星云棋牌官网下载

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                              学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 物权法论文

                              《物权法》中占有返还请求权与妨害防止请求权

                              时间:2018-12-26 来源:山西省政法管理干部学院学报 作者:辛莉芳,王小英 本文字数:3708字

                                摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 占有是一种事实状态而非一种民事权利。法律之所以要保护占有是为了维护社会生活秩序和财产秩序的稳定,并非是为了对真正权利人的保护。对遭受侵害的占有,民法提供两类保护方法:物权法保护方法与债权法保护方法。在物权法的角度,占有人可以通过行使占有保护请求权使占有恢复到不受侵害的圆满状态。占有制度及占有保护请求权制度的理论基础与价值取向在于维护相关社会秩序的稳定,进而引导良性交易的形成。

                                关键词: 物权法; 占有保护请求权; 妨害防止请求权;

                                一、占有及占有保护请求权概述

                                1.占有的定性。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZHANYOUSHIYIZHONGSHISHIZHUANGTAI,SHIRENDUIWUGUANLINGKONGZHIDESHISHI。RENDINGZHANYOUBAOHANLIANGGEYAOSU:YISHIZHANYOUDETISU,JIBIXUZAIKEGUANSHANGZHIJIEHUOZHEJIANJIEGUANLINGKONGZHIMOUWU。CONGLIANGGECENGCIFENXI:YOUXIANGYINGDEFALVGUANXIZUKANRENDINGSHI,JIZHIJIEYIZHAOGAIFALVGUANXIRENDINGSHEISHIZHANYOUREN,ZHANYOUSHIHELEIXING;MEIYOUXIANGYINGDEFALVGUANXIKERENDINGSHI,YINGYIYIBANSHEHUIGUANNIANJIWAIBUKERENSHIDERENYUWUJIEHEDEKONGJIANGUANXIHESHIJIANGUANXIRENDING。JIMOURENDUIMOUWUSHIFOUCHENGLIZHANYOU,YOUXIANGENJUXIANGYINGDEFALVGUANXIYUYIRENDING。YOUCIZHONGQINGXINGZHIDEQIANGDIAO———FUZHUZHANYOU,FUZHUZHANYOUSHIZHIJIYUGUYONG、XUETUDENGLEISIDECONGSHUGUANXI,SHOUGUZHUDE“ZHISHI”ERSHISHISHANGKONGZHIGUANLINGMOUWU。FUZHUZHANYOURENBUSHIZHANYOUREN,GUZHU、LAOBANCAISHIZHENZHENGDEZHANYOUREN,YINCIZHANYOUFUZHURENBUXIANGYOUZHANYOUBAOHUQINGQIUQUAN。ERSHIZHANYOUDEXINSU,ZHUGUANSHANGYOUGUANLINGZHIYISI。ZHANYOUDEYISIBUSHIFALVXINGWEIDEYISI,ERSHIYIZHONGZIRANYISI,GUQUDEMOUWUDEZHANYOUHUOWEICHIQIZHANYOUJIEBUYIJUYOUXINGWEINENGLIWEIBIYAO,ZHIYAODUIWUYOUZHIPEIDEZIRANNENGLIJIKE。RUCHENHOUCHESHI,JIANGPANGBIANSHUIZHEDERENHUALUODEBIJIBENDIANNAONAZOUDEXINGWEI。CIQINGJINGXIACHENGKEBINGMEIYOUSANGSHIDUIDIANNAODEZHANYOU,NAZOUDEXINGWEISHUYUYIPINGHEDEFANGSHIQINDUOLETARENDUIWUDEZHANYOU,YINGGUIYUDAOQIEZHIXINGWEI。ZAIRUCHENGKEJIYUDENGJIJIANGQIBIJIBENDIANNAOYIWANGYUHOUJITING,PANGRENJIANGQIJUWEIJIYOUDEXINGWEI。ANZHAOYIBANSHEHUIGUANNIAN,CIKECHENGKEYIJINGTUOLILEDUIGAIWUDEZHANYOU,PANGRENJUWEIJIYOUDEXINGWEIBINGMEIYOUQINDUOTARENDUIWUDEZHANYOU,GUERJUWEIJIYOUDEXINGWEIZHINENGPINGJIAWEIQINZHAN。XINSUYUTISUSHIZHANYOUDELIANGGEYAOSU,QUEYIZEBUCHENGLIZHANYOU。

