;

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CHENGSHIHUASHISHEHUISHENGCHANLIBIANGESUOYINQIDERENLEISHENGCHANFANGSHI、SHENGHUOFANGSHIHEJUZHUFANGSHIFASHENGZHUANBIANDEGUOCHENG。RENKOULIUDONGSHIBANSUICHENGSHIHUAERCHUXIANDEYIZHONGSHEHUIXIANXIANG, RENKOUDEHELILIUDONGYOUZHUYUTUIDONGCHENGSHIHUADEJINCHENG。LIENINGCENGZHICHU:“JUMINLIKAINONGYEJINRUCHENGSHI, BINGCONGSHIFEINONGYESHENGCHANSHISHEHUIJINBUDEXIANXIANG, TABAJUMINCONGPIANPIDE、LUOHOUDE、BEILISHIYIWANGDEQIONGXIANGPIRANGLACHULAI, JUANRUXIANDAISHEHUIDEXUANWOZHONG。TATIGAOJUMINDEWENHUACHENGDUJIJUEWU, SHITAMENYANGCHENGWENMINGDEXIGUANHEXUYAO”[1]。YUXIANGTUSHEHUIXIANGBIJIAO, CHENGSHISHEHUISHIYIGEXIANGDUILIUDONG、DUOYUANDESHEHUI。CHENGSHILIYOUZHEGENGDUODEZHIYEHUAFEN, GENGDUODEWENHUALEIXING, GENGDUODERENQUNFENCENG, GENGDUODESHENGHUOFANGSHI。ZAIGONGYEHUAHEXIANDAIHUAJINCHENGZHONG, NONGCUNRENKOUXIANGCHENGSHIQIANYIYULIUDONGZAISHIJIEFANWEINEIPUBIANCUNZAI。DANYOUYUBUTONGGUOJIADEGUOQINGHEJIBENZHIDUBUTONG, DAOZHIQIRENKOUQIANYIDEJINCHENGYEBUJINXIANGTONG。

                            一、我国流动人口的形成与发展

                            ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI, ZHONGGUOSHIDINGJUXINGNONGMINZUIZAOCHUXIANDEGUOJIAZHIYI。DINGJUXINGNONGYEDECHUXIANHEFAZHAN, SHIWOMENDEZUXIANJIAOZAOHUODELEYIGEXIANGDUIWENDINGDESHENGHUOHESHEHUIHUANJING[2]。YINONGWEIBEN, ANTUZHONGQIANSHIDUICHUANTONGZHONGGUONONGMINDEZHENSHIXIEZHAO。《HANSHU·YUANDIJI》SHANGZHEIYANGMIAOSHU:“ANTUZHONGQIAN, LIMINZHIXING;GUROUXIANGFU, RENQINGSUOYUANYE。”FEIXIAOTONGRENWEI, CHUANTONGZHONGGUOSHEHUISHIYIGEXIANGTUSHEHUI, ZHONGDISHINONGCUNRENZUIPUBIANDESHENGJIFANGSHI。DUICHUANTONGZHONGGUONONGMINLAISHUO, “SHIDAIDINGJUSHICHANGTAI, QIANYISHIBIANTAI。……XIANGCUNLIDERENKOUSIHUSHIFUZHEZAITUDISHANGDE, YIDAIYIDAIDEXIAQU, BUTAIYOUBIANDONG。”[3]ZHONGGUONONGMINSHISHIDAIDAIYUTUDIDAJIAODAO, ZAIGUYOUDETUDISHANGSHENGXI、FANYAN。TAMENBUQINGYIGAIBIANZIJIDEJUZHUDI, YINWEINEILIBUJINJINYOUTAMENDEJIARENHEPENGYOU, YOUYANGYUTAMENDESHANSHANSHUISHUI, GENGYOUTAMENZUZUBEIBEISHENGCUNDEYITUO———TUDI。JINRU20SHIJI80NIANDAI, BANSUIZHEZHONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANG, YOUQISHINONGCUNJIATINGLIANCHANCHENGBAOZERENZHIDETUIXING, JIDADIDIAODONGLEGUANGDANONGMINDESHENGCHANJIJIXING, TIGAOLENONGYELAODONGSHENGCHANLV, NONGCUNSHENGYULAODONGLIZHUJIANZENGDUO。YUCITONGSHI, CHENGSHIDUILAODONGLIZIYUANDEXUQIUBUDUANZENGJIA。ZAI“TUILI”YU“LALI”DESHUANGZHONGZUOYONGXIA, WOGUOLAODONGLIKAISHIXIANGCHENGSHIJUJI, RENKOULIUDONGRIQUPINFAN, GUHUALEJISHINIANDECHENGXIANGERYUANGUANXIFASHENGLESONGDONG。CONGCI, YIPIYOUYIPIDENONGMINZHUJIANTUOLITUDIDESHUFU, KAISHIJINRUCHENGSHI, XUNZHAOGENGHAODESHENGCUNYUFAZHANJIHUI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHEWOGUOJINGJISHEHUIDEKUAISUFAZHANHECHENGSHIHUAJINCHENGDEBUDUANTUIJIN, YUELAIYUEDUODENONGCUNRENKOUCONGXIANGDUIFENGBIDENONGCUNDIQUJINRUKUAISUFAZHANDECHENGSHISHEHUI, HUODAGONG, HUOJINGSHANG, HUOCONGSHIQITAFEINONGZHIYE。MUQIAN, WOGUOCHENGSHILIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGYIQIANSUOWEIYOUDESUDUZENGZHANG。JUGUOJIATONGJIJUDEDIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI, JIEZHI2016NIANDI, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZONGLIANGYIDA2.45YIREN。GENJUCHENGZHENHUA、GONGYEHUAJINCHENGHECHENGXIANGRENKOUBIANDONGQUSHIYUCE, DAO2020NIAN, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUJIANGZHUBUZENGJIADAO2.91YIREN, NIANJUNZENGJIA600WANRENZUOYOU[4]。KEYISHUO, ZAIZHONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANGHESHICHANGJINGJIKUAISUFAZHANDEJINTIAN, BUTONGDIQU、BUTONGMINZUDELIUDONGRENKOUWEILETUOPINZHIFU, XUNQIUGENGHAODEFAZHAN, QIQIANXIYULIUDONGRIQUPINFAN, LIUDONGRENKOUYICHENGWEICHENGSHIZHONGBURONGHUSHIDEYIGEQUNTI。

