星云棋牌官网下载

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                        计划生育政策三种实行方式及其关系

                        时间:2018-01-14 来源:中北大学学报 作者:李博 本文字数:8680字

                          摘    要: 计划生育政策是在特定时期内围绕人口控制而展开的社会实践活动。聚焦计划生育政策实行模式不仅可以阐明计划生育政策的流变过程, 而且为理解社会结构和经济机构之间的交互作用提供了一种分析方式。伴随着社会结构和经济结构的发展, 计划生育政策实行模式概括为三种:动员模式、强制模式、交换模式。三种模式之间既有交叉也有重叠, 由此而衍生出各种纷繁复杂的社会现象。同时, 三种实行模式也相互碰撞并由此形成取长补短之势, 对于解决当下计划生育政策所带来的一系列问题提供了可能的思路。

                          关键词: 动员模式; 强制模式; 交换模式; 计划生育政策;

                          Abstract: Birth control policy is a social practice which seeks to control population in a specific period.Paying attention to the implementation modes of the birth control policy provides a better understanding of the development of the birth control policy and its interplay with social and economic structures.There are three implementation modes of the birth-control policy:mobilization mode, compulsory mode and exchange mode.These three modes intersect and overlap, resulting into a variety of complex social phenomena.Meanwhile, the three modes can be smartly used based on their different advantages.The investigation of the implementation modes supplies the possible ways of resolving the problems of the birth control policy.

                          Keyword: mobilization mode; compulsion mode; exchange mode; birth control policy;

                          JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHISHISISHINIANYILAI, ZHENGCEZHIDINGZHEZHIZHONGSHIZHENGCESHISHIDEJIEGUO, WEINENGDUIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIJINXINGSHENRUFENXI, SHIZHEIYIGUOCEZAISHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGXIANXIANCHUKESHANGQUEDEDIFANG。SUIRANZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGXUDUOXUEZHELIQIUDAKAIXINJUMIAN, SHENZHIYIXIEXUEZHEYIJINGBAYANJIUZHONGDIANFANGZAILESHIXINGMOSHIDEYANJIUSHANG, DANDADUOSHUDEYANJIUYIRANFANGZAI“ZHENGCESHISHIDEJIEGUO”SHANG。ZHISUOYIHUIRUCI, NEISHIYINWEISHOUBIYUJINGJI。JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHIYANJIUYEJUXIANYUCI, HENNANTIAOCHU“JINGJIFAZHAN”DEQUANZILAITANSUOJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHI;LINGWAI, SHOUBIYUCHUANTONGDEYISHIXINGTAI, JIANGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHIWANQUANXIANDINGZAI“QUANLIBENWEI”FANGMIAN, HENSHAONENGYIPIPANXINGSIWEITANSUOSHIXINGMOSHIYU“QUANLIBENWEI”DEGUANXI, CONGERBUNENGTONGGUOSHEHUIHUDONG、JINGJIGUILVLAIGOUJIANSHISHI、QIADANG、YOUZHENDUIXINGDESHIXINGMOSHI。JIANYUCI, DUIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDEYANJIUYINGGAIZHENZHENGHUIGUIDAORENYUGUOJIA、RENYUSHEHUI、RENYUJINGJIDEYANJIUZHIZHONG, BINGBAXIANGGUANYINSUGUANTONGQILAI, DONGXISHIXINGMOSHICUNZAIDEWENTI, BINGJIEYOUDUISHIXINGMOSHIDELIJIELAIZHENDUANJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCENEIZAIDEWENTI。

                          1 实行模式的视角

                          YISHIXINGMOSHIWEISHIJIAOTANTAOJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEHENSHAOJIAN, DADUOSHUYANJIUZHEJUJIAOYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHISHIJIEGUO, DANYEYOUYIXIEXUEZHEJIUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHIZUOCHULETANTAO。BIRU:DINGHUANGJIUZHONGGUODE“ZHENGCEZHIXINGZUZHI”XIANXIANGJINXINGYANJIU[1];QIANZAIJIAN、JINTAIJUNJIUZHENGCEZHIXINGZHONGDE“GENGZU”XIANXIANGJINXINGYANJIU[2];ZHUANGCHUISHENGJIUZHENGCEBIANTONGJINXINGYANJIU。[3]ZHEIXIEXUEZHEBUJINCONGZHENGCESHIXINGDECENGMIANSHANGTICHUWENTI, ERQIEJIUSUOTIWENTIJINXINGLEXIANGXIDEJIEXI, WUYIWEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDEJIANXINGTIGONGLEFENGFUDEJINGYAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN, XUEZHEMENZHILIYUSHEJIYIGELILUNKUANGJIALAIZHANXIANZHENGCESHIXINGDEQUANMAO, LIRU:GONGHONGBOJIEZHUYUSHUXUEHANSHU, JIANGZHENGCESHIXINGGUOCHENGSHIWEIYIXILIEHANSHU, JIANGOUYIGEGONGGONGZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHI。[4]XUELIQIANG、YANGWENSHUYICHUANTONGZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDETEZHENG:“CENGJIJIAYA+ZHONGDIANZHUZHUAXING”“ZISHANGERXIAZHIXING”“QIADANGZHENGCE+GAOCENGJUEXIN”WEILUOJIQIDIANJIAGOUYIGE“YOUDAOXINGTIZHI”, JIAQIANGZHENGCEZHIDINGZHE、ZHENGCEZHIXINGZHEYIJIZHENGCEBEIZHIXINGZHEZHIJIANDEGOUTONGJIZHI。[5]HEDONGHANG、KONGFANBINYUNYONGZHONGGUOTESEZHIDUDEGAOWEITUIDONG, TONGGUOCENGJIXINGHEDUOSHUXING, LINGHUOYUNYONGGEZHONGSHOUDUANJIAGOUGONGGONGZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHI。[6]

