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                      影响二胎政策实施效果的因素与提升策略

                      时间:2019-01-10 来源:智库时代 作者:胡金兰 本文字数:4546字

                        摘    要: 2013年,十八届三中全会决定启动实施“单独二孩”政策,2013年12月28日,第十二届全国人大常委会第六次会议表决通过了《关于调整完善生育政策的决议》,明确一方是独生子女的夫妇可生育两个孩子。2015年10月,十八届五中全会宣布将允许所有的适龄夫妇生育两个孩子。新的生育政策实施以来,是否到达预期目的,遇到哪些问题?本文就宜春市二胎生育新政策施行以来的情况进行研究分析,研究对策措施,为下一步更好的做好生育工作,解决我国人口老龄化问题提供参考。

                        关键词: 二孩生育率; 低迷; 对策;

                        一、全面“二胎政策”的提出背景与实施现状

                        20SHIJI70NIANDAI,WOGUOTICHULE“JIHUASHENGYU”ZHENGCE,WOGUORENKOUJIEGOUXINGWENTIRIJIANTUCHU。JUTONGJI,2012NIANWOGUOLAODONGNIANLINGRENKOUKAISHIJIANSHAO,BISHANGNIANJIANSHAO345WANREN;2023NIANYIHOU,NIANJUNJIANSHAOYUE800WANREN。LAODONGNIANLINGRENKOUJIANSHAO,RENKOULAOLINGHUASUDUJIAKUAI。JIUYICHUNSHIERYAN,CONGRENKOUZONGSHUBIANHUALAIKAN,2012NIANWEI546.46WANREN,2013NIANWEI547.78WANREN,2014NIANWEI549.32WANREN,2015NIANWEI551.20WANREN,2016NIANWEI552.56WANREN,2017NIANWEI553.98WANREN,MEINIANZENGZHANGYUE1.5WANREN,CHUYUBIJIAOPINGWENDEZHUANGTAI,WOMENYEKEYIKANDAO2014NIANDAO2015NIANZENGZHANGLE1.88WANREN,HOUMIANLIANGNIANFENBIEJIANGDAOLE1.36HE1.42WANREN,KEYIPANDINGYICHUNJINNIANLAIRENKOUZONGSHUZENGZHANGJIBENWENDING。

                        CONGRENKOUCHUSHENGLVHEZIRANZENGZHANGLVLAIKAN,2015NIANDERENKOUCHUSHENGLVWEI13.23‰,ZIRANZENGZHANGLVWEI7.02‰,2016NIANDERENKOUCHUSHENGLVWEI13.39‰,ZIRANZENGZHANGLVWEI7.29‰,2018NIANDERENKOUCHUSHENGLVWEI13.28‰,ZIRANZENGZHANGLVWEI7.05‰,LINGGENJUMEINIANRENKOUBIANDONGDIAOCHAJI2015NIANDE1%RENKOUCHOUYANGDIAOCHATUISUANJIEGUOXIANSHI,JIN5NIANLAI,YICHUNSHIDERENKOUCHUSHENGLVHEZIRANZENGZHANGLVJIBENCHENGXIANZHUNIANHUANMANXIAJIANGDEQUSHI。

                        TONGGUOYISHANGSHUJUKEYIFENXIDECHU,QUANMIAN“ERTAIZHENGCE”SHISHIYIHOU,SHENGYULVCHUXIANGUOYINIANDEXIAOFUZENGZHANG,QUEYOUXUNSUDIJIANGLEXIALAI,ZENGZHANGBINGBUMINGXIAN。XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG,QUANGUOSHENQINGERTAIDEFUFUYEMEIYOUDADAOYUQIDESHULIANG,SHENBIANDEFUFUYESHIJISHAODEKAISHISHENGYUERTAI,BINGQIEYOUYIXIEFUFUDUIERTAIZHENGCEDOUBUTAILEJIE。GUOJIAZHIDINGERTAIZHENGCEWEIHUANJIEDANGQIANDERENKOUZHUANGKUANG,XIWANGTIGAORENKOUHONGLI,DANSHISHIJIQINGKUANGYUANYUANMEIYOUDADAOYUQIDEXIAOGUO。

                        二、二胎生育率低迷的影响因素分析

                        ZHUYAOYOUSANGEFANGMIANDEYINSUYINGXIANGJIAODA:

