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                            我国老龄化社会形成的原因与面临的问题

                            时间:2018-09-12 来源:科技经济导刊 作者:王舟 本文字数:2023字

                              摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 改革开放四十年以来,充足的劳动力为国内经济发展提供了动力。但随着科技进步、公民生育意愿降低和人口老龄化加剧等一系列问题,年轻劳动力人口不断下降,老年人口急剧攀升,国内劳动力结构正在发生变化。而经济发展的好坏取决于劳动力年龄结构数量的增减。本文对国内老龄化现状、存在问题进行分析并提出相应的对策。

                              关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 人口老龄化; 劳动力短缺; 消费需求;

                              YUBUDUANJIANGDIDESHENGYULVXIANGBI,GUONEILAOLINGHUARENKOUXUNSUZENGZHANG。GENJUZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUODILIUCIRENKOUPUCHABAOGAOXIANSHIGUONEI60SUIYISHANGRENKOUZHANBI13.26%,JIAOQUNIANZENGZHANG3.36%。JIEZHI2017NIAN,GUONEI65SUIYISHANGRENKOUZHANZONGRENKOU10.7%。DANG60SUIJIYISHANGRENKOUSHUDAZONGRENKOU10%,65SUIJIYISHANGRENKOUZHANBIDA7%SHI,GAIGUOHUODIQUJINRULAOLINGHUASHEHUI。JULIANHEGUOTUICE,ZHI2050NIANGUONEI60SUIYISHANGRENKOUFENGZHIJIANGDADAOZONGRENKOUDE35%~40%。ZAIWOGUOZHANGQICHUYUSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUAN,BINGGUOZAOJINRULAOLINGHUASHEHUIZHISHI,GUONEIJIANGMIANLIN“WEIFUXIANLAO”SUOYINFADEYIXILIESHEHUIWENTI。YINERYANJIURENKOULAOLINGHUAJUYOUSHIFENZHONGDADEXIANSHIYIYI。

                              1、 人口老龄化的产生原因

                              1.1、 医疗技术进步

                              XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIZHIJIN,GUONEIYILIAOJISHUFEISUFAZHAN。YITUOYUXIANJINDEYILIAOJISHUHEBUDUANTISHENGDEWEISHENGSHUIZHUN,GUONEIRENKOUPINGJUNSHOUMINGCHIXUZENGZHANG,SHIXIANLEJIEFANGQIANDE35ZHOUSUIDAO2018YUQIDADAO76.6ZHOUSUIDETUPO。KUAISUFAZHANDEYILIAOJISHUYIJIYISHIZHUANYEJINENG,DUIWOGUORENKOUPINGJUNSHOUMINGDEYANZHANGJUYOUNANYIQUDAIDEZUOYONG。

                              1.2、 新中国三次婴儿潮对人口结构的影响

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOU,HEPINGANDINGDESHENGHUOHUANJINGCUCHENGLESANCIYINGERCHAO。JIANGUOHOUGULISHENGYUCHANSHENGLEDIYICIYINGERCHAO,SHIXIANRENKOU300%DEZENGZHANG。1962NIAN-1973NIANYOUYUJINGJIFAZHANCUCHENGDIERCIYINGERCHAO,ZHIHOURENKOUCHUSHENGLVLIANXUSHINIANWEICHIZAI30%-40%。DISANCIYINGERCHAOFASHENGZAI1980NIAN。SANCIYINGERCHAOWEIGUONEIJINGJIFAZHANTIGONGLEJIBENDERENKOUZHICHENG。DAOLE2050NIAN,GUONEI60SUIYISHANGRENKOUZHANZONGRENKOUBIZHONGXUNSUSHANGSHENG。ERDANGDISANBOYINGERCHAOLAOQUZHISHI,MEISIGERENZHONGJIUHUIYOUYIGELAONIANREN。

                              2、 人口老龄化存在问题

                              2.1、 基础资源设施不匹配

                              《GAIGEKAIFANG40NIANZHONGGUORENQUANSHIYEDEFAZHANJINBU》BAIPISHUXIANSHI,2017NIANGELEIFUWUSHESHI15.5WANJIA,ERJICHUSHESHIZHANLAONIANRENZONGSHU2.8%。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHUANYEHULIRENYUANYUSHEHUIXUQIUBUPIPEI,YOUXIEHULIJIGOUSHENZHIHUICHUXIANYIWEIHULIYUANZHAOGUSHUSHIWEILAONIANRENDEQINGXING。YOUYUHULIRENYUANQUEFAZHUANYEPEIXUN,TAMENJINNENGJIEJUELAONIANRENDESHENGLIXUQIU,ERBUNENGJINGZHUNPANDUANHECHULILAONIANRENJINGSHENXUQIU。LINGWAI,GEDIFANGSHESHIFUWUQUEFAGUIFANTONGYIDEDINGJIA,DUIJIAJINGPINHANYOUMEIYOUZINVZHAOGUDELAORENDESHENGHUOZAOCHENGLEYIDINGDEBUBIAN。