                                2.占有保护请求权及类型。

                                《WUQUANFA》DIERBAISISHIWUTIAOGUIDINGLEDUIQINHAIZHANYOUDEGONGLIJIUJI。ZHANYOUSUIRANWEIYIZHONGSHISHI,BUSHIQUANLI,DANSHIWEILEWEIHUSHEHUIPINGHE、ANDING,CUJINWUJINQIYONG,WULUNSHIYOUQUANZHANYOUHAISHIWUQUANZHANYOU,ZHIJIEZHANYOUYIHUOJIANJIEZHANYOU,JUNSHOUFALVBAOHU,ZHISHIBAOHUCHENGDUBUTONGERYI。YOUQUANZHANYOUSHOUFALVZHONGJUXINGDEBAOHU,WUQUANZHANYOUSUIRANSHOUFALVYIDINGCHENGDUDEBAOHU,DANBUSHOUZHONGJUXINGDEBAOHU。DUIZAOSHOUQINHAIDEZHANYOU,MINFATIGONGLIANGLEIBAOHU:WUQUANFADEBAOHUFANGFAYUZHAIQUANFADEBAOHUFANGFA。CONGWUQUANFADEJIAODU,ZHANYOUZAOSHOUQINHAISHI,ZHANYOURENKEYITONGGUOXINGSHIZHANYOUBAOHUQINGQIUQUANSHIZHANYOUHUIFUDAOBUSHOUQINHAIDEYUANMANZHUANGTAI。ZHANYOUBAOHUQINGQIUQUANBAOKUO:ZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN、ZHANYOUFANGHAIPAICHUQINGQIUQUANHEZHANYOUFANGHAIFANGZHIQINGQIUQUAN。ZHANYOUBAOHUQINGQIUQUANYOUSANGETEZHENG:QICHENGLI,BUYIJIAHAIRENDEGUOCUOWEIYAOJIAN;JINYAOQIUZHANYOUZAOSHOUQINHAI,BUYAOQIUZHANYOURENSHOUYOUSUNSHI;BUSHIYONGSUSONGSHIXIAO。

                                二、占有返还请求权

                                占有返还请求权又称占有回复请求权,指占有被侵夺的,占有人有权请求侵夺人及其继受人回复其占有,返还占有物。要从以下方面进行分析:
                               

                              《物权法》中占有返还请求权与妨害防止请求权
                               

                                1.占有被侵夺。

                                JIWEIBEIZHANYOURENDEYISI,YIFALVJINZHIDESILIBODUOZHANYOU,JIANGZHANYOURENDEZHANYOUWUYIZHUANDAOZIJIDEGUANLINGKONGZHIZHIXIA。XUYAOTUCHUQIANGDIAODESHI“QINZHAN”BUDENGYU“QINDUO”。RUJIADESHOUJIDIUSHI,BEIYISHIDEBINGJUWEIJIYOU。JIAKEYIJU《WUQUANFA》DISANSHISITIAOXIANGYIZHUZHANGFANHAIYUANWUQINGQIUQUAN,YEKEYIJU《WUQUANFA》DIERBAISISHISANTIAOXIANGYIZHUZHANGBUDANGDELIFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。DANJIABUNENGXIANGYIZHUZHANGZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,YINWEIYIBINGMEIYOUQINDUOJIADUISHOUJIDEZHANYOU。YOURU,JIABASHOUJIJIEYUYI,JIEQIJIEMAN,YIJUBUGUIHAI,JIXUSHIYONG。JIADUIYUQIQUANLISHOUSUNHAIKEYIJU《HETONGFA》DIYIBAILINGQITIAOXIANGYIZHUZHANGWEIYUEZEREN,YEYOUQUANXIANGYIZHUZHANGFANHAIYUANWUQINGQIUQUAN,HAIYOUQUANXIANGYIZHUZHANGBUDANGDELIFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。DANJIAWUQUANXIANGYIZHUZHANGZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,LIYOUTONGSHANG,YIDUISHOUJIDEZHANYOUSHIJIYUJIAYIZHIJIANDEJIEYONGHETONGCHANSHENGDE,YIBINGMEIYOUQINDUOJIADUISHOUJIDEZHANYOU。