                            二、现阶段我国流动人口变动的新特点

                            1.规模持续扩大, 但增速趋于放缓

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHEWOGUOCHENGSHIHUADETUIJINHESHICHANGJINGJIDEKUAISUFAZHAN, LIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZAIGAIGEKAIFANGHOUSANSHIDUONIANZHONGCHENGCHIXUZENGZHANGTAISHI。20SHIJI80NIANDAICHU, QUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGJINYOUJIBAIWANREN。GENJU“SANPU”SHUJUGUSUAN, 1982NIANWOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGWEI657WANREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE0.66%。GENJU“SIPU”SHUJUGUSUAN, 1990NIANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMODA2135WANREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE1.89%。1995NIANQUANGUO1%RENKOUCHOUYANGDIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI, QUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDESHULIANGJIHUFANLELIANGFAN, DADAO7073WANREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE5.86%。GENJU“WUPU”SHUJUGUSUAN, 2000NIANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGTUPO1YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE7.9%。JINRU21SHIJIYIHOU, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEGUIMOJIXUKUODA。GENJU2005NIANQUANGUO1%RENKOUCHOUYANGDIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI, LIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGDA14735WANREN。2009NIANLIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGDADAO2.11YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE15%ZUOYOU。“LIUPU”SHUJUXIANSHI, 2010NIANLIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGDADAO2.21YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE16%ZUOYOU。2011NIANZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUZONGLIANGJIEJIN2.3YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE17%ZUOYOU。2012NIANLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZONGLIANGDA2.36YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE17%ZUOYOU。2013NIANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZONGLIANGDA2.39YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE17.6%ZUOYOU。2014NIANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZONGLIANGYIDA2.53YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE18.5%ZUOYOU。2015NIANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZONGLIANGDA2.47YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE18%ZUOYOU。2016NIANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOZONGLIANGDA2.45YIREN, ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE18%ZUOYOU。 (XIANGJIANTUYI) 。ZIGAIGEKAIFANGZHIJIN, ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOCONGJIBAIWANSHANGSHENGZHI2.47YI, ZENGZHANGLE38BEI, ERQIELIUDONGRENKOUZAIQUANGUOZONGRENKOUZHONGSUOZHANBILIYEZHUNIANTIGAO。“LIUPU”SHUJUXIANSHI, 2010NIANBEIJING、SHANGHAI、GUANGZHOUDELIUDONGRENKOUZHANCHANGZHURENKOUDEBILIJUNJIEJIN40%, SHENZHENLIUDONGRENKOUZHANCHANGZHURENKOUDEBILICHAOGUO70%[5]。ZAIBUFENJINGJIFADACHENGSHI, PINGJUNMEI5GEREN, SHENZHIMEI3GERENZHONGJIUYOUYIGELIUDONGRENKOU。KEYISHUO, ZAIJINTIANDEZHONGGUO, YIZHAOBUDAOYIGEMEIYOULIUDONGRENKOUDECHENGSHI。JINGUANJINLIANGNIANLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOCHUXIANFUZENGZHANG, DANQIJISHUYIRANPANGDA, BANSUIZHEJINGJISHEHUIDEFAZHAN, LIUDONGRENKOUJIANGJIXUZHANGQI、DAGUIMOCUNZAI。《ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUFAZHANBAOGAO2016》FENXICHENG, WEILAIYIERSHINIAN, ZHONGGUORENGCHUYUCHENGZHENHUAKUAISUFAZHANJIEDUAN。YOUXUEZHERENWEI, ZAIWOGUOXIANXINGZHENGCEBUFASHENGZHONGDABIANHUA, DANGQIANFAZHANGEJUBUFASHENGZHONGDAGAIBIANDEQINGKUANGXIA, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOJIANGJIXUBAOCHIZENGZHANGSHITOU[6]。

                            图1 我国流动人口的变动趋势

                            

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZILIAOLAIYUAN:GENJU1982NIANDISANCIQUANGUORENKOUPUCHA, 1990NIANDISICIQUANGUORENKOUPUCHA, 1995NIANQUANGUO1%RENKOUCHOUYANGDIAOCHA, 2000NIANDIWUCIQUANGUORENKOUPUCHAHE2005NIANQUANGUO1%RENKOUCHOUYANGDIAOCHA, 2010NIANDILIUCIQUANGUORENKOUPUCHA, GUOJIAWEISHENGHEJISHENGWEILIUDONGRENKOUSHUJUJISUAN。

                            ZUOWEILIUDONGRENKOUZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFENDESHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUDESHULIANGYECHENGXIANCHUZHUNIANZENGZHANGDEQUSHI。ZAIBUSHAOCHENGSHIZHONG, SHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUDESHULIANGYIJINGCHAOGUOLEDANGDICHANGZHUDESHAOSHUMINZURENKOU, CHENGWEICHENGSHISHAOSHUMINZUDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。RU, 2012NIAN, ZAIGUANGDONGSHENG300DUOWANCHENGSHISHAOSHUMINZURENKOUDANGZHONG, WAILAISHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUJIUDA250DUOWAN, YUANYUANCHAOGUOHUJISHAOSHUMINZURENKOU。QIZHONG, GUANGZHOUSHISHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUZHANDAOLESHAOSHUMINZUZONGSHUDE90%, DONGGUANSHISHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUZHANDAOLESHAOSHUMINZUZONGSHUDE95%[7]。2011NIAN, NINGBOSHICHANGZHUSHAOSHUMINZURENKOUYUE4WANREN, ERLIUDONGSHAOSHUMINZURENKOUJIEJIN20.7WANREN[8]。JIEZHI2016NIANDI, SHENZHENSHISHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUDA92.6WANREN[9]。MUQIANQUANGUOSANJUSHAOSHUMINZURENKOUYICHAOGUO3000WAN, BAOKUO55GESHAOSHUMINZUCHENGFEN, TAMENFENBUYUQUANGUO31GESHENG、ZIZHIQU、ZHIXIASHIDE98%YISHANGDEXIANSHI[10]。ZAIPANGDADELIUDONGRENKOUDAJUNZHONG, LAIZIXIBUDENGPIANYUANDIQUDESHAOSHUMINZUQUNZHONGXIANGDONGBU、NANBUJIYANHAICHENGSHILIUDONG, SHIDANGQIANHEWEILAIYIDUANSHIQIDEZHUYAOQUSHIZHIYI[11]。