                          CONGYISHANGYANJIULAIKAN, BUWAIHULIANGZHONG:YIZHONGSHIHONGGUANSHANGJIAGOUYIGESHIXINGLILUNKUANGJIA;LINGYIZHONGSHIDUIJUTIZHENGCESHIXINGGUOCHENGJINXINGJIESHI。ZHEIXIEYANJIUDOUHUSHILEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGGUOCHENGDEMOHUXINGTEZHENG。SHISHISHANG, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGGUOCHENGDEMOHUXINGJIQIANG, TADEWAIYANYESHIFENHUNLUAN, SHANGZHIDANGZHONGYANGDEJUEYI、ZHISHI, XIAZHIJICENGGANBUDEZHIDAO, DOUKEYISHIWEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGDEYIJU。JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGDEMOHUXING, BUJINFANYINGLEZHENGCESUODAILAIDESHEHUICHONGTU, HAIWEIZHENGCEDESHIXINGDAILAILEJIDADEKUNNAN。

                        计划生育政策三种实行方式及其关系

                          GENJUMatlandDE“MOHUCHONGTUMOXING”[7], ZHENGCESHIXINGKEYIHUAFENWEISIZHONGLEIXING:

                        星云棋牌官网下载   1) DANGZHENGCEMOHUXINGDI、CHONGTUCHENGDUYEDIDEQINGKUANGXIA, XUANYONGXINGZHENGXINGSHIXING。GAIMOSHIDEZHIPEIYAOSUWEI“ZIYUAN”, ZIYUANYUEDUO, XINGZHENGXINGSHIXINGYUEYOUBAOZHANG。SHIXINGDEGUOCHENGHAOBIYITAIJIQI, CHENGXIANCHUCHUIZHIFANGSHI, ZUIDINGDUANSHIZHONGYANGQUANWEIJIGOU, XINXIZISHANGERXIACHUANDIJISHIXINGCENG。JIAODICHENGDUDEMOHUXINGYIWEIZHEZHENGCEDESHIXINGZHEMUBIAOSHIFENMINGQUE。

                          2) DANGZHENGCEMOHUXINGDI、CHONGTUCHENGDUGAODEQINGKUANGXIA, XUANYONGZHENGZHIXINGSHIXING。ZHENGCEDECANYUZHEDUIYUZHENGCEDEMUBIAOMINGQUE, DANSHIWUFADACHENGYIZHI。GAIMOSHIDEZHIPEIYAOSUWEI“QUANLI”, ZHENGCEDECANYUZHEZHONG, SHEIDEQUANLIDA, SHEIJIUKEYIYIKAOQUANLIYAOSUJIANGZIJIDEYIZHIQIANGJIAYUQITACANYUZHE, CUSHISUOYOUDEZHENGCECANYUZHEMUBIAOYIZHI, SHIXIANZHENGZHIXINGSHIXING。

                          3) DANGZHENGCEMOHUXINGGAO、CHONGTUCHENGDUDIDEQINGKUANGXIA, XUANYONGSHIYANXINGSHIXING。YIZHAOMatlandDEGUANDIAN, GAIMOSHIDEZHIPEIYAOSUSHI“QINGJING”, QINGJINGSHIYOUZHENGCEDUIXIANGZHONGZIYUANHECANYUZHEDESHULIANGJUEDINGDE, BUTONGDEQINGJINGJUEDINGLEZHENGCEDESHIXINGXIAOGUOBUTONG。ZHEILITEBIEQIANGDIAOLEZHENGCESHIXINGZHONGDE“SHIYANXING”。

                          4) DANGZHENGCEMOHUXINGGAO、CHONGTUCHENGDUYEGAODEQINGKUANGXIA, XUANYONGXIANGZHENGXINGSHIXING。GUMINGSIYI, ZHIDESHIZHENGCESHIXING“BIAOJI”GUOCHENG, RUZAICISHENSHUZHENGCEDEZHONGYAOXING。TADEZHIPEIYAOSUSHI“CANYUZHEDINGYUEDEWENDINGXING”, YUEWENDING, YINGXIANGLIYOUSHIYUEDA, ZHENGCESHIXINGXIAOGUOYUEHAO。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   MatlandDEMOHUCHONGTUJIESHIMOXINGZUIDATEDIANSHI:BUZAIXIANGYIWANGSHIXINGMOSHIGUANZHUYU“ZISHANGERXIA”DEZHENGCEZHIDINGZHE, HUOZHE“ZIXIAERSHANG”DEZHENGCESHOUTIZHE;GUANZHUDESHIZHENGCESHIXINGDE“MOHUXING”HE“CHONGTUCHENGDU”, BINGQIETILIANCHUMEIZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIDEGUANJIANYAOSU, FANGBIANZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDEXUANZE。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YOUCIKEJIAN, SHIXINGMOSHISHIJIAOJIKEYICONGJINGTAILUJINGKAOCHA, YOUKEYICONGDONGTAILUJINGKAOCHA。SUOYIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIYANJIUYINGBUMANGMUWEIMOUZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIBEISHU, ERSHILIZUYUXIANSHI, CONGSHEHUIJIEGOUHEJINGJIJIEGOUDEJIAOHUZUOYONGDEJIAODULAIZHENDUANJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGDEWENTI, WEIDANGXIAJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDEYOUHUAPEIZHITIGONGKENENGDESILU。