                                2.请求权人须为占有被侵夺的占有人。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   CICHUDEZHANYOURENJIBAOKUOYOUQUANZHANYOUREN,YEBAOKUOWUQUANZHANYOUREN,YIWULUNQISHIZHIJIEZHANYOURENHAISHIJIANJIEZHANYOUREN。ZHANYOUBEIQINDUODE,QIEFUHEGOUCHENGYAOJIANDE,JUNXIANGYOUZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。RUJIADESHOUJIBEIYIDAOQIE,BINGYOUCONGYICHUDAOZOUGAISHOUJI,YIZUOWEISHOUJIDEWUQUANZHANYOUREN,QIWUQUANZHANYOUYIRANSHIYAOSHOUFALVBAOHUDE,JIYIKEYIXIANGBINGZHUZHANGZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。XIAOTOUDEZHANYOUYUSUOYOUQUANRENDEZHANYOUJUNSHOUBAOHU,JIYOUQUANZHANYOUHEWUQUANZHANYOUDOUYAOSHOUFALVBAOHU,QUBIEZHICHUZAIYUSHOUBAOHUCHENGDUBUTONG,DUIQIBAOHUSHIFOUJUYOUZHONGJUXINGBUTONGERYI。

                                3.须自侵夺之日起1年内行使。

                                YIJIGAIQINGQIUQUANDEXINGSHIYOUYIDINGDEQIXIAN,QIXIANJIEMAN,GAIQINGQIUQUANSANGSHI。TONGSHUORENWEI,CI1NIANSHUCHUCHIQIJIAN。

                                4.被请求人为占有的侵夺人及其继受人。

                                DUI“QINDUOREN”,XUZHUZHANGZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUANZHISHI,QINDUORENRENGWEIZHANYOUREN(ZHIJIEZHANYOUJIANJIEZHANYOUJUNKE)。RUOQINDUORENDEZHANYOUYIJINGXIAOMIE,ZEDUIQINDUORENBUZAIXIANGYOUZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。RUJIAZULINDEDIANNAOBEIYIDAOQIE,YIJIANGGAIDIANNAOZUJIBING。YIQINDUOLEJIADUIDIANNAODEZHANYOU,BINGQIEYIJIANGDIANNAOZUJIBINGHOU,YIYIRANSHIDIANNAODEJIANJIEZHANYOUREN,GUJIADUIYIXIANGYOUZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。RUOYIJIANGTOULAIDEDIANNAOMAIJILEBINGBINGYIJINGWANCHENGLEXIANSHIJIAOFU,ZEJIADUIYIBUXIANGYOUZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,YINWEIYIWANCHENGJIAOFUHOUYIJINGSANGSHIDUIDIANNAODEZHANYOU,BUZAISHIDIANNAODEZHANYOUREN。CIZHONGQINGXINGXIAJIAZHINENGTONGGUOQITADEJIUJIFANGSHIXIANGYIZHUZHANGQUANLI。