                            2.基本构成的变化

                            CONGNIANLINGGOUCHENGLAIKAN, LIUDONGRENKOUZHONGQINGZHUANGNIANSUOZHANBIZHONGJIAODA, “80HOU”DEXINSHENGDAILIUDONGRENKOUYICHENGWEILIUDONGRENKOUDEZHUTI。GUOJIAWEISHENGHEJIHUASHENGYUWEIYUANHUILIUDONGRENKOUSIDEDIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI, GENJU“LIUPU”SHUJUGUSUAN, XINSHENGDAILIUDONGRENKOUGUIMOYIDA1.18YIREN, ZHANQUANBULIUDONGRENKOUDE53.6%。《ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUFAZHANBAOGAO2016》XIANSHI, 2015NIANLAODONGNIANLINGDELIUDONGRENKOUZHONG, “90HOU”SUOZHANBILIWEI12.3%。YUJIDAO2030NIAN, XINSHENGDAILIUDONGRENKOUZONGLIANGJIANGDADAO2.79YI, ZHANQUANBULIUDONGRENKOUDE90%。CONGXINGBIEGOUCHENGSHANGKAN, YIWANG“LIUDONGRENKOUZHONGNANXINGDUOYUNVXING”ZHEIYIXIANXIANGYIFASHENGLEHENDAGAIBIAN, YUELAIYUEDUODENVXINGYEJIARUDAOLELIUDONGRENKOUDUIWUZHIZHONG。NVXINGLIUDONGRENKOUZAIQUANBULIUDONGRENKOUZHONGSUOZHANBILIDAFUDUTIGAO, MUQIANLIUDONGRENKOUZHONGNANNVBILIDATIQUYUPINGHENG。NVXINGRENKOULIUDONGZHUYAOBAOKUOYOUHUNYINQIANRU、TOUQINKAOYOU、JUJIAQIANYIERYINQIDESHEHUIXINGLIUDONG, YIJIYOUWAICHUWUGONGJINGSHANGERYINQIDEJINGJIXINGLIUDONG。CONGSHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUKAN, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDESHOUJIAOYUSHUIPINGBUDUANTIGAO, PINGJUNSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANYUELAIYUEZHANG, SUZHIJIEGOUBUDUANYOUHUA。2015NIANLIUDONGRENKOUDONGTAIJIANCESHUJUXIANSHI, LIUDONGRENKOUPINGJUNSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANWEI9.3NIAN, “80HOU”LIUDONGRENKOUPINGJUNSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANWEI9.8NIAN。XIANGBI2013NIAN (LIUDONGRENKOUPINGJUNSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANWEI9.2NIAN, “80HOU”SHOUJIAOYUNIANXIANWEI9.6NIAN) , ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUZHENGTISHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUYOUSUOTIGAO。MUQIAN, LIUDONGRENKOUYICHUZHONGXUELIWEIZHU, GAOZHONGXUELISUOZHANBIZHONGXUNSUZENGZHANG, DAZHUANJIYISHANGXUELISUOZHANBILIYEZAIBUDUANPANSHENG, WENMANGSUOZHANBILIMINGXIANXIAJIANG。DAZHUANJIYISHANGWENHUACHENGDUDELIUDONGRENKOUBILIYOU2010NIANDE7.61%SHANGSHENGDAOLE2014NIANDE12.11%。ZAILIUDONGRENKOUDUIWUDANGZHONG, YIJINGHUOYUEZHEYIDAPIJIESHOUGUOBENKESHENZHIYANJIUSHENGJIAOYUDE“GAODUAN”RENCAI。2010NIAN, 6.02%DELIUDONGRENKOUYONGYOUDAXUEBENKEXUELI。LINGWAI, CHENGSHILIUDONGERTONGDESHULIANGRIJIANZENGDUO, ZHANLIUDONGRENKOUDEBILICHIXUZENGZHANG。“LIUPU”SHUJUXIANSHI, 2010NIAN0~17ZHOUSUILIUDONGERTONGZHANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEBILIWEI16.2%, GUIMOWEI3581WANREN, BI2000NIAN (1983WANREN) ZENGZHANGLE80.58%, NIANJUNZENGZHANG6.09%[12]。

                            3.空间流向的变化

                            YOUYUZHONGGUOZHANGQIYILAIDECHENGXIANGERYUANFENGEHEDIQUFAZHANBUPINGHENG, CONGERXINGCHENGLECHENGXIANGZHIJIAN、NEIDIHEYANHAIZHIJIANZAIJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGSHANGDEJIAODACHAJU, ZHEISHIDEZHONGGUORENKOULIUDONGDEZHUYAOLIUXIANGSHI:CONGNONGCUNLIUXIANGCHENGSHI, CONGJINGJIQIANFADADIQULIUXIANGJINGJIFADADIQU, CONGXIAOCHENGSHILIUXIANGZHONGXINCHENGSHI, CONGXIBUDIQULIUXIANGZHONGDONGBUHEDONGNANYANHAIYIDAI。QICHU, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUZHUYAOSHIJINJULIDESHENGNEILIUDONG, SUIZHESHEHUIJINGJIDEKUAISUFAZHAN, YUANJULIDEKUASHENGRENKOULIUDONGRIYIPINFAN。ZAIWOGUOGAIGEKAIFANGCHUQI, DONGBEILAOGONGYEJIDIHECHUANTONGRENKOULIUDONGHUOYUEDIQUXIYINLEJIAODUODELIUDONGRENKOU。“SANPU”SHUJUXIANSHI, ZAI20SHIJI80NIANDAI, QUANGUO8.60%DELIUDONGRENKOUJINRUHEILONGJIANGSHENG, QIANYIZHILIAONINGHEJILINDELIUDONGRENKOUYEFENBIEZHANDAOQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDE4.37%HE3.83%。TONGSHI, HENAN、SHANDONG、ANHUIDENGSHENGFENYEJIZHONGLEJIAODUODELIUDONGRENKOU。LINGWAI, XINJIANG、NEIMENGGU、SHANXISANGEZIYUANFENGFUDESHENGFENXIYINLEBUSHAOLIUDONGRENKOU, 1987NIAN, QUANGUO18.46%DELIUDONGRENKOUJINRULEZHEISANGESHENGFEN。ERJINRU20SHIJI90NIANDAIHOU, LIUDONGRENKOUZHUJIANLIURUYANHAIDIQU, TEBIESHIZHANGSANJIAOHEZHUSANJIAODIQU。CONG1982NIANDAO2005NIAN, GUANGDONGSHENGLIUDONGRENKOUZHANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEBIZHONGCONG5.23%SHANGSHENGDAOLE22.37%, SHANGHAI、JIANGSU、ZHEJIANGDENGZHANGSANJIAODIQUDELIUDONGRENKOUBILIZONGHECONG11.27%SHANGSHENGDAOLE20.58%[13]。SUIZHEWOGUOGAIGEKAIFANGDEBUDUANSHENRUHEGEDIJINGJIDEKUAISUFAZHAN, DALIANGLIUDONGRENKOUXIANGZHANGSANJIAO、ZHUSANJIAOHEJING、JIN、JIDIQUJUJI。JINGJINJI、ZHANGSANJIAOSUOZAISHENGFEN、GUANGDONGSHENGZHEISANDAQUYUZUOWEILIUDONGRENKOUDEZHUYAOSHURUDI, XIYINLEQUANGUO46%DELIUDONGRENKOU[14]。WEILAI, ZHEIXIEDIQUJIANGYIRANZUOWEIZHONGGUOJINGJIZENGZHANGDEYINQING, JIXUBAOCHIDUILIUDONGRENKOUDEJIAOQIANGXINANENGLI。