                          2 三种实行模式

                          JINGGUODUIZHENGCESHIXINGDELILUNKAOCHA, BINGZAIXIANGGUANXUEZHEYANJIUDEJICHUSHANG, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHIKEYIGAIKUOWEISANZHONG:DONGYUANMOSHI、QIANGZHIMOSHI、JIAOHUANMOSHI。XUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI, SANZHONGSHIXINGMOSHISUISHUODOUYOUZIJIFAZHANDELUOJILUJING, DANSHIYOUYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEBUBIANXING, SANZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIBINGBUSHIWANQUANXIANGHUDULIDE, ERSHIJIAOCHAZHONGDIEDE。

                          2.1 动员模式

                        星云棋牌官网下载   “DONGYUAN”ZHEIYISHUYUQIYUANYUJUNSHILINGYU, ZUIZAOYOUPULUSHIRENKELAOSAIWEICIZAITADEZHUANZHE《ZHANZHENGLUN》ZHONGTICHU[8], HOUYOURIBENRENERYUYUANTAILANGCONG《BULIEDIANBAIKEQUANSHU》ZHIYIGUOLAI, JINERCHUANRUZHONGGUO。DONGYUANMOSHISHIJIANGLIUDONGDECAILI、WULI、RENLIJIZHONGQILAI, TONGGUOGANZHAOLIHEQINGGANSHUOFUDEFANGSHI, TONGSHIFUYIYUNYONGQUANLIDESHOUDUAN, YINDAOSHEHUICHENGYUANGONGTONGCANJIADEYIZHONGSHEHUISHIJIANHUODONG。

                          JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEZUOWEIJIBENGUOCE, DONGYUANMOSHIYIZHISHIQISHIXINGDEJIBENMOSHI。ZAOQIBINGCHENG“QIANGGUOJIA、RUOSHEHUI”“JITILIYIGAOYUGERENLIYI”DELINIAN, YIKAOGUOJIAXINGZHENGQUANLIHEGANZHAOLIZAIZHISHIDISHIXINGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE, BINGQIEHONGGUANSHANGQUDELELIANGHAODEXIAOGUO, ZHENGCEZAIQUANZHONGGUOLUOSHIDAOWEI。ZHISUOYIRUCICHENGGONG, YUANZIYUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUAHELUNLIGUIFANDEYIZHIXING, WEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGTIGONGLEJINGSHENSHANGDEZHICHI。DONGYUANMOSHIHAIWEIRENMENGOULECHU“XINGFUSHENGHUO”DEHUAMIAN, JINGUANZHEIGEHUAMIANYOUKENENGBUMINGLANG, DANCHUYUDUI“XINGFUSHENGHUO”DECHONGJING, RENMENPUBIANJIESHOULEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE。

                          “BARENMINDELIYIBAIZAIZHIGAOWUSHANGDEDIWEI”, ZHEISHIDANGDESHIJIUDAHEXINHUAYU, SHIYIXINXINGSHIXIADEDONGYUANMOSHICONGRUANYINGJIANSHIDEQUANLIJISHUCELVEDANXIANGFANGSHIZHUANXIANGJUJIAODUOXIANGSHEHUIDONGYUANLIANHEDEFANGSHI, BINGQIEGUANZHUWEIGUANCENGMIANDEGETIDONGJI。SUOYI, CISHIDEDONGYUANMOSHIYIBANYOULIANGCENGYISI:YISHIGUDONG、FADONGDEYISI, DAIYOUYOUZHIXINGYINSU;ERSHIZHIZUZHIXINGDEDONGYUAN, DAIYOUQIANGZHIXINGYINSU, HOUZHEYUSHANGWENSUOTIDAODEHONGGUANCENGMIANSHANGDEDONGYUANGENGWEIJIEJIN。YOUYUQUNZHONGLUXIANSHIWODANGDEGENBENLUXIAN, YIRENWEIBENSHIKEXUEFAZHANGUANDEHEXIN, SUOYI, XINSHIQIDESHEHUIDONGYUANSHIWEIRAOZHE“SHUOFU”WEIZHONGXINYAOSU, YISHICHANGYUANLIWEIJICHU, FADONGQUNZHONGCONGSHISHIJIANXINGDESHEHUIHUODONG。“SHUOFU”TIXIANLEGONGTONGDEJIAZHIRENTONGGAN, TONGGUOGANXING、LIXINGDERENSHI, NEIQING、WAIQINGDEYINGXIANG, XINGCHENGGANGROUXIANGJIDEXIAOGUO。KEYISHUO, YI“SHUOFU”WEIZHUDEDONGYUANMOSHI, NENGGOUXIAOJIE“DAZHENGFU”SHIXINGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEQIANGZHILI, TISHENGJIAOWANGDESHEHUINENGLI;ZUOWEIKONGZHIRENKOUDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE, SHUOFUGENGXIANDERENXINGHUA, JIANGDONGYUANYUSHUOFUCHUANLIANQILAI, NENGGOUZHIDIRENXIN, NINGJURENXIN, WEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGZHURUZHENGNENGLIANG。

                          ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI, YOUYUSHICHANGJINGJITIZHIXIADEDONGYUANJUYOUYOUZHIXINGYUYI, SUOYIDONGYUANMOSHIZAISHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGYEHUIYINZANGZHEFEILIXINGYINSU———GETIDONGJI。RUHEBAOZHENGZHENGCESHOUTIRENDENEIZAIDONGJIFASHENGDONGYAOSHIDONGYUANMOSHIDEGUANJIANSUOZAI, ZHEIJIUXUYAOZHENGCEDESHIXINGZHEBINGQIYIWANGQUANLIPIANHAOYUZIJIDEGUANNIAN, ERSHIGUANZHUZHENGCESHOUTIRENDEQUANLIBAOHU, FOUZEJIUPIANLILEDONGYUANWEIGUANCENGMIANSHANGYI“SHUOFU”WEIHEXINYAOSUDECHUZHONG。ZAISHICHANGJINGJITIZHIXIA, SHIXINGDONGYUANMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDELILIANGYUANZI“SHUOFU”HE“JIAOWANG”DEGUOCHENG, ZAIFUYIXUANZEXINGJILI, YIXINGWEIRENDEDONGJI“DUIZHENGXIAYAO”, CUSHIZHENGCESHOUTIRENDEDONGJIFASHENGBIANHUA, CONGERZUOCHUFUHEZHENGCEMUDEDEXINGWEI。YINWEIZHENGCESHOUTIRENCHULEXIWANGHUODEJINGJILIYIWAI, HAIZAIYIZIJIDEMINGSHENG、BEIZUNZHONGCHENGDU、SHEHUIDIWEI、QINGGAN、YOUYIYIJIQITAXIANGGUANSHEHUILIYI。ZHEIXIEYINSUZHIJIEYINGXIANGZHENGCESHOUTIRENDEDONGJI, JIANERJINGGUOJIAOWANGHESHUOFUSHIQIJIESHOUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIKEXINGDE。YINWEIRENJISHIZHIXINGDONGWUYESHIGANXINGDONGWU, SUOYIJIAOWANGSHIDESHUOFUNENGRANGRENSHENRUFEIFU, RONGHUAYUXIN。

                          RUSHANGSUOSHU, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEDONGYUANMOSHIBANSUIZHESHEHUIHEJINGJIDEFAZHANJUYOUSHANBIANXING。CONGYIYUANDEQIANGZHIMINGLINGFAZHANWEIJIAOWANGSHIDEDONGYUANFANGSHI, JIAOWANGSHIDEDONGYUANMOSHIGENGJIAGUANZHUGETIDEDONGJI, PINGJIE“JIAOWANG+SHUOFU”CUSHIGETICHANSHENGNEISHENGXINGDONGLI, RUOZAIPEIYIWAIBUDEXUANZEXINGJILI, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGHUICHANSHENGLIANGHAODESHEHUIXIAOGUOHEZHENGZHIXIAOGUO。BUGUO, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEZHONGJIUSUODINGZAI“JIHUA”ERZI, YINCIZAISHICHANGJINGJITIZHIXIA, YI“SHUOFU”HE“JIAOWANG”WEIJISHIDEDONGYUANSHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEYONGYUANBUHUIBANYANJUEDINGXINGJIAOSE, ERZHINENGSHIYIGEBUTONGBUYANGDEJIAOSE, TATIANRANDIYIFUYUGONGQUANLIQIANGZHIDEJIAOSELI。

                          2.2 强制模式

                          JIUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGERYAN, QIANGZHIMOSHIYINGSHIZUIHAOLIJIEDESHIXINGMOSHI, YINWEI“QIANGZHI”YUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCECONGWEIFENLIGUO。QIANGZHIMOSHIYAOQIUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHOUTIRENWUTIAOJIANDIFUCONGXINGZHENGQUANLISUODAILAIDEMINGLING, SHIYIZHONGYIFUCONGWEIBENWEIDESHIXINGMOSHI。CIZHONGMOSHIDINGWEIYU“QUANLI”, ERQUANLIJUYOUFUSHIZUOYONG, WEICIQUANLIBIXUSHOUDAOZHIYUE, ZHEISHIXIANDAIFAZHIGUOJIAGONGRENDEGONGLI。YEJIUSHISHUO, YIFAZHIWEIGUINIEDEGUOJIA, QUANLIBINGBUSHIWEIQIANGZHIFUWUDE, ERSHIWEIQUANLIFUWUDE。QUANLIBEIZHIYUEHOU, YOUQUANLIERCHANSHENGDEQIANGZHILIYEHUIFASHENGBIANHUA。SUOYI, QIANGZHIMOSHIDEQIANGZHILIZHUJIANFAZHANWEI“SHIXINGLI”[9]。SHIXINGLIJUYOUZHANGLIHEBAORONGXING, QIESHIGEZHONGXINGCI, BENSHENYOUJUYOU“QIANGZHI”HE“ZIXING”ZHIYI, TAYUANZIFAZHILINIANXIADEFUWUJINGSHEN。GAIJINGSHENTIXIANLEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGZHECONGGUANLIZHEZHUANBIANWEIFUWUZHEDELINIAN, SHIYINGLESHICHANGJINGJITIZHI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   “SHIXINGLI”ZHEIGECITONGCHANGBEIXIANDINGZAIYIYOUDEZHENGCE、FALVKUANGJIANEISHIYONG, KANZHONGYUFAZHIDEJIAZHI, QIANGDIAOPINGHEDEZHIXING。YINCI, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEYINGSHIYOUSHIXINGLIDE, WEIBEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEBUYIDINGJIUSHIQIANGZHIZHIXING。LIRU:HUAIYUNDENVZHIGONGJISHIWEIFANLEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE, YIJIUKEYIXIANGSHOUJIBENFULI, ZHEISHICHUYURENXINGDEGUANHUAI, BUNENGYINWEIQIWEIFANLEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEJIUBEIBODUOLEJIBENQUANLI。CONGSHIJIANSHANGKAN, SHIXINGLIYUQIANGZHILITONGYANGYOUCHAYI, SHIXINGLISHIJISHILI, YIDANYONGYOULESHIXINGLIYEJIUJUBEILEJISHILI;DANSHI, QIANGZHILIDESHENGXIAOSHIJIANWEIFALVSHENGXIAOHOUHUOXINGZHENGCUIGAOCHENGXUJIESHUHOUCAIKEYICHANSHENG。ZAIZHE, ZAIZUOYONGDUIXIANGFANGMIAN, SHIXINGLIJIZUOYONGYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGZHE, YEZUOYONGYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEBEISHIXINGZHE, YINWEISHIXINGLISHIYIFUWULINIANWEIJISHI, TAJIANGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEFANGRUYIGEFUWUXIESHANGDEPINGTAI, CHENGWEIYIGEPINGHENGLI。ERQIANGZHILIRENGRANSHICHUANTONGDEXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEZHIXINGLI, ZHIZUOYONGYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEBEISHIXINGZHE, SHIYIGEQIANGLI。YEJIUSHISHUO, BANSUIZHEFAZHIERFAZHANDEQIANGZHIMOSHISHUFULECHUANTONGYIYISHANGDE“XINGZHENGQUANLI”, TADEQIANGZHIXINGSHIZAI“FAZHI”HE“FUWU”DECENGMIANSHANGJINXINGDE。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEBUZAISHIXINGZHENGQUANLIYIZHIDEBIAOXIAN, ERSHISHEHUIDUOYUANLIYIDEBIAOXIAN。YINWEI, SHIXINGLISHIDUOYUANDE, BUSHIYIYUANDE, TASHIYOUZIXINGLVXINGLI、QIANGZHILIDENGDUOGELIJIHEERCHENG, TAHAOBISHIYIGEJUDADEZHANCHANG, GEZHONGLIZAIQIZHONGJIAOZHU, SHIXIANCIXIAOBIZHANGDEDONGTAIPINGHENG, ZUIZHONGSHIXIANJUNHENG。YIYANYIBIZHI, FAZHIZHONGGUODEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHISHIYI“SHIXINGLI”WEIZHONGXINYAOSU, LIZUYUFUWULINIAN, SHIYIWANGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEXINGZHENGQIANGZHILIDEJICHENGHEWANSHAN。