                                “QINDUORENDEZHANYOUJISHOUREN”,BAOKUOGAIKUOJISHOURENYUTEDINGJISHOUREN。DUIYUGAIKUOJISHOUREN(JIYUJICHENG、QIYEHEBINGCONGQINDUORENCHUJISHOUZHANYOU),WULUNQISHISHANYIZHANYOUHAISHIEYIZHANYOU,JUNKEDUIQIZHUZHANGZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。DUIYUTEDINGJISHOUREN,RUOQIWEISHANYI(JIYUJICHENG、QIYEHEBINGZHIWAIDEQITAYUANYIN,RUJIYUMAIMAI、CHUZU、ZENGYUDENGYUANYINCONGQINDUORENCHUJISHOUZHANYOU),JISHOURANGSHIBUZHIQINDUORENDEZHANYOUYOUXIACI,BUDEDUIQIXINGSHIZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN;RUOQISHOURANGSHIZHIDAOQINDUORENDEZHANYOUYOUXIACI,FANGKEDUIQIXINGSHIZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   《WUQUANFA》DIERBAISISHIWUTIAOGUIDINGDEZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,SHIZHANYOUTUOLIBENQUANHUODEDULIBAOHU,QIFALVYIZHIZAIYUSHIZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUANJUYOURUXIASANXIANGGONGNENG:QIYI,TONGGUOBAOHUZHANYOU,BAOHUZHANYOUBEIHOUDEWUQUAN。RUJIAQIANYIDEQIAN,YICHUANGRUJIAJIAQIANGXINGNAZOUYIZHIGUDONGHUAPING,JIAKEYIYIZHAO《WUQUANFA》DISANSHISITIAODEGUIDINGXINGSHIYUANWUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,DANJIADEZHENGMINGZIJISHIHUAPINGDESUOYOUQUANREN,RUOJIAWUFAZHENGMINGZIJISHIHUAPINGDESUOYOUQUANREN,ZEJIAYAOCHENGDANBAISUDEHOUGUO。RUOANZHAO《WUQUANFA》DIERBAISISHIWUTIAODEGUIDING,JIANENGZHENGMINGYIQINDUOQIZHANYOU,JIAJIKEXIANGYIZHUZHANGZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,YAOHUIHUAPING,YUHUIBAOHULEHUAPINGDESUOYOUQUAN。QIER,TONGGUOBAOHUZHANYOU,BAOHUZHANYOUBEIHOUDEZHAIQUAN。RUJIAJIANGDIANNAOJIEJIYI,BINGCONGYICHUQIANGZOUDIANNAO,YOUYUYIBUSHIDIANNAODESUOYOUQUANREN,SUOYIYIWUQUANDUIBINGZHUZHANGYUANWUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN。DANYISHIGAIDIANNAODEZHANYOUREN,BINGYIFALVBUYUNXUDELILIANGQINDUOLEYIDEZHANYOU,YIKEDUIBINGXINGSHIZHANYOUFANHAIQINGQIUQUAN,YAOHUIDIANNAO。RUCI,KEYITONGGUOBAOHUZHANYOU,BAOHUNEIXIEBUSHIWUQUANRENDEYOUQUANZHANYOUREN。QISAN,WEIHUSHEHUIPINGHEJIWUDEGUISHUZHIXU,JINZHIRENHERENYISIRENLILIANGSHANZIBODUOTARENDEZHANYOU。JISHISHIWUQUANZHANYOU,WUQUANFAYEJINZHITARENYIFALVJINZHIDESILIBODUO。RUXIAOTOUTOUDEYIWU,XIAOTOUDUIGAIWUDEZHANYOUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYESHISHOUFALVBAOHUDE,ZHISHIBUNENGHUODEZHONGJUBAOHU。RUCIKEYIBAOHUSHEHUIPINGHE,BAOHUWUZHIGUISHUZHIXU。

                                三、占有妨害排除请求权与占有妨害防止请求权

                                1.占有妨害排除请求权。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   PAICHUDUIZHANYOUDEFANGHAI,KEYIYONGSILIDUIKANG,ZAICHAOCHU“JISHI”XINGSHIDEJIEXIANHOU,BIXUTONGGUOGONGLIQINGQIUPAICHUFANGHAI。ZAISHEHUISHENGHUOGONGRENDERONGRENXIANDUNEIYINGXIANGTARENDEBUCHENGLIFANGHAI。ZHANYOUFANGHAIYOUDONGDEFANGHAIHEJINGDEFANGHAILIANGZHONG(LAJIQINGDAOXINGWEIHEQINGDAOHOUXINGCHENGDEZHUANGTAI),KEJIEBANERSHENG,KEDANDUCUNZAI。JINGDEFANGHAIDUOZHIYINDONGDEFANGHAIERSHENGDEJIEGUOHUOYINGXIANGDECHIXUCUNZAI。WANGZEJIANXIANSHENGJIANGFANGHAIRENFENWEIXINGWEIFANGHAIRENHEZHUANGTAIFANGHAIREN,JI“YINQIXINGWEIFANGHAIZHANYOUZHIRENHEYINQIYISIRONGXUFANGHAIZHANYOUZHUANGTAICUNZAIZHIREN”。RUYIZUZHUJIADEFANGWU,ZHIZAOZAOSHENGFANGHAI。YIWEIXINGWEIFANGHAIREN,ERJIASHIZHUANGTAIFANGHAIREN。ZHEIZHONGKUODAFANGHAIRENLIJIEDEFENLEIYOUQIHELIXING,DANSHIYINGGAIZHUYI,SILIJIUJIDEFANGYUQUANXINGSHISHIZHUANGTAIFANGHAIJIXINGWEIRENBUSHIFANGYUDEDUIXIANG。