                            JINNIANLAI, ZHANGSANJIAODIQULIUDONGRENKOUZENGZHANGSUDUJIAOKUAI, QIZHONGYIZHEJIANGSHENGLIUDONGRENKOUZENGZHANGFUDUZUIDA。ZUOWEIZHONGGUOJINGJIZENGZHANGZHONGYAOYINQINGYUJINGJIZUIFADADIQUZHIYIDEZHANGSANJIAODIQUGOUCHENGLERENKOULIUDONGZUIWEIJIJUQUYUZHIYI:LIUDONGRENKOUDEGUIMOCONG2000NIANDE1936WANRENZENGJIADAO2014NIANDE5507WANREN, NIANJUNZENGZHANG7.75%, XIANGBIQUANGUOTONGQIGAOCHU2.34GEBAIFENDIAN[15]。“LIUPU”SHUJUXIANSHI, 2010NIANZHEJIANGSHENGCHANGZHURENKOU5442.69WANREN, LIUDONGRENKOUJIN2000WANREN, ZHANQUANSHENGCHANGZHURENKOUDE35%, CHENGWEILIUDONGRENKOUDIERDASHENG, JINCIYUGUANGDONGSHENG。RENKOULIURUZHONGXINCONGZHUSANJIAOJIANJIANBEIYIDAOZHANGSANJIAODIQU。SHANGHAI、BEIJING、TIANJINHESUZHOUCHENGWEIRENKOUGUIMOZENGZHANGZUIKUAIDEJIGECHENGSHI[16]。2010NIAN, GUANGDONGSHENGZUOWEIQUANGUORENKOULIUDONGDIYIDASHENG, LIUDONGRENKOUGUIMODA3139WANREN, ZHANQUANSHENGCHANGZHURENKOUDE30.10%[17]。BEIJINGSHILIUDONGRENKOUWEI773.8WAN, ZHANCHANGZHURENKOUDE37.4%;SHANGHAISHILIUDONGRENKOUWEI950WAN, ZHANCHANGZHURENKOUDE40.1%。2014NIANCONGKUASHENGLIURURENKOUFENBUKAN, GUANGDONGZHAN32.25%、ZHEJIANGZHAN22.57%、SHANGHAIZHAN12.62%、BEIJINGZHAN8.01%、JIANGSUZHAN8.54%、FUJIANZHAN4.97%。LIUSHENG (SHI) ZHANQUANGUOKUASHENGLIURURENKOUZONGSHUDE88.96%, JIAO2013NIANTONGQISHANGSHENGLEYUE1.1GEBAIFENDIAN[18]。TUODALUO (Todaro) DEQIWANGSHOURULILUNRENWEI, QIANYIZHEQINGXIANGYUXUANZENENGGOUHUODEZUIDAQIWANGSHOURUDEDIDIANZUOWEIMUDEDI[19]。LIXINGJUEZESHIWOGUODALIANGLIUDONGRENKOUXIANGJINGJIFAZHANKUAI、SHOURUSHUIPINGGAO、GERENFAZHANKONGJIANDADEDIQUHECHENGSHIQIANYILIUDONG。

                            ZAIDONGBUJINGJICONGGONGYEJINGJIXIANGFUWUJINGJIZHUANXINGDETONGSHI, “YIDAIYILU”、JINGJINJIXIETONGFAZHAN、ZHANGJIANGJINGJIDAIDENGQUYUFAZHANZHANLVEJIANGJIZHONGXIBUDIQUDAILAIQIANSUOWEIYOUDEFAZHANJIYU, WEILAIZHONGBUSHENGFENJIANGCHENGWEIWOGUOJINGJIFAZHANDEHUOCHETOU。“SHISANWU”SHIQI, ZHONGXIBUCHENGSHIQUNJIANGCHENGWEIWOGUOXINDEJINGJIZENGZHANGJI, ZAICHANYEJIQUNFAZHANHEXINARENKOUJIJUFANGMIANFAHUIYUELAIYUEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。JINJINIAN, ZHONGQING、WUHAN、ZHENGZHOUDENGZHONGXIBUCHENGSHIDELIUDONGRENKOUYICHENGXIANCHUKUAISUZENGZHANGDESHITOU。《ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUFAZHANBAOGAO2016》SHUJUXIANSHI, 2013NIAN, DONGBUDIQULIUDONGRENKOUZHANQUANGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEBILIWEI75.7%, XIBUDIQUWEI14.9%;2015NIANDEXIANGYINGBILIFENBIEWEI74.7%、16.6%。BUNANKANCHU, DONGBUDIQUYIRANSHILIUDONGRENKOUZUIWEIJIZHONGDEDIFANG, DANSUOZHANBILIYOUSUOXIAJIANG, ERXIBUDIQUSUOZHANBILIZAIZHUBUZENGZHANG。

                            4.迁移模式的变化

                            GUOWAIXUEZHETONGCHANGJIANGRENKOUQIANYIFENWEISANLEI, JI, YONGJIUXINGQIANYI (permanent migration) 、ZANSHIXINGQIANYI (temporary migration) HEXUNHUANQIANYI (circulatory migration) 。ZHONGGUODANGQIANDERENKOUQIANYIYULIUDONG, WULUNCONGQIANYISHIJIAN、KONGJIANHEQIANYIMUDELAIKAN, HAISHICONGLIUDONGRENKOUYULIURUDIHELIUCHUDIDESHUANGZHONGGUISHUTEZHENGLAIKAN, SHUYUWANGFANYULIURUDIYULIUCHUDIDEZHONGBAISHIDEXUNHUANLIUDONG。QIANYIZHEXUANZEDESHILIANGQIYUCHENGSHIYUNONGCUNDESHENGHUOFANGSHI。DABUFENLIUDONGRENKOUJINGUANZAILIURUDISHENGHUOLEDUONIAN, DANRENGYOUHUIXIANGYIYUAN。XINLAODONGLIQIANYIJINGJIXUERENWEI, XUNHUANLIUDONGSHIQIANYIZHEWEIZENGJIAJIATINGSHOURU、GUIBIHEJIANGDIFENGXIANSUOCAIQUDEYIZHONGCELVE。JIUZHONGGUOERYAN, LAODONGLIZHUANYIJIUYESHIHUODEFEINONGYESHOURUDEZHUYAOLAIYUANZHIYI。DANYOUYUWOGUOSHEHUIBAOZHANGZHIDUDEBUJIANQUANYIJILAODONGLISHICHANGDEBUWENDING, SHIDELIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHIDESHOURUNANYIBAOZHENG。YINCI, DABUFENLIUDONGRENKOUXUANZEZAICHENGSHIZHUANQIAN, ZAINONGCUNXIAOFEI。