                          2.3 交换模式

                          JIAOHUANMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEYAOQIUZHENGCETONGGUOSHICHANGLAIXUANZE, WANCHENGYICISHICHANGJIAOHUANDEGUOCHENG。JIUSHISHUO, ZHENGCEDESHIXINGZHETONGCHANGHUISHIFANGYIGEYOUDAOYINSU, RUJINGJILIYI、RONGYU、JIHUI、SHENGZHIDENG, ZHENGCEDEBEISHIXINGZHEANZHAOZIJISUOXULAIZUOCHUHUIYING。JIAOHUANZUIDADEYOUSHIJIUSHIZAISHICHANGJINGJIHONGLIUZHONGZHENGCEBEISHIXINGZHEZIJUE、ZIFADIZUNSHOULEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE。MOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGLAISHUO, JIAOHUANYENENGGOUWEIRENKOUSHULIANGSHEDINGBIANJI, YINWEIRENZAISHICHANGHUODONGZHONGBEIHENGLIANGWEISHIYOUJIAZHIDE, BINGQIEJUYOUJIAOHUANDEJIAZHI, SUOYIMEIGELIXINGRENDOUXIWANGTONGGUOSHICHANGJIAOHUANJIEJINZUIJIADEZHUANGTAI。JIASHEMOUDUIFUFUYOUYUJINGJITIAOJIANBINGBUXIANGSHENGYU, ERJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCECONGTADEJIAODUZUOLEGANYU, YOUKENENGGANYUDEJIEGUOZHISHIZHEIDUIFUFUDESHENGHUOTIAOJIANBIANDEGENGZAOGAO。FANZHI, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGZHETIGONGYIGEDUOSHENGHAIZIDEJINGJILIYIJIAOHUAN, ZHENGCEDEBEISHIXINGZHEYIDINGYEHUIZUOCHUFANYING。SUOYISHUO, SHICHANGJINGJITIZHIXIA, JIAOHUANMOSHIHUISHIDUOSHUFUFULIXINGDIKAOLVSHENGYUWENTI。

                          JIAOHUANMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEJIDIANZAIYULIRUN, LIRUNDEGANGGANXIAOYONGKEYIQUSHIRENMENZUNSHOUHUOZHEMOSHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE。HUANYANZHI, RUGUOJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEZHIDINGZHEZIYIWEISHIDIWUSHISHICHANGJIAOHUANYUANLI, BUDANJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGXIAOGUOSHIWEI, SHENZHIJIYOUKENENGMISHIZIWO, CENGJINGCHUXIANGUODEELIEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEBIAOYU“HEYAOBUDUOPING, SHANGDIAOJIUJISHENG”JIUSHILIZHENG。JIAOHUANMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEZHUYAORENWUSHIXIEDIAO, JILIYIXIEDIAO, TADEZUIJIAQUANSHIJIUSHI“GEDEQISUO”[10]。BUGUOZHENGRUSHANGWENSUOYAN, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEGUANJIANCIZAI“JIHUA”, SHICHANGJINGJIZHONGDEJIAOHUANYUANLIYUJIHUAJUYOUTIANSHENGMAODUNXING, YOUCIHUIYINFAFUZADESHEHUIXIANXIANG, ZHISHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEZAISHICHANGSHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGWENTICONGSHENG。KESHIHUASHUOHUILAI, WULUNJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE, HAISHISHICHANGJINGJI, DOUSHIWEILEMANZUYIZHONGXUQIU, HUOHUODEYIZHONGLIYI。CONGZHEIGESILUSHANGKAN, SIHUYOUYOUGONGTONGDIAN。YICILIYIWANCHENGJIAOHUAN, SHIXIANJINGJIXIAOYIZUIDAHUA, YIYANGSHIJIAOHUANMOSHIDESHIMING。