                        (一)思想观念还未扭转

                        一是思维惯性的束缚。计划生育于1982年3月13日成为中国一项基本国策。长期的政策宣传和严重的处罚措施,在部分人的心中已经固化了只生一个的观念,对生育二胎没有过多的想法。以前生育二胎很重要的一部分原因是“重男轻女”的观念在作怪,总觉得必须要生一个男孩,或者多个男孩,才能继承香火,但随着“男女平等”得到广泛认可,想生育二胎的也少了。二是新兴理念的干扰。随着经济发展和对外开放,许多新兴思潮充斥着年轻一代,出现了不愿生育的丁克家庭,这些人追求自由生活,不想被孩子所累,坚决不生孩子;出现了恐惧婚姻的不婚人士,这些人向往柏拉图式的爱情,把婚姻看成是爱情的坟墓,也不生孩子;出现了性取向不同的人,这些人喜欢同性,害怕异性,也不可能生孩子。这些都在一定程度上也影响了生育率的增长。三是社会乱象的冲击。网络媒体的不断发展,一些社会上的阴暗面更多的展现在人们面前。许多家庭暴力的视频在网上纷纷曝光,让部分人对婚姻家庭产生了恐惧。许多生育二胎后对第一胎的冷落,导致离家出走、殴打弟弟妹妹等视频的曝光,也让少数家庭不愿意再生二胎。
                       

                      影响二胎政策实施效果的因素与提升策略
                       

                        (二)经济条件还有顾虑

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                        (三)政策制度还需健全

                        YISHIYILIAOBAOZHANGBUWANSHAN。WEILESHENGYUERTAI,NVXINGBIXUZAICICHENGSHOUCONGHUAIYUNDAOFENMIANJIN40ZHOUYUNQINEISHENTISHANGCHANSHENGDEZHONGZHONGBUSHI,HENDUOGAOLINGJINGCHANFUHEERCIPOUGONGCHANDENVXINGGENGSHIMIANLINZHEZHUDUOBUQUEDINGDEJIANKANGFENGXIAN,ERQIENVXINGSHENGYUERTAISHIPINGJUNNIANLINGYEGENGDA,CHANHOUYEXUYAOGENGJINGXINXIZHIDEDIAOLI,DANYUESAO、CHANHOUDIAOLIDENGFUWUHAIBUNENGPUJIDAODADUOSHUREN。XINSHENGERJIBINGYUELAIYUEDUOFA,QIEXUDUOBUKEYUJIAN,SUIRANYOUXIEJIBINGBIJIAOPUBIAN,YEHENRONGYIZHIYU,DANYEHUIJIJIATINGSHENGYUERTAIDAILAILEBUXIAODEXINLIFUDAN。ERSHIZHIYEQIANTUYOUYINGXIANG。

                        ZAIDANGJINSHEHUI,ZHIYENVXINGYUELAIYUEDUO,JINGJIDULI、SHIYEDULIZHUJIANCHENGWEINVXINGSIXIANGGUANNIANDEZHUDAO。SHENGYUERTAIJIUBIXUFUCHUGENGDUODESHIJIANHEJINGLILAIZHAOGUHEPEIYANGLIANGGEHAIZI,HENDUOQISHIYEDANWEINENGJIYUDEJIAQIBIJIAOSHAO,ZAIHUAIYUNHESHENGCHANQIJIANZHINENGJIJIBENGONGZI,RANGJIATINGSHENGHUOBIANDEGENGNANLE。ZAIZINVZHAOGUSHANG,SHEHUIYEWUFATIGONGJIJINGJIYOUYOUPINZHIBAOZHANGDETUOYOUJIGOU,JUEDABUFENGONGLIYOUERYUANHAITINGZHAOLETUOBAN,SANZHOUSUIYIXIADEYOUERJIBENZHINENGZAIJIATINGZHONGWANCHENGFUYURENWU,ZHAOPINDEBAOMUDANXINSUZHIDI、BUTUODI,JIAOJILAORENYOUPAYOUDAIGOU、DAIBUHAO,BIRANYAOZAIGONGZUOSHANGZAOCHENGFENXIN。SANSHIJIATINGWENDINGSHOUCHONGJI。SUIRANERTAINENGGOUYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIEJUEJIANGLAIZINVYANGLAODEYALI,DANYOUYUERTAIJIATINGJINGJIYALIDEZENGDA,FUQINBUDEBUCHENGDANQIGENGDUODEYANGJIAZHONGDAN,WEICITAMENBIXUZAIGONGZUOSHANGTOURUGENGDUODESHIJIANJINGLI,ZHEIYANGNANXINGNENGGOUCHENGDANJIAWUPEIBANJIARENHAIZIDESHIJIANGENGSHAOLE,JIAZHIDUOYIGEXIAOHAIHOU,JIATINGDESUOSHIGENGDUO,FUQIJIANDEJIAOLIUSHAOLE,MAODUNCHONGTUDIANQUEZENGDUOLE,XIANGHUZHIJIANDEWUJIEYEJIURONGYIZENGDUO,JIYIDAOZHIHUNYINWEIJI。