                            RENKOUQIANYIDELISHIJINGYANBIAOMING, RENKOUQIANYILIUDONGDEXIANFENGZHEWANGWANGSHINIANJIQING、SHENTIQIANGZHUANG、JINGJIHUODONGNENGLIJIAOQIANGDEREN。ZAI20SHIJI80NIANDAI, ZHONGGUORENKOULIUDONGJIBENSHANGCHUYUDANGERENLIUDONGDEXIANFENGJIEDUAN。ZHUYAOSHIYIXIEQINGZHUANGNIANLAODONGLIDANQIANGPIMACHUANGTIANXIA, SHUYURENKOULIUDONGDETANSUOJIEDUAN。JINRU90NIANDAIHOU, ZHEIXIE“XIANFENG”LIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIJUYOULEYIDINGDEJINGJISHILIHESHEHUIJICHU, BINGJILEILEYIDINGDEWUZHISHENGHUOZILIAOHESHEHUISHENGHUOJINGYAN, YUSHICHUXIANLEDALIANGJUJIAQIANYIDEXIANXIANG。SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI, JIATINGHUALIUDONGYUELAIYUECHENGWEILIUDONGRENKOUQIANRUCHENGSHIDEZHUYAOFANGSHI。“BUFENQIANYI、BUFENLIUSHOU”DEQIANYIMOSHIZHUJIANJIANSHAO, QUERDAIZHIDESHI“TICIQIANYI、JUJIAQIANYI”DEMOSHI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YOUSHUJUXIANSHI, LIUDONGRENKOUXIEPEIOU、ZINV、FUMUYITONGLIUDONGDEYIZHAN66%[20]。GENJU“LIUPU”SHUJU, 2010NIAN, ZAILIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUZHONG, YOU38.52%SHILIANGDAIHU, 5.11%SHISANDAIJIYISHANGHU, DUZIYIRENLIUDONGDEYIDAIHUJINZHANLIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGHUDE26.76%。2011NIAN, 70%ZUOYOUDELIUDONGRENKOUYUJIARENYITONGLIUDONG[21]。LIUDONGRENKOUDONGTAIJIANCEDIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI, 2013NIAN, FUQIYITONGLIUDONGDEZHANYIHUNLIUDONGRENKOUDE90.6%。2014NIAN, 59.2%LIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDEJIATINGJIEGOUSHIHEXINJIATING。2015NIAN, LIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDEJIATINGGUIMOWEI2.61REN, YU2013NIANXIANGBI, LIURURENKOUJIATINGGUIMOZENGJIALE0.11REN。CHAOGUOYIBANDEJIATINGYOU3RENJIYISHANGTONGCHENGJUZHU。WEILAI, LIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGJIEGOUJIANGYOU“HEXINHUA”XIANG“KUOZHANHUA”ZHUANBIAN, XIEDAILAORENYIQILIUDONGDEJIATINGHUIZHUJIANZENGDUO。XINQIANYIJINGJIXUELILUNRENWEI, RENKOUQIANYIJUECEBINGBUSHIYOUGERENZUOCHUDE, ERSHIYOUJIAZUHUOJIATINGGONGTONGZUOCHUDE“JITIHUA”DEXINGWEI[22]。MUQIANZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUDEQIANYIMOSHIJINYIBUSHUOMING, QIANYIBUJINJINSHIGERENDENULIYUJUECE, ERGENGDUODESHIYIZHONGJIATINGCELVE。WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUJUJIAQIANYITONGCHANGBIAOXIANCHULIANGZHONGMOSHI:YIZHONGSHIWANZHENGJIATINGSHILIUDONGMOSHI, JIYIHUNLIUDONGRENKOUYUPEIOU、ZINVDENGQUANBUHEXINJIATINGCHENGYUANGONGTONGQIANYIZHILIURUDIDEQIANYIMOSHI;LINGYIZHONGSHIJIANJINSHIHUOBANJIATINGSHILIUDONGMOSHI, JIYIHUNLIUDONGRENKOUJIATINGZHONGDEBUFENCHENGYUANXIANXINGJINRUCHENGSHI, DENGZHEIXIEXIANXINGZHEZAICHENGSHIZHONGWENDINGXIALAIHOU, ZAIJIANGQITAJIATINGCHENGYUANYICIHUOFENCIJIEDAOLIURUDIDEQIANYIMOSHI。MUQIAN, DADUOSHULIUDONGRENKOUQIANYISHUYUJIANJINSHIHUOBANJIATINGSHIQIANYI, HEXINJIATINGCHENGYUANBUNENGYICIXINGDIWANCHENGZHENGTIQIANYI。YOUDIAOCHAXIANSHI, WOGUOYOUJIN70%DEJIATINGBUNENGYICIXINGWANCHENGHEXINJIATINGCHENGYUANDEZHENGTIQIANYI[23]。ZUICHANGJIANDEFANGSHIYOU:FUQILIANGRENXIANDAOLIURUDI, ZAIJIANGZINVHELAORENJIELAI;ZHANGFUXIANQIANYIZHILIURUDI, QIZI、ZINVHUOLAORENZAIYICIHUOFENCIJINRULIURUDI。

                            JIATINGSHISHEHUIZUZHIDEJIBENDANWEI, JIATINGDEXINGFUHEWENDINGZHIJIEGUANXIDAOSHEHUIDEFAZHAN。JIATINGHUALIUDONGBUJINKEYISHIGERENDEYUQISHOURUZUIDAHUA, SHIJIATINGFENGXIANZUIXIAOHUA, ERQIEKEYIJIANSHAOLIUDONGRENKOUDEXINLIYALI, YOUZHUYULIUDONGRENKOUSHIYINGCHENGSHISHEHUI, TISHENGXINGFUGAN, CUJINCHENGSHIDEHEXIEYUWENDING。DANSHI, CHENGSHIJIAOGAODESHENGHUOCHENGBEN、YIDIGAOKAOZHENGCEYIJIJIUYE、ZHUFANG、YILIAODENGFANGMIANBAOZHANGDEQUESHI, YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZHIYUEZHELIUDONGRENKOUSHIXIANWANZHENGJIATINGSHILIUDONG。WEICI, XIANGGUANBUMENYINGDANGZUOHAOYINGJIEJIATINGSHILIUDONGBUDUANZENGDUODEZHUNBEI, WEILIUDONGRENKOUTIGONGGENGWEIQUANMIAN、ZHOUDAODEFUWU。

                            5.居留意愿与居留时间的变化

                            ZAIWOGUOGAIGEKAIFANGCHUQIXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIJIANLI, DABUFENLIUDONGRENKOUXIANGHOUNIAOYIYANGZAICHENGSHIYUXIANGCUNZHIJIANQIANXILIUDONG。DANSHI, SUIZHELIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHILAODONGLISHICHANGSHANGLIZU, JINGJISHENGHUODEDAOLEBAOZHANG, TAMENKAISHIZHULIUYUCHENGSHI, LIURUDIZHUJIANCHENGWEITAMENQUQISHENGZI、TOUZIXINGYE、XUNQIUFAZHANDELIXIANGXUANZE。JINNIANLAI, YUELAIYUEDUODELIUDONGRENKOUYOU“ZANZHUZHE”BIANWEI“YONGJIUJULIUZHE”, YOU“HOUNIAO”BIANWEI“LIUNIAO”。LIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIJULIUDEZHANGQIHUA、JIATINGHUAQUSHIMINGXIANZENGQIANG。2014NIANZAILIURUDIJUZHUSHIJIANZAI5NIANJIYISHANGDELIUDONGRENKOUZHAN37.0%, 10NIANJIYISHANGDEDA14.4%[24]。《ZHONGGUOLIUDONGRENKOUFAZHANBAOGAO2016》DIAOCHASHUJUXIANSHI, 2015NIAN, LIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDEPINGJUNJUZHUSHIJIANCHAOGUO4NIAN, YOUYIBANRENZAIDANGDIJUZHUSHIJIANCHAOGUO3NIAN。WEILAIDASUANZAIXIANZHUDIZHANGQIJUZHUDEBILICHAOGUOBANSHU。2015NIANBEIJINGSHICHANGZHURENKOUWEI2170.5WANREN, QIZHONGCHANGZHUWAILAIRENKOUWEI822.6WANREN, ZHANCHANGZHURENKOUDE37.9%[25]。

                            LIUDONGRENKOUJINRUCHENGSHIHOUDESHIJIANYUEZHANG, BUJINQIJIXUJULIUGAILVHUIZENGJIA, QIYUQIJIXUJULIUDESHIJIANYESUIZHIYANZHANG。TONGGUODUISHANGHAIDEDIAOCHAFAXIAN, WAILAIRENKOUJINRUCHENGSHIJULIUYINIANDEGAILVWEI48.8%, JULIULEYINIANHOUJIXUJULIUDIERNIANDEGAILVWEI75%, JUZHULELIANGNIANHOUJIXUJULIUDISANNIANDEGAILVWEI81.7%。WAILAIRENKOURUGUOZAISHANGHAISHENGHUOLE10NIAN, TAMENZHONG95%JIANGHUIWENDINGDIJULIUSHANGHAI。TONGCHANGERYAN, XINGBIE、NIANLING、ZAILIURUDIDESHOURUSHUIPING、SHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUDENGSHEHUIRENKOUBIANLIANG, YIJILIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDESHEHUIWANGLUOHESHEHUIHUDONGQIANGDUDENGSHEHUIJINGJIBIANLIANGHUIDUILIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDEJULIUYIYUANCHANSHENGZHIJIEYINGXIANG。YINCI, LIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHIDEJULIUYIYUANHEJULIUSHIJIANDEBIANHUASHUOMINGDABUFENLIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHIXUNZHAODAOLEJIAOWEILIXIANGDESHENGHUOHEGONGZUOKONGJIAN, LIURUDIJIANGRIJIANCHENGWEITAMENDEDIERGUXIANG。