                          JIAOHUANMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEYUANZESHANGYINGDANGYUSHICHANGJINGJITIZHIXIANGSHIYING, ANZHAOJIAOHUANYUANLILAIJIANG, SHENGYUDEJUEDINGQUANYINGYOUMEIGEJIATINGZIZHUJUEDING, BUGUOKEYIZAIHONGGUANSHANGYIYUANZEDEFANGSHIZHIDINGJIAOHUANMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCELAIPINGHENGCHUSHENGLVHECHUSHENGSHU, DANRENGHUISHOUDAOQITAYINSUDEZHIYUE, RUJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPING、SHEHUIBAOZHANGCHENGDU、YANGYUCHENGBEN、FUNVDESHENGYULVDENG。SHICHANGMOSHIDEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEJIUSHIYAOANZHAOSHICHANGJIAOHUANYUANLI, SHIXIANSHIXINGZHEHEBEISHIXINGZHEDELIYIJUNHENG, YICIWANSHANJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE———JIANGDIZHENGCECHENGBEN, SHIXIANZHENGCEXIAOYI。

                          3 诸种模式之间的关系

                          JIYUZHENGCEXINGWEIRENLIXINGJUECEDECHENGDU、KECENGZHIDECHENGDU、JINGJITIZHIXIAZHUANYEFENGONGCHENGDU, BIZHEJIANGDONGYUAN、QIANGZHI、JIAOHUANSANZHONGMOSHIZUOYIGEJIANDANQUFEN。

                          DONGYUANMOSHISHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDEJICHU, TADEHEXINYAOSUSHI“SHUOFU”。BUGUO, “SHUOFU”ZAIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEZHONGDEJIAOSEYONGYUANBUHUIXIANGQIANGZHIHUOJIAOHUANNEIYANGZHONGYAO。ZHEISHIYOUXIANSHISHEHUIJINGJISHUXINGSUOZHI, SUOYI“SHUOFU”YOUSHIZAIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGZHONGDEDIWEIHENGANGA, SHI“JIBENYAOSU”, QUEWUFATUXIAN。LINDEBULUOMUZAI《ZHENGZHIYUSHICHANG》YISHUZHONG, JIANG“SHUOFU”DINGWEIZAIZHENGZHIJINGYINGDAGUIMODE、PUBIANDEYIZHONGXUNDAOZHIDEHUAMIAN。TARENWEI“SHUOFU”SHIYUANSHI、JIANDANDE, SUIYUQIANGZHIHEJIAOHUANSHOUDUANPINGXINGSHISHI, DANBURUTAMENYANSHENDEYUAN。[11]XIANRAN, LINDEBULUOMUJIANGSHUOFU、QIANGZHI、JIAOHUANZUOLEQUFEN, ANZHAOTADEXIANGFA, SHUOFUSHIXUNDAOCHULAIDE。LINDEBULUOMUDE“SHUOFU”QUESHAO“QINGGAN”YINSU, WUFAYIJINGSHENGANZHAOLIGAIZAOGETIXINGWEIDENEIZAIDONGJI, JIUSHISHUOLINDEBULUOMUDE“SHUOFU”GENGXIANGSHIBUDUIDEJILVSHIFUCONG, ZAIDAODESHANGQUEJILIBUZU。

                          WULUNSHIQINGGANSHANGDESHUOFU, HAISHIXUNDAOSHIDESHUOFU, TAMENDEYANJIUMIANXIANGDOUSHIYIGETIDENEIZAIDONGJIWEILUOJIQIDIAN, YOUNEIXINDEGAIBIAN, YINGXIANGXINGWEISHANGDEGAIBIAN。ZHEIYUJIAOHUANHEQIANGZHIYOUBENZHIDEBUTONG, JIAOHUANYILIYIWEIMUBIAO, QIANGZHIYILAIYUQUANWEIHEQUANLI, ERZHEXINGWEIDEYINQIDOULAIZIWAIBUXIAOYING, YEJIUSHISHUO, WAIBUXIAOYINGYINGXIANGXINGWEISHANGDEGAIBIAN。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   BIZHEJIANGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESANZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIFANGRUYIGEMOXINGJIXUJINXINGDUIBIFENXI, RUTU1SUOSHI。

                          TU1 JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDEMOXING

                         图1 计划生育政策实行模式的模型

                        星云棋牌官网下载   RUTU1SUOSHI, JIANGJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIYIKECENGSHICHENGDU、LIXINGJUECECHENGDU、FENGONGYUZHUANYEHUASANGEWEIDUFANGRUYIGEKUANGJIANEIJIAYIBIJIAO, QINGXIDIKANCHUYIQINGGANYINSUWEIJISHIDEDONGYUANMOSHILIZHONGXINDIANZUIJIN, JUYOUJIBENYAOSUDESHUXING。SUIZHEFENGONGYUZHUANYEHUACHENGDUWEIDUYUEGAO、LIXINGJUECEWEIDUYUEMINGXIAN, QIANGZHIZHUDAOSHIHEJIAOHUANZHUDAOSHICHENGWEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGDEZHUYAOMOSHI, BINGQIEDONGYUANMOSHIZHUJIANCHENGWEIQIANGZHIMOSHIDEBUCHONGXINGSHI。TU1HAIXIANSHICHUQIANGZHIMOSHIJINJINYAZHULEJIAOHUANMOSHI, MINGSHILEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEQIANGZHIMOSHISHUYUZUIYOULIDESHIXINGMOSHI, ERQIEMUQIANZHANZHUDAODIWEI, NEISHIYINWEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEZHIDINGDECHUZHONGJIUQINGXIEDIPIANZHONGYUBAOHUZHENGCESHIXINGZHE。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   JIULIXINGJUECECHENGDUERYAN, YUSHELEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEXIANGDUIZHEDOUSHILIXINGDEREN, QIANGZHIMOSHIHEJIAOHUANMOSHIBINGBUDASUANCONGGETIDENEIXINGAIBIANLAIDADAOSHIXINGDEMUDE, ERSHICONGWAIBUXUANZEXINGDEJILILAIGAIBIANGETIDEXINGWEI, YOUYUCONGWAIBUGAIBIANGERENXINGWEIBUKENENGCHUNCUILIXING, FEILIXINGYINSUHUIZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOLIXINGXINGWEI, SUOYIHUIDAOZHIFEILIXINGYINSUGANRAOYUEDA, LIXINGXUANZECHENGDUYUEDI, YOUKENENGYUEJIEJINDONGYUANMOSHI。