                        三、提高二胎生育率的对策和建议

                        GUOJIATICHUQUANMIANKAIFANG“ERTAIZHENGCE”,YOUZHUANJIAYUCEZHENGCEKAIFANGHUIYOUDABUFENRENXUANZESHENGERTAI。CONGZHENGCECHUTAIHOU,DAO2030NIANQIANHOU,LAOLINGHUACHENGDUYOUWANGJIANGDILIANGGEBAIFENDIANZUOYOU,DAO2050NIANLAOLINGRENKOUDADAOGAOFENGZHISHI,YUJILAODONGNIANLINGRENKOUZENGJIADAO3000DUOWAN,YIWEIZHEYANGLAOJIJINZHENGJIAORENKOUSHUDEZENGJIA,SHIDEYANGLAOFUWUHOUBEILILIANGDEDAOCHONGSHI;TONGSHIKEYIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGGAISHANRENKOUJIEGOU,SHIXIANLAODONGLIDEHELIFENPEIGONGJI,CUJINJINGJI、RENKOUDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。DANSHIZAISHISHIYIHOUBINGMEIYOUDEDAOYUQIDEXIAOGUO。MIANDUISHANGSHUDEZHONGZHONGYUANYIN,CHUYUDUIJIATING、DUISHEHUIZERENDEKAOLV,GUANGDADESHILINGFUFUHAISHIDUOSHUXUANZELEBUSHENGERTAI,WEILETUIDONGXINZHENGSHIXING,JINYIBUGAISHANWOGUORENKOUJIEGOU,TUIDONGSHIXIANXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO,WOMENHAIXUCONGYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANNULI。

                        (一)要加大宣传力度

                        SIXIANGSHIXINGDONGDEXIANDAO,ZHIYOURANGNIANQINGFUFUDACONGXINDILIXIANGSHENG,CAINENGCUJINSHENGYU。YISHIZHULIUMEITIYINDAO。XIANGDANGCHUXUANCHUANDUSHENGZINVZHENGCEYIYANG,XUANJIANGJIEDUXINDESHENGYUZHENGCECHUTAIDEZHONGDAYIYI,WEISHENGYUERTAIDEJIATINGBANFAGUANGRONGZHENG,ZENGQIANGYULINGFUFUSHENGYUERTAIDEGUANGRONGGANZERENGAN。DUOXUANCHUANBAODAOYIXIEXINGFUMEIMANDEERTAIJIATING,ZHONGDIANXUANCHUANERTAIHEDUSHENGZINVDECHABIE,RANGGUANGDAJIATINGQIEQIESHISHIGANSHOUDAOSHENGYUERTAIDEXINGFUZHISHUTISHENG。ERSHISHEQUSHANGMENXUANJIANG。ZAISHEQUZHANGTIEXINDESHENGYUZHENGCEHAIBAO、BIAOYU,YAOQINGSHEQUZHONGXINGFUMEIMANDEERTAIJIATINGJIESHAOJINGYAN,XINGCHENGQIANGYOULIDEXUANCHUANSHENGSHI。ANPAISHEQUGONGZUORENYUANSHANGMEN,ZHONGDIANZUOHAODIYITAIZINVDESIXIANGGONGZUO,RANGTAMENKEWANGNENGYOUDIDIMEIMEI,NENGZHENGQUERENSHIDAODUOYIGEHAIZIBUSHIFENDANFUMUDUITAMENDEAI,ERSHIGONGTONGWEIFUMUJINXIAO,DAXIAOTAMENXINZHONGDEGULV。