                                2.占有妨害防止请求权。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DUIZHANYOUDEBUFAFANGHAISUIWEISHIJIFASHENG,DANJUYOUFANGHAIDEXIANSHIWEIXIAN,ZHANYOURENYOUQUANQINGQIUTARENCAIQUYIDINGDECUOSHIFANGZHIFASHENGSUNHAIZHANYOUDEHOUGUO。GAIQINGQIUQUANZHIZAIZUQUEJIANGLAIFASHENGZHIFANGHAI。GUZAIQINGQIUPAICHUYICUNZAIDEFANGHAIQINGQIUQUANYIJIQINGQIUPAICHUQINHAIQINGQIUQUANZHIWAI,FANGHAIFANGZHIQINGQIUQUANYOUQISHIYONGZHIYUDI。GAIQINGQIUQUANDEDUIXIANGSHANGWEIFASHENG,DANYOUJIANGLAIFASHENGZHIKENENGDEWEIXIANXINGWEI,RULINJIAYISHUYINDAFENGWAIDAOZHILINJIAFANGWUSHANG,LINWUZHANYOURENZEYOUQINGQIUDASHUDEZHURENPAICHUWEIXIANDEQUANLI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZHANYOUZAOSHOUQINHAIDE,CHU《WUQUANFA》DIERBAISISHIWUTIAOGUIDINGDEGONGLIJIUJI(RUZHANYOUBAOHUQINGQIUQUAN)WAI,GENJUTONGSHUO,ZAIFUHEGOUCHENGYAOJIANSHI,ZHANYOURENHAIXIANGYOUZILIJIUJIQUAN。ZHANYOUFUZHURENSUIBUXIANGYOU《WUQUANFA》DIERBAISISHIWUTIAOGUIDINGDEZHANYOUBAOHUQINGQIUQUAN,DANZHANYOUFUZHURENKEXINGSHIZILIJIUJIQUAN。ZHANYOURENDEZILIJIUJIQUANSHIZHENGDANGFANGWEIHEZIZHUXINGWEIZAIZHANYOUBAOHUZHONGDEYIGEBIANZHONG。QIYI,ZHANYOUFANGYUQUAN。ZHANYOURENDUIQINDUOHUOFANGHAIQIZHANYOUDEXINGWEI,ZAIKEGUANBIYAODEXIANDUNEI,ZHANYOURENYOUQUANYUYIFANGYU。RU,DUIYUQIANGDUOCAIWUDE,DEWEIFANKANG;DUICHUANGRUFANGWUDE,DEWEIQUZHU;DUIQINGDAOLAJIYUQITUDIDE,DEWEIZHIZHI。QIER,ZHANYOUWUQUHUIQUAN。ZHANYOUDEBUDONGCHANBEIQINDUODE,ZHIJIEZHANYOURENYOUQUANSHISHIPAICHUJIAHAIRENERQUHUI;ZHANYOUDEDONGCHANBEIQINDUODE,ZHIJIEZHANYOURENYOUQUANJIUDIHUOZHUIZONGXIANGJIAHAIRENQUHUI。

                                参考文献

                                [1]卜祥洪.论占有的法律性质及其涵义[J].齐鲁学刊,2010(3).
                                [2]吴纪树.论占有制度[J].公民与法,2011(12).
                                [3]李宁.浅议我国占有保护请求权的完善[J].知识经济,2014(6).
                                [4]范丽萍.论占有保护请求权[D].南京:南京师范大学,2017.
                              星云棋牌官网下载   [5]林劼.占有保护请求权制度研究[D].上海:上海社会科学院,2017.

                                辛莉芳,王小英.浅议《物权法》中的占有保护请求权[J].山西省政法管理干部学院学报,2019,32(04):56-57.
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