                            三、促进城市流动人口合理流动的服务管理对策

                            (一) 转变观念, 加强对流动人口的服务管理

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIWOGUOJINRUCHENGSHIHUAKUAISUFAZHANDEGUANJIANSHIQI, LIUDONGRENKOUYICHENGWEICHENGSHIJIANSHEHEFAZHANZHONGBUKEHUOQUEDEQUNTI。DANYOUYUSHOUWOGUOCHENGXIANGERYUANJINGJITIZHIDEZHIYUE, LIUDONGRENKOUZANSHINANYIXIANGSHOUDAOYUHUJIRENKOUTONGDENGDEJIBENGONGGONGFUWU。ZAICHENGSHISHEHUIZHONG, TAMENSHOUDAODEGUANZHIJIAODUOERDEDAODEFUWUJIAOSHAO。TAMENWANGWANGZAISHENGWANGJIAOCHA、SHOURUJIAODI、BAOZHANGJIAOQUEDEBUMENJIUYE, DUOJUYUCHENGJIAOJIEHEBU, YUBENDISHIMINDEJUZHUGELIJIAOQIANG, ERZHEZHIJIANNANYIZHENZHENGJINXINGJIAOLIUHEHUDONG, BICIYINANXIANGHUJIENAHEZUNZHONG, JINERXINGCHENGDILIKONGJIANHEXINLISHANGDE“ERYUANSHEQU”。JINGUANXUDUOLIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIGONGZUOSHENGHUODUONIAN, QUERENGBEIPAICHIZAILIURUDIDEZHIDUANPAIZHIWAI, SHIZHONGCHUYU“BIANYUANHUA”HE“BANCHENGSHIHUA”ZHUANGTAI[26]。YINCI, WEILESHILIUDONGRENKOUGENGHAODIZAICHENGSHIJUZHU、SHENGHUO, JIUXUYAOCHENGSHIXIANGGUANBUMENJIANGZHEIYIQUNTINARUCHENGSHIGUIHUATIXIHECHENGSHIGONGGONGFUWUTIXIZHIZHONG, JIANGLIUDONGRENKOUDEJUMINHUAGUANLINARUCHENGSHIGUANLIDESHIYEDANGZHONG, CONGERSHIXIANQIHELI、YOUXULIUDONG。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DANGDESHIBADABAOGAOQIANGDIAO, YAOQIANGHUASHEHUIGUANLIHEGONGGONGFUWU, JIAKUAIXINGCHENGZHENGFUZHUDAO、FUGAICHENGXIANG、KECHIXUDEJIBENGONGGONGFUWUTIXI, TEBIEYAOWANSHANHECHUANGXINLIUDONGRENKOUHETESHURENQUNDEGUANLIFUWU。2012NIAN12YUE, XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAIZHONGYANGJINGJIGONGZUOHUIYISHANGYAOQIUGEJIDANGWEI、ZHENGFU、GEBUMENDOUYINGDANGZHONGSHIRENKOULIUDONGQIANYIHESHEHUIGUANLIWENTI, JIJIWENTUODITUIJINCHENGSHIHUA, TEBIEYAOJIANCHIYIRENWEIBEN, JIJITUIJINCHENGXIANGFAZHANYITIHUA。2014NIAN3YUE, LIKEQIANGZONGLIZAI《2014NIANZHENGFUGONGZUOBAOGAO》ZHONGZHICHU:YAOTUIJINYIRENWEIHEXINDEXINXINGCHENGZHENHUA, YOUXUTUIJINNONGYEZHUANYIRENKOUSHIMINHUA;ZHEZHONGJIEJUEHAO“SANGE1YIREN”WENTI。2015NIAN12YUEZAIBEIJINGZHAOKAIDEZHONGYANGCHENGSHIGONGZUOHUIYISHANG, XIJINPINGZONGSHUJISHENKEZHICHU:“CHENGSHIDEHEXINSHIREN, GUANJIANSHI12GEZI:YISHIZHUXING、SHENGLAOBINGSI、ANJULEYE”[27]。YINCI, ZAIGOUJIANFUWUXINGZHENGFUDEGUOCHENGZHONG, JIJICHUANGXINLIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLITIZHIJIZHI, SHIZHEIYIQUNTIXIANGSHOUDAOYUCHENGSHIJUMINTONGYANGDESHEHUIBAOZHANGHEFUWU, SHIXINSHIQIJIEJUEWOGUOCHENGSHILIUDONGRENKOUWENTI, CUJINQIHELILIUDONGDEZHONGYAOBAOZHANG, YESHICHENGSHIJINGJISHEHUIQUANMIANFAZHANDEQIANTI, GENGSHIGOUJIANSHEHUIZHUYIHEXIESHEHUIDEXUYAO。

                            (二) 立足社区, 促进流动人口融入城市

                            SHEQUSHISHEHUIDEJIBENGOUCHENGDANWEI, YESHILEJIELIUDONGRENKOUDEZHONGYAOCHUANGKOU, GENGSHIZUOHAOLIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLIGONGZUODEJICHU。TABUJINJINSHILIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHIDELUOJIAODIAN, YESHILIUDONGRENKOUYUDANGDIJUMINJINXINGJIAOWANGJIAOLIU, HUODESHEHUIRENTONGHEQINGGANZHICHIDEZHONGYAOCHANGSUO。SHEQUFUWUZHONGXINJIANFUZHEJISHIZHONGFUWUGONGNENG, BAOKUOSHUISHOU、ZHIAN、JIUYE、SHEHUIBAOZHANG、SHEHUIFULI、SHEHUIJIUZHU、WEISHENG、FANGYI、JINGSHENWENMINGJIANSHEDENGDENG, DUILIUDONGRENKOUDEFUWUGUANLI, YEXUYAOCONGSHEQURUSHOU, ZAISHEQUDEDAOLUOSHI。SHOUXIAN, SHEQUZUOWEILIUDONGRENKOURICHANGSHENGHUODEZHONGYAOCHANGSUO, KEYICUJINQIYUDANGDIJUMINXIANGHUJIANDELEJIE、GOUTONGHEXINREN, WEILIUDONGRENKOUYULIURUDIJUMINYOUHAOJIAOLIUJIASHEQIAOLIANG。ZHEIBUJINKEYISUOXIAOBUTONGWENHUAZHIJIANDEJULIGAN, ZENGQIANGLIUDONGRENKOUDUILIURUDICHENGSHIDERENTONGGAN, HAIKEYITIGAOZHEIYIQUNTIZAICHENGSHIDESHENGCUNHESHIYINGNENGLI;QICI, YITUOSHEQU, XIANGLIUDONGRENKOUPUJIFALVZHISHI, XUANCHUANCHENGSHIGONGZUODEFALVFAGUI, YICIJIAQIANGLIUDONGRENKOUDEFALVYISHIHEFAZHIGUANNIAN, SHIQIZUODAOZUNJISHOUFA, BINGZHUBUXUEHUIYUNYONGFALVWUQIWEIHUZISHENDEHEFAQUANYI;ZAICI, JIEZHUSHEQU, MANZULIUDONGRENKOUDEFUWUXUQIU。JIEZHUSHEQUZHEIYIPINGTAI, KEYISHENRULEJIELIUDONGRENKOUDEHELISUQIUHEFUWUXUQIUYIJITAMENZAIRICHANGGONGZUOHESHENGHUOZHONGDESHIJIKUNNAN, CONGERDONGYUANSHEHUIGEFANGMIANDELILIANGHEZIYUAN, WEIQITIGONGSHENGHUOYUANZHU、XINLISHUDAO、JINENGPEIXUN、HEFAQUANYIWEIHUDENGDUOYUANHUADEFUWU, BINGYOUZHENDUIXINGDIJIEJUETAMENDESHIJIKUNNAN, KUODATAMENDESHEHUIZHICHIWANGLUO, TIGAOTAMENZAILIURUDICHENGSHIDESHENGHUOZHILIANG。WEIJINYIBUZUOHAOCHENGSHILIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLIGONGZUO, YINGDANGYINGZAODUOYUAN、BAORONG、GEMINZUXIANGHUQIANRUDESHEQUHUANJING, RANGLIUDONGRENKOUYUCHENGSHIJUMINZAISHEQU“GONGJU、GONGXUE、GONGSHI、GONGLE”, JINERCUJINGEMINZUQUNZHONGJIAOWANGJIAOLIUJIAORONG。