                        (二)要给予经济补贴

                      星云棋牌官网下载   JINGJITIAOJIANDEZHIYUESHIBAIZAIDADUOSHUYULINGFUFUMIANQIANDENANTI。YISHIZHIJIEJIYUBUTIE。XUDUOOUZHOUFADAGUOJIAZAIYINGDUIRENKOUZENGZHANGLVCHIXUXIAJIANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,YEYOUCAIQUZHIJIEJINGJIBUTIEDEXIANLIHETANSUO。KAOLVDAOWOGUODESHIJIQINGKUANG,KEYISHELISHENGYUERTAIBUTIEJIJIN,YOUZHENGFUHEFUNVSUOZAIDANWEIGONGTONGCHENGDAN,QUFENQINGKUANGJIYUJINGJIBUCHANG,DADAOJILISHENGYUDEXIAOGUO。ERSHISHUISHOUZHENGCEQINGXIE。DUIYUSHENGYUERTAIDEFUNVSHIXINGSHUISHOUJIANGLIZHENGCE,ZAIQIGERENSUODESHUIZHENGSHOUSHANGJIYUJIANGDIZHENGSHOUBILI;YEKEKAOLVZAIYIWUJIAOYUJIEDUAN,ERTAIJIATINGDEXIAOHAIDEJIBENXUEFEIKEDIKOUGERENSUODESHUIQIZHENGDIAN,JINYIBUGULIJIATINGSHENGYUERTAI。TONGSHIDUIBUYUANSHENGYUDEJIATINGZENGJIAGERENSUODESHUIZHENGSHOUBILI,CUSHIZHEIXIERENSHENGYUZINV。SANSHIBAOXIANZHIDUQINGXIE。DUISHENGYUERTAIDEJIATING,QIZINV、LAORENDOUNENGZAIJIBENBAOXIANDEJICHUSHANG,ZENGJIABAOXIANEDUHEFANWEI,JINYIBUJIEJUEFUQIDEHOUGUZHIYOU。

                        (三)要保障劳动权益

                        SUIZHENVXINGZHIYEHUADEPUJI,ZHIYOUBAOZHANGHAOFUNVSHENGCHANQIANHOUDELAODONGQUANYI,CAINENGRANGFUNVANXINSHENGCHAN。YISHIYANZHANGERTAICHANJIASHIJIAN。GENJU《LAODONGFA》HE《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUTEBIEGUIDING》DESHUOFA,NVZHIGONGDECHANJIAZHIYOU98TIAN。ERTAIWANGWANGCHANFUNIANLINGPIANDA,XUYAOHUIFUDESHIJIANGENGZHANG,ERQIEYINGERHAIZAIBURUQI,SHIBIYAOFENXINZHAOGU。SHIDANGYANZHANGCHANJIASHIJIAN,NENGGOUYOUXIAODIBAOZHANGFUNVGONGZUOSHENGHUOHUBUDANWU。ERSHISHIDANGZENGJIANANFANGHULIJIASHIJIAN。

                        MUQIANNANFANGDEHULIJIASHIJIANMINGXIANPIANDUAN,WUFAJIYUNVFANGQUANFANGWEIDEZHAOGU,SHIDANGZENGJIANANFANGHULIJIADESHIJIAN,YENENGJINYIBUHUANJIEXINSHENGYINGERZHAOGUDEYALI。SANSHIDAICHANQIJIANJIYUXIEZHUBAOZHANG。SHOUCHANJIASHIJIANDEXIANZHI,HENDUOFUNVBIXUTINGZHEDADUZIJIXUZAIGANGWEISHANGGONGZUO,SHIYUEHUAITAIDEMANZHANGSHIJIAN,GONGZUOSHANGDEYALIYEYOUHENDADEYINGXIANG。YONGRENDANWEIKEYIANPAIWEIHUAIYUNDETONGZHIXIEZHUYUNFUKAIZHANGONGZUO、FENDANYALI。