                          PIRU, YIXUANZEXINGJILICONGWAIBUJILIGERENHUOQUNTICONGSHIYIDINGDEXINGWEI, BINGMEIYOUGAIBIANGERENHUOQUNTIDEJIAZHIGUANHEXINGSHIXIANGFA, DANGERENHUOQUNTIGUJI“MIANZI”, BUNENGGOULIXINGDIJINXINGXUANZE, ZHEISHIHOUDONGYUANMOSHIDEXIAOGUOJIUHUIHAOYUQIANGZHIMOSHIHEJIAOHUANMOSHIDEXIAOGUO, YINWEIYIDINGDECHUANTONGWENHUAHELUNLIGUANNIANRUYINJIYIYANGLAOLAODIKEZAIXINLI, BUSHIQINGYINENGGOUGAIBIANDE。

                          KEJIAN, YIWEIYISHUOFUJIAQIANGRENZHIJIAOHUA, YISHUOFUGAIBIANXINGWEIZHEDERENSHI, WANQUANSHICONGNEIXINYUESHUZHENGCEBEISHIXINGZHEDEXINGWEI, JIUSHISHUOYAOGAOSHANGDEDAODEPINZHI, BUYAOGUJIGERENDELIYI。RUGUOZHANZAIXIANDAISHICHANGJINGJITIZHIDEFANWEILIKANDAIZHEIZHONGSIXIANG, DAJIADOUHUIJUEDEBULIXING、SHENZHIHUANGMIU。YUANYINHENJIANDAN, GAOSHANGDEDAODEPINZHIBUNENGJIEJUE“YOUYANJIANGCU”WENTI。ZHEIYUQIANGZHIMOSHIDEGONGJU、MUDEZHENGDANGXINGHEJIAOHUANMOSHIDEYOUZHI、HELIXINGBEIDAOERCHI, PIANLILELIXINGZUOBIAO。CONGTIAOJIANSHANGKAN, JIXIEDIGELIELEDONGYUANMOSHIMIANXIANGQIANGZHIMOSHIDEWEIDU。ZHEISHIHOU, DONGYUANMOSHIXIANGDUIDULICUNZAI。YINCI, WOMENKEYIWANQUANYIQINGGANYINSUQUANDAO, YONGNEIZAIHUADESHEHUIDAODEDEGANZHAOLITIDAIGONGJU、MUDEZHENGDANGXINGHEYOUZHI、HELIXING, CONGERGAIBIANGETIDENEIZAIDONGJI, YINFAXINGWEI。JIANYANZHI, DONGYUANMOSHISHIHEYUFEILIXINGYINSUJIZHONGTONGYIDESHIHOU。

                          XIANGFAN, YUEKAOJINLIXINGZUOBIAO, FENGONGYUZHUANYEHUAYUEJINGXI。KEYIYUQI, WULUNSHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGZHERUHEYUNYONGFALVFUYUDESHIXINGLI, HAISHITONGGUOLIYIJIAOHUANYOUDAOZHENGCECANYUZHEZUNSHOUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCE, DOUXUYAOZHUANMENJIGOU、ZHUANMENRENYUANCONGSHIZHUANYEFUWU。ZHEIJIUHUIDAOZHIMEIGELIXINGDERENWEIQUANLIERDOUZHENG, WEIDEJIUSHIJIAOHUANMOSHISUODAILAIDEGEZHONGLIYI。TAMENHUIZAIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEJIAOHUANMOSHIYUNXINGDEGEGEHUANJIEBENNENGDIWEIZIJIDELIYIJINXING“CHENGBENXIAOYI”JISUAN。YINWEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDE“YINXINGJIAGE”YINSUJINGJINGDIFUXIANZAIGERENCHENGBENXIAOYIDE“KONGJIANLI”。JIAOHUANMOSHIDAILAIDEXIAOYIYUEDA, RENMENYUEYOUDONGLIWEIHUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEFUYURENMENDEQUANYI;FANZHI, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEXIAOYIYUEXIAO, ZESHIXINGDEZULIYUEDA, RENMENHUIZIJUEBUZIJUEDIGUIBIZHENGCEGUIDINGDEZEREN, SHENZHIWUSHIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDECUNZAI。