                            (三) 社会工作嵌入流动人口服务管理

                          星云棋牌官网下载   BEIYUWEI“SHEHUIGONGCHENGSHI”DEZHUANYESHEHUIGONGZUOZHE, CONGQIDANSHENGZHIRIQIJIUBINGCHIZHEBANGZHURUOSHIQUNTI、JIEJUESHEHUIWENTIDESHUANGZHONGSHEHUIZEREN。DUONIANLAI, SHEHUIGONGZUOYIZHURENZIZHUHEZENGNENGWEIMUDE, ZAIGEGUODESHEHUIGUANLIZHONGFAHUIZHEWUYITIDAIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG, YIMINLINGYUYEBULIWAI。LIRUZAIJIANADA, ZHUANYEHUADESHEHUIGONGZUOBEISHIWEIBANGZHUXINYIMINHUODEZHENGSHISHEHUIZHICHI、CUJINQISHEHUIRONGHEDEYIGEYOUXIAOTUJINGHEFANGFA。LIUDONGRENKOUCONGSIMIANBAFANGJINRUXIANDAIDOUSHISHEHUI, QISHENGCHANSHENGHUOFANGSHI、JIAZHIGUANNIAN、SHEHUIXINLIDENGFANGMIANDOUMIANLINZHEYIGEBUDUANDIAOSHIDEGUOCHENG。ZHUANYESHEHUIGONGZUODEYINRU, YOUZHUYULIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHIZHONGGOUSHEHUIZHICHIXITONG, TISHENGQIZIWOFAZHANNENGLI。SHEHUIGONGZUOZHEKEYIDUILIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDESHENGCHANSHENGHUOXIANZHUANGJINXINGDIAOCHA, DUIQIZAILIURUDIDESHENGHUOKUNJINGYUFUWUXUQIUJINXINGPINGGU, LIDINGQIXINGZHI、SHENDU、KEJIXING。ZAILEJIELELIUDONGRENKOUZAILIURUDIDEFUWUXUQIUZHIHOU, SHEHUIGONGZUOZHEKEYISHEFAWEIQIZHENGQUWAIYUAN, WAJUEHEZHENGHEGEXIANGZIYUAN, YIMANZULIUDONGRENKOUDESHIJIXUQIU。SHEHUIGONGZUOJIGOUKEYITONGGUOGEANGONGZUO、XIAOZUGONGZUO、SHEQUGONGZUOHESHEHUIGONGZUOXINGZHENGDENGZHUANYEFANGFA, XIEZHULIUDONGRENKOUFENXIQISUOMIANLINDEWENTIHEKUNNAN, BINGYOUXIAODIAODONGGEFANGMIANDEZIYUAN, XIEZHUQIJIEJUEWENTI、HUAJIEMAODUN、WEIHUHEFAQUANYI, ZUIZHONGCUJINQISHIYINGHERONGRUCHENGSHISHEHUI[28]。RIQIAN, SHANGHAI、BEIJING、GUANGZHOUDENGCHENGSHIJUNKAIZHANLEMINZUZONGJIAOXITONGSHEHUIGONGZUOZHEDUIWUJIANSHESHIDIANGONGZUO, TONGGUOZHUANYESHEHUIGONGZUOZHEJIERUCHENGSHISHEQUMINZUZONGJIAOGONGZUO, JIAQIANGDUILIUDONGRENKOUDEFUWUGUANLI, ZHEIXIEGONGZUOJUNQUDELELIANGHAODEXIAOGUO。YINCI, KEYIJIANGZHUANYESHEHUIGONGZUOQIANRULIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLI, YICUJINZHEIYIQUNTIGENGHAODIRONGRUCHENGSHISHEHUI。

                            (四) 构建完善的流动人口信息网络和信息管理系统

                          星云棋牌官网下载   LIUDONGRENKOUJICHUXINXIZIYUANTONGJIGUANHUZHENGFUSHEHUIGUANLIHESHEHUIJIBENGONGGONGFUWUSHIFOUDAOWEIHEQUANFUGAI, SHISHEHUIGUANLIDEBAOZHANG[29]。JISHIZHUNQUEDEXINXICAIJI、FENLEIHEFENXI, SHIKAIZHANLIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLIGONGZUODEQIANTIHEYIJU。JINNIANLAI, SUIZHEGEGUODIANZIZHENGWUDETUIXING, YITUOZHEIXIEGUANLIGONGJU, ZHUBUSHIXIANLEDUILIUDONGRENKOUDE“YIZHANSHI”FUWU。ERWOGUOMUQIANDUILIUDONGRENKOUDEGUANLITIZHIHAICUNZAIDUOTOUGUANLIHEFENSANGUANLIDENGQINGKUANG, SHEJIDAOLIUDONGRENKOUSHIWUDEGEZHINENGBUMEN, JINGUANGENJUGONGZUOXUYAOYEJIANLILEXIANGGUANDEXINXIXITONG, DANYOUYUCAIJIDEYAOQIUHEMUDEBUTONG, DALIANGSHUJUBEIZHONGFUCAIJI, GEBUMENDOUWUFATIGONGJIAOWEIZHUNQUEDELIUDONGRENKOUXINXI, JIAZHIGEZIDEFUWUGUANLISHOUDUANHEQUANXIANBUYIZHI, XINXIYUNYONGJIBENCHUYUXIANGDUIDULIHEFENGBIZHUANGTAI。YINCI, YOUBIYAOJIEJIANGUOWAIDEJINGYAN, JIAQIANGLIUDONGRENKOUXINXIXITONGJIANSHE, GOUJIANDONGTAIGENGXIN、TONGYIGONGXIANGDEXINXIGUANLIPINGTAI, BUDUANTIGAOLIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLISHUIPING。