                            我国老龄化社会形成的原因与面临的问题

                              2.2 、老龄化社会对劳动力的影响

                              BUDUANJIAJUDELAOLINGHUARENKOU,DUIGUONEILAODONGLISHICHANGZAOCHENGLECHENZHONGDEYALI。2018NIANGUOJIATONGJIJUXIANSHI,16SUIZHI59SUIDESHILINGLAODONGRENKOUJIANSHAOLE470WAN。ZHEISHI2012NIANZHI2018NIANLIANXUDI7NIANXIAJIANG。GUONEIRENKOUHONGLIYIMINGXIANXIAJIANG。SUIRANGUONEILAODONGRENKOUDEJUEDUISHULIANGJUYUSHIJIEQIANLIE,DANLAONIANRENSHULIANGRIYIZENGDUO,JIASHANGSHAOZIHUAWENTIJIAJU,LAOLINGHUARENKOUDEFUYANGBIRIYICHENGWEIJIAODIAN。2018NIANGUONEILAONIANRENKOUFUYANGBIYOU1982NIANDE8%SHANGSHENGZHI2017NIANDE15.9%,LAONIANRENFUYANGBIDEZENGZHANGDUIWOGUOYANGLAOJINTIXIJIANGSHIYIGEYANJUNDEKAOYAN。

                              2.3、 老龄化社会对我国产业结构的影响

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YITUOYUZHANGSANJIAODENGJINGJITEQUDEZIYUANBINGFU,GUONEIJINGJIGAOSUFAZHAN,CHENGWEIQUANQIUCHANYELIANZHONGBUKEQUDAIDEHUANJIE。DANSUIZHELAOLINGHUARENKOUDEJUZENG,GUONEILAODONGLICHENGBENSHANGSHENG。CISHIYUENANDENGFAZHANZHONGGUOJIADELIANJIALAODONGLIBUDUANYONGRUGUOJISHICHANG,GUONEIRENKOUHONGLIZHUJIANJIANRUO。SHILINGLAODONGRENKOUDEJIANSHAOPOSHIQIYEWEILETIGAOJINGZHENGYOUSHI,YIFANGMIANYIRENGONGZHINENG、LIANGZIXINXIJISHUDENGWEIZHUDEDISICICHANYEGEMINGJINXINGJISHUCHUANGXIN;LINGYIFANGMIANTONGGUOTISHENGLAODONGSHENGCHANXIAOLVMIBULAODONGLIBUZU,DAOBICHANYEJIEGOUZHUANXINGSHENGJI【1】,ZHEIJIANGWEIGUONEICHANYETIGONGXINDEFAZHANJIYU。

                              3、 小结与建议

                              BENWENZAICHANSHUGUONEIRENKOULAOLINGHUACHANSHENGYUANYINDEJICHUZHISHANG,BINGFENXIQICUNZAIWENTI,DUICITICHUYIXIAJIANYI:

                              3.1、 完善老年人相关产业,扩大老年人消费市场

                            星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIANRENKOULAOLINGHUAYISHIYULAIYUBUKEHUSHIDEYANZHONGWENTI。BANSUIZHERENKOULAOLINGHUAWENTIDEYONGXIAN,YUZHIXIANGYINGDEXIAOFEIXUQIUXIANXIANCHULAI,YECHENG“YINFAJINGJI”。RENKOULAOLINGHUADEJIAJUCUISHENGLELAONIANRENSHENGHUOXIANGGUANDEDISANCHANYEDEFAZHAN【2】,DUIYUYILIAOBAOZHANGTIXIWANSHANQIEJIANQUANDEFADAGUOJIA,LAOLINGHUAJIASUDISANCHANYEFAZHANGENGWEIMINGXIAN。WEILAIJISHINIAN,LAOLINGHUASHEHUIJIANGJINRU“BAICHIHUA”JIEDUAN,LAONIANRENQUNTIZEHUICHENGWEIYIYILIAO、BAOJIANDENGWEIZHUTIDEPANGDADEXIAOFEISHICHANG,WEIDISANCHANYEDEKAIZHANHECHUANGXINTIGONGGUANGKUODEKONGJIANHEJIYU。

                              3.2、 促进老年人再就业,缓解青壮年劳动力缺失

                              QINGZHUANGNIANLAODONGLIRENKOUBUDUANXIAJIANG,YUZHIXIANGBIYUQISHOUMINGYANZHANGDELAONIANRENKOUZHUBUZENGJIA,ERLAOLINGHUARENKOUWANGWANGHUIZAOCHENGLAODONGGONGJILIANGXIAJIANG。YIFANGMIANGULILAONIANREN“DANXING”JIUYE,JIANGLAONIANRENDEJINGYANHEJINENGZUOWEIRENLIZIBENJILEITIGAOLAODONGLIGONGJI。LINGYIFANGMIANGAISHANLAONIANRENJIUYEHUANJING,KEYITONGGUOJIAOYUGAIGE,RUKAIBAN“LAONIANDAXUE”HUOZHEZUZHIZHONGSHENXUEXIXINGSHEHUIDENG,TISHENGLAONIANRENDEZHISHIJINENG,JIANG“RENKOUSHULIANG”SHENGJIZHI“RENKOUZHILIANG”【3】WEIZAIJIUYECHUANGZAOTIAOJIAN,CONGERZENGJIALAODONGLIGONGJI,ZENGQIANGGUONEIJINGJIJINGZHENGYOUSHI。

                              参考文献

                              [1]赵雅婧, 王有鑫.人口老龄化对日本制造业出口比较研究-兼论对中国的启示[J].日本问题研究, 2013 (3) :34-39.
                              [2]蔡昉.人口转变、人口红利与刘易斯转折点经济研究[J].经济研究, 2010 (4) :4-13.
                              [3]汪伟, 刘玉飞, 彭冬冬.人口老龄化的产业结构升级效应研究[J].中国工业经济,2015 (11) :47-61.

                              王舟.中国人口老龄化产生原因及存在问题[J].科技经济导刊,2019,27(24):208.
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