                          KECENGSHICHENGDU, SHICHUIZHIXINGDE, YUDONGYUANZHUDAOHEJIAOHUANZHUDAOBUZAIYIGEMIANXIANG, DONGYUANZHUDAOHEJIAOHUANZHUDAOSHIPINGXINGDE、WANGZHUANGDE, ERZHEZAIJIAOWANGXINGDEGUANXIZHONGHUIYUNXINGLIANGHAO。SUOYISHUO, YISHUOFUHEQUANDAOWEIZHUDEDONGYUANMOSHIXUYAOZHENGCESHIXINGZHEHEBEISHIXINGZHEZAIPINGDENGDEPINGTAISHANGJINXINGJIAOWANGXINGDEXINGWEI。SHUOMINGKECENGSHICHENGDUYUEJIEJINYUYUANDIAN, DONGYUANMOSHISHIXINGDEYUEHAO。HUANJUHUASHUO, DONGYUANSHIMOSHIXUYAOCHENGWANGZHUANGDEDALIANGJICENGJIGOU, ZHEIXIEJIGOUSHIQINMINDE, ERBUSHICHUIGUANMINDE (KECENGSHI) , YEJIUSHISHUO, ZHENGFUYUMINZHONGJIAOWANGZHILIUYUEHAO, HENGXIANGDONGYUANMIANJIUYUEDA, GENGNENGMANZUZHENGCESHIXINGZHEDEYUANWANG。

                          JIYUBUTONGWEIDUDEFENXI, MEIZHONGSHIXINGMOSHICHENGXIANCHUDEPEIZHIYEBUTONG:YISHUOFUHEQUANDAOWEIZHUDEDONGYUANMOSHI, YIFAZHIWEIBAOZHANGDEQIANGZHIMOSHI, YILIYIHEXIAOYIWEIZHUDEJIAOHUANMOSHI。YINCIJIHUAZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHIBUNENGDANKAODONGYUANMOSHI;YEBUNENGJIANDANDIYUNYONGJIAOHUANMOSHI, RANG“WUXINGZHISHOU”JIEGUAN;GENGBUNENGJIANDANDIYUNYONGQIANGZHIMOSHI。RUGUOJIANGDONGYUANMOSHIZUOWEIQIANGZHIMOSHIHEJIAOHUANMOSHIDEYOUXIAOBUCHONGXINGSHI, NEIMEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGDEMINGXIANYOUSHIBIAOXIANZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN: (1) TUOKUANJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGKONGJIAN; (2) KEYIXIAOJIEJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEYUSHICHANGJINGJITIZHIDECHONGTU。

                          ZONGSHANGSUOSHU, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESANZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIDEGUIJISHIDONGTAIBIANHUADE, ZHENGTISHANGCHENGXIANQUTONGHUA, JUYOUYIDINGDEGONGTONGXINGHEHUBUXING。JIYUCI, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGBUYINGCAIYONGDANYIMOSHI, ERSHIGENJUSHEHUIHEJINGJIDEFAZHANXUQIUJINXINGHUIYINGXINGDEXUANZE。

                          4 结语

                          KEGUANSHANGLAISHUO, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESHIXINGMOSHISHOUZHIYUSHEHUIJIEGOUHEJINGJIJIEGOU。RUOSHIJIANDANDISHUO, JIHUASHENGYUZHENGCECAIYONGMOUZHONGSHIXINGMOSHI, NEISHIBUKEXUEDE。YINGSHIBANSUIZHESHEHUIJIEGOUHEJINGJIJIEGOUDEDONGTAIBIANHUA, CAIYONGSHIYINGDESHIXINGMOSHI, HUOZHEJIZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIDEHUNDASHIYONG, BAOCHI“RENKOUHONGLI”DECHIXUXING。ZHUGUANSHANGLAIJIANG, YINWEIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEYISHIXINGTAIJIAOQIANG, SUOYISANZHONGSHIXINGMOSHIBUKENENGTONGBUFAZHAN, TAMENDEFAZHANQUJUEYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEZHIDINGZHEHESHIXINGZHEDEZUOSHIFENGGE。YINCI, BIZHEXIWANGTONGGUODUIJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGMOSHIDETANXI, NENGGOUJINKENENGBAWOHAOJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGDESHIDAIMAIBO, GENGHAODIWEIZHONGGUOSHEHUIHEJINGJIDEFAZHANTIGONGDONGLI。DANGRAN, JIANYUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDEMOHUXINGHECHONGTUXINGDETEXING, WOMENBUNENGWANQUANQIDAIYIZHEISANZHONGMOSHIQINGXIDIKANCHUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCEDESUOYOUWENTI, BIZHEZHISHIXIANGCHENGXIANCHUJIHUASHENGYUZHENGCESHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGBUKEHUOQUEDEWEIDU。

                          参考文献:

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                          [2]钱再见, 金太军.公共政策执行主体与公共政策执行中“梗阻”现象[J].中国行政管理, 2002 (2) :56-57.
                          [3]庄垂生.政策变通的理论:概念、问题与分析框架[J].理论探讨, 2000 (6) :78-81.
                          [4]龚虹波.执行机构-政策执行-执行结果——一个分析中国公共政策执行的理论框架[J].社会科学, 2008 (3) :105-111.
                          [5]薛立强, 杨文书.论中国政策执行模式的特征——以“十一五”期间成功关停小火电为例[J].公共管理学报, 2011 (4) :1-7.
                          [6]贺东航, 孔繁斌.公共政策执行的中国经验[J].中国社会科学, 2011 (5) :61-79.
                          [7]Matland R.Synthesizing the implementation literature:the ambiguity-conflict model of policy implementation[J].Journal of Public Administration and Research, 1995, 5 (2) :145-172.
                          [8] [德]克劳塞维茨.战争论 (第一卷) [M].中国人民解放军军事科学院, 译.北京:解放军出版社, 2005.
                          [9]李育.行政法中行政行为执行力与服务行政的冲突——评《行政行为实行力研究——以服务行政为背景》[J].江西社会科学, 2017 (9) :258-259.
                          [10]冯玉军.权利相互性理论概说——法经济学的本体性阐释[J].法学杂志, 2010 (9) :1-4.
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                          李博.计划生育政策实行模式探析[J].中北大学学报(社会科学版),2018,34(06):83-88.
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