                            (五) 加强流入地与流出地之间的协作管理

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZUOHAOLIUDONGRENKOUFUWUGUANLIGONGZUO, BUJINXUYAOLIURUDIGEJIZHENGFUZHINENGBUMENZHIJIANDEXIEZUO、SHEHUIZUZHIDEXIANGHUPEIHE, TONGSHIYEXUYAOLIURUDIYULIUCHUDIZHIJIANDEMIQIEHEZUO, SHIXIANLIURUDIHELIUCHUDIDELIANGTOUDUIJIE。YOUQISHIDUISHAOSHUMINZULIUDONGRENKOUDEFUWUGUANLI, LIURUDIZHENGFUYOUYUDUIQIMINZUWENHUABUSHUXI, DAOZHIZAICHULIXIANGGUANWENTIDESHIHOUWANGWANGLIBUCONGXIN, SHENZHIHUICHUXIANCHULIBUDANGDEQINGKUANG。ERLIUCHUDIZHENGFUZEBIJIAOLEJIETAMENDESHEHUIWENHUA、ZONGJIAOXINYANG、FENGSUXIGUAN。YINCI, YAOZUOHAOLIUDONGRENKOUDEFUWUYUGUANLIGONGZUO, BIXUJIAQIANGSHUCHUDIYUSHURUDIZHENGFUYOUGUANBUMENDEJIAOLIUYUHEZUO。TEBIEYAOZAIJIHUASHENGYU、SHEHUIZHIANGUANLI、JIAOYUPEIXUN、XINXIGONGXIANGDENGFANGMIAN, JIAQIANGGOUTONGYUXIEZUO, HUPAIGANBUGUAZHIDUANLIAN, JISHILEJIELIUDONGRENKOUSHENGCHANSHENGHUOFANGMIANDEFUWUXUQIU, XINGCHENGYOUXIAODELIANDONGJIZHI, SHIXIANKUAQUYUFUWUGUANLIDEWUFENGDUIJIE。ZHIYOUZHEIYANG, CAINENGDUILIUDONGRENKOUJINXINGDUOCENGCI、DUOWEIDU、DUOYUANHUAXIETONGGUANLI。

                            (六) 提升流动人口自身素质

                            LIUDONGRENKOUJINRULIURUDI, MIANLINZHEYIGEZAISHEHUIHUADEGUOCHENG。MUQIAN, WOGUOLIUDONGRENKOUSHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUPUBIANJIAODI、LAODONGJINENGCHA, DABUFENLIUDONGRENKOUCHUYUSHEHUIJIECENGDEDICENG, JIAZHIDUILIURUDIXIANGGUANFALVFAGUIHECHENGSHIGUANLIZHIDUBUSHIFENLEJIE, ZHEIJIUDAOZHILELIUDONGRENKOUJINRUCHENGSHIHOU, DUANQINEIBUTAIRONGYISHIYINGCHENGSHIHUANJING, CHANGCHANGCHUXIANWEIFANGONGSHANG、SHUIWU、WEISHENG、HUANBAO、CHENGGUANDENGGUIDINGDEXINGWEI, SUIYIBAITANSHEDIAN、ZHANDAOJINGYING、WUZHAOJINGYING、TOUSHUILOUSHUI、HUSHIJIAOTONGGUANZHI。ZHEIXIEXINGWEIBUJINYINGXIANGLELIURUDIDESHIRONGSHIMAO, ERQIEJICHENGSHIGUANLIGONGZUODAILAILEYIDINGDENANDU。LINGWAI, YIXIEQUEFAZHENGDANGMOUSHENGJINENGDELIUDONGRENKOUZAICHENGSHIZHAOBUDAOHESHIDEGONGZUO, BIANTINGERZOUXIAN, ZOUSHANGLEWEIFAFANZUIDEDAOLU。JINNIANLAI, XUDUODIFANGLIUDONGRENKOUWEIFAFANZUIWENTIBIJIAOTUCHU, DACHENGSHIHEYANHAIDIQUZHUAHUODEFANZUIXIANYIRENZHONGLIUDONGRENKOUSUOZHANBILIYIZHIZAI50%YISHANG, GEBIEDIFANGGAODA80%[30]。YINCI, TIGAOLIUDONGRENKOUDELAODONGJINENGHEZONGHESUZHI, ZENGJIALIUDONGRENKOUDESHOUJIAOYUJIHUIPOZAIMEIJIE。LIUDONGRENKOUZISHENYINGDANGRENSHIDAOZHISHIDEZHONGYAOXING, ZHUDONGXUEXIHEZHANGWOZHUANYEFANGFAHELAODONGJINENG, KUODARENLIZIBENDETOURUYUJILEI, CONGERTISHENGZISHENZAILAODONGLISHICHANGSHANGDEJINGZHENGLI。YINGGAIZHEZHONGXUANCHUANKEPUZHISHIZAITIGAORENLISUZHI、ZENGJIAZHENGTISHOURUDENGFANGMIANDEQIESHIYICHU, BINGJIANGGUOJIADEXIANGGUANYOUHUIZHENGCEJINXINGFUDAIJIANGJIE。[31]LIUDONGRENKOUSHUXIHEZUNSHOUCHENGSHIJIAOTONGGUIZEHEGEXIANGGUANLIGUIDING, NULITIGAOZISHENDEZONGHESUZHIHEWENMINGYISHI, CAINENGSHIYINGCHENGSHISHENGCHANSHENGHUOHESHEHUIGUANLIDEXUYAO。

                            结语

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YUXIANGTUSHEHUIXIANGBIJIAO, CHENGSHISHEHUISHIYIGEXIANGDUILIUDONG、DUOYUANDESHEHUI。CHENGSHILIYOUZHEGENGDUODEZHIYEHUAFEN, GENGDUODEWENHUALEIXING, GENGDUODERENQUNFENCENG, GENGDUODESHENGHUOFANGSHI。ZAIWOGUOXIANDAIHUAHECHENGSHIHUAJINCHENGZHONG, WULUNDACHENGSHI, YIHUOZHONG、XIAOCHENGSHI, QIGUANGFANDEJIUYELINGYU、GONGPINGDESHICHANGJINGZHENG、XIANDAIDESHENGHUOFANGSHIWUBUDUISHENGHUOZAIPIANYUANDIQUDERENMENCHANSHENGZHEJUDAXIYINLI。ZAIWOGUO, GUIMOPANGDADELIUDONGRENKOUYIBUSHICHENGSHILIDEGUOKE, ERCHENGWEICHENGSHIZHONGBURONGHUSHIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。ZHEIJIUXUYAOZHENGFUXIANGGUANBUMENZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONGYOUYIGEJIAOWEIZHANGQIDEGUIHUAHESHEJI, JIJIDIAODONGZHENGFU、QIYE、SHEQU、FEIZHENGFUZUZHI、SHEHUITUANTI、ZIZUZHIDENGDUOYUANZHUTIDELILIANG, SHIXIANDUILIUDONGRENKOUDEKEXUEGUANLI、DUOYUANFUWU, WEIZHEIYIQUNTIZHENZHENGCHENGWEICHENGSHISHEHUIZHONGDEYIYUANCHUANGZAOGENGWEIYOULIDETIAOJIAN。

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                            梁勇,马冬梅.现阶段我国城市流动人口变动的新特点及服务管理创新[J].理论与改革,2018(01):173-182.
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