                        (四)要改进医疗保障

                        QUANMIANERTAIZHENGCEKAIFANGYIHOU,ZAIBEIYUN、HUAIYUN、SHENGYUNQIJIANDUIYILIAOSHEBEIYIJIFUWUDEXUQIUPOGAO。YISHIHELIFENPEIYILIAOZIYUAN。SHIGEDAYIYUANDOUYOUNENGGOUBAOZHENGJIANKANGSHENGCHANDESHEBEIHEJIAOQIANGDEYISHENGZIYUAN。TONGSHIJIANLIJIANQUANGERENDIANZIDANGAN,WULUNDAONALIDOUNENGLEJIEYUNFUHEXIAOHAIDEQUANGUOCHENGQINGKUANG,FANGBIANZHILIAO。ERSHIJIAQIANGSHENGYUQUANCHENGYOUZHIFUWU。SHENGYUERTAIDENVXINGDADUOSHIGAOLINGCHANFU,SUOYIZAIHUAIYUNCHUQIZAIBAOJIANFANGMIANXUYAOYOUZHUANYERENYUANJINXINGYINDAO,YIBAOZHENGYUNFUDESHENTIJIANKANGYIJITAIERDEJIANKANGFAYU。ZAIDAICHANQIJIAN,YIYUANYEYAOJIADAGENZONGZHIDAOLIDU,CHANHOUXINLIJIANKANGZHIDAO,JIANGDIFUNVDUISHENGYUERTAIDEKONGJUXINLI。SANSHITIGAOFENGXIANZHENDUANYUCEHEERKESHUIPING。ZINVDEJIANKANGSHUIPINGYESHIFUNVDANXINDEWENTI。YIYUANYINGJIAQIANGDUIERTAIZAIFUZHONGSHIYIXIEJIBINGDEZHENDUANSHUIPING,FANGZHIWENTIXINSHENGERDECHUSHENG。TONGSHIYAOJIAQIANGERKEYILIAOSHUIPING,BURANGXIAOHAIDEYIXIEXIAOBINGEHUACHENGDABING,JIJIATINGZAOCHENGXINLIKONGJU。

                        (五)要完善托育服务

                        HAIZIDEJIAOYUPEIYANGWENTISHIFUMUZUIWEIGUANZHUDEWENTI。YISHIJIAQIANGYUESAO、BAOMUZIZHIRENZHENGHEGUANLI。SUIZHEERTAIDEDANSHENG,DUOSHUFUQIBIXUWAICHUGONGZUOYANGJIA,LAORENNIANJIPIANDAWUXIABANGZHUDAIHAIZI,ZHEIJIUDUIYUESAOHEBAOMUYOULEGENGDADEXUQIU。WEILERANGJIATINGFANGXIN,JIUBIXUTIGAOYUESAOHEBAOMUDESUZHI。KEYITONGGUOZHIYEPEIXUN、CHIZHENGSHANGGANGDENGFANGSHI,YOUZHENGFUBUMEN、SHEQUJINXINGDINGQIDEPEIXUNKAOHE,RANGXIANJINDEYUERZHISHIDEDAOYUNYONG,YERANGJIATINGNENGGOUFANGXIN。ERSHIZENGSHEGONGLIXUEXIAO,JIAQIANGDUIXUEXIAODEJIANGUAN。ZENGJIAGONGLIYOUERYUAN、GONGLIXUEXIAODESHULIANG,JIANGDIXIAOHAISHANGXUEDECHENGBEN。TONGSHIYAOJIAQIANGDUIXUEXIAODEJIANGUAN,JINJINIANWANGSHANGJINGCHANGPUCHUYOUSHINVEDAIHAIZISHIJIAN,JIAZHANGBUDEBUDUOHUAQIANRANGHAIZISHANGGUIDEXUEXIAO,JIAQIANGJIANGUANJINENGRANGHAIZIZAIYANGGUANGXIACHENGZHANG,YENENGRANGFUMUFANGXIN。HAIYAOJIAQIANGDUIGELEIXINGQUBANDEGUANLI,JINXINGZIZHISHENCHA。SANSHIJIAQIANGJIAOSHISUZHIPEIYANGHEZIYUANFENPEI。JINLIBANHAORENMINMANYIDEJIAOYU,JIAQIANGJIAOSHISUZHIPEIYANGHERENCAILIUDONG,RANGGENGGUANGDADEXUESHENGNENGGOUXIANGSHOUDAOGENGYOUZHIDEJIAOYU,FANGZHICHUXIANHUAFEIDALIANGKAIZHIYONGYUBUKE、FUDAOSHANG。

                        参考文献

                        [1]赵巍.大学生心理健康教育路径的创新[J].江苏高教,2011(5):41-46.
                        [2]邱吉青.如何让女性敢生二胎[J].中国妇女报,2015(8):2.
                      星云棋牌官网下载   [3]李升平.浅析当前社会形势下“二胎政策”遇冷[J].农家参谋,2018(15):260-261+197.

                        胡金兰.二胎生育率低迷的影响因素及对策研究[J].智库时代,2019(52):282-283.
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