星云棋牌官网下载

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                            总统“拉黑”公民为何违宪探析

                            时间:2017-12-13 来源:中共杭州市委党校学报 作者:周汇慧 本文字数:10952字

                              摘    要: 美国纽约联邦法院宣告总统“拉黑”行为违宪, 即特朗普于社交平台推特上屏蔽相关用户的行为, 侵犯了公众来自美国宪法第一修正案的权利。认定“@realDonaldTrump星云棋牌官网下载”的“互动空间”属于“公共领域”, 特朗普“拉黑”行为限制了公民言论自由, 不仅不符合手段的适当性, 还违背总统的职业伦理。但法院也未命令特朗普立刻解禁, 表明美国违宪审查制度下司法权对行政权的尊重。以此为鉴, 我国推动政务新媒体建设应当突出互动功能, 对公民政务微博言论的规制应当法治化。

                              关键词: “拉黑”事件; 公共领域; 言论自由; 政务微博;

                            总统“拉黑”公民为何违宪探析

                              2018年5月22日, 纽约市联邦法院就总统唐纳德·特朗普 (Donald Trump) 于社交平台推特 (Twitter) 上, “拉黑”相关账户持有者一案, 依据宪法裁定:唐纳德·特朗普, 作为现任美国总统, 无权在“@realDonaldTrump”推特账号使用过程中, 屏蔽对其发文进行批判式评论的账户持有人, 屏蔽行为是违宪的, 严重侵犯了公众来自宪法第一修正案之权利。1该事件成为独特的宪法问题进入公众视线, 源自奈特第一修正案研究所提起的诉讼。后者作为原告, 代表七名被屏蔽的推特用户, 将总统诉至联邦法院, 请求法院审查“拉黑”行为。事件的持续发酵, 也引发诸多宪法思考。比如, “@realDonaldTrump星云棋牌官网下载”是否为“公共领域”, 总统“拉黑”公民为何违宪, 如何评价法院“自觉解禁”判决的选择, 以及该事件对我国政务微博建设和公民政务微博言论自由规制的启示, 等等。

                              一、前提性话题———“公共领域”

                              纽约市联邦法院认为, “@realDonaldTrump”帐号下, 相关账户持有人能够直接进入到总统推特消息内容的“互动空间”领域, 确属于“公共讨论版”。这里的“公共讨论版”并非一个纯粹的政治概念, 也非单一的法律概念, 而是法院在此特定案件下, 针对推特具有特定“公共讨论”板块、场所而言, 是上位概念“公共领域”的特定化表述。因此, 法院的审查标准本质上应归为“公共领域”与“私人领域”的划分。于是, “@realDonaldTrump”是否属于“公共领域”成为评价“拉黑”行为的重要前提。

                              HANNA·ALUNTEZAI《RENLEITIAOJIAN》ZHONG, LVXIANTICHU“GONGGONGLINGYU”LILUN。HOULAI, YOUGEN·HABEIMASIDUICIYUYIKUOCHONG, “GONGGONGLINGYUSHUODAODIJIUSHIGONGGONGYULUNLINGYU, TAHEGONGGONGQUANLIJIGUANZHIJIEKANGHENG。”[1] (P247) 1964NIAN, HASHIMIAOHUICHU“GONGGONGLINGYU”DEJIBENLUNKUO, JISUOWEI“GONGGONGLINGYU”, SHISIRENKONGJIANDEXIANGDUIGAINIAN, TASHISHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGNENGGOUYUNNIANGGONGGONGYULUNDETEDING“LINGYU”, XIANGQUANMINKAIFANGSHIDEZHEIYIDIANHUODELEBAOZHANG。JIANYANZHI, GONGGONGLINGYUJIWEIGUANNIANSIWEI、SHEHUIKANFADEYIZIYOUBIAODAYUHUDONGDEDULIKONGJIAN。GONGCHUYUZHEIYIKONGJIANDEGONGMIN, DEYIZIYOUDITAOLUNGONGGONGSHIWU, SHENZHIHAIKEYIDUIDANGJUZHENGQUANJINXINGZHENGZHIJIANDU, SUQIUQUANYI, CANZHENGYIZHENG。CIHOU, MEIGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANZAIDALIANGYANLUNZIYOUQUANYUGONGZHONGCANYUQUANBAOHUPANLIZHONG, YUNYONGLUNKUOMIAOHUIDEFANGFA, ZHUBUJIANG“GONGGONGLINGYU”LILUNYUNYONGYUSIFASHENCHA。

                              对照基本轮廓进行判断, “@realDonaldTrump”推特帐号属于“公共领域”。首先, “@realDonaldTrump”属于社会生活中的一个领域, 更准确地说, 它是公共领域的媒介。最高法院在诸多判例中引用“互联网的广大民主论坛”描述互联网, 包括推特等社交媒体平台, 称其为作为交换意见的、最重要的地方 (空间意义上) 之一, 并将互联网比喻为公共集会的必要场所。当前, 推特是一个拥有超过3亿活跃用户的社交媒体平台, 其中包括近7000万美国用户。“用户”是在平台上创建账户的个人。推特用户必须有一个帐户名, 表现形式为符号“@”加上唯一的标识符, 例如“@realDonaldTrump”, 以及一个描述性名称, 如“DonaldTrump”。特朗普于2009年3月创建了“@realDonaldTrump”账户, 就职典礼前, 他就开始使用该账户谈论各种话题, 其中包括大众文化和政治等社会生活领域内容。其次, “@realDonaldTrump”符合“向所有公民开放这一点得到了保障”的轮廓要素。司法部辩护律师将该账号形象比喻为, 特朗普置身于一个挤满了人, 大家正在展开激烈辩论的狭小房间, 他可以自主决定不听其中某些人说话。虽说为被告方辩词, 但“挤满了人的房间”的表述, 在客观上充分表明账号的开放属性。任何公民皆有获得相关资讯之可能, 尽管有些公民尚无相应推特账号, 但只要其完成注册, 并关注总统的账号等系列操作即可。最后, “@realDonaldTrump”满足“某种近乎公众舆论的东西能够在其中形成”。根据美国“总统记录”之规定, “@realDonaldTrump”的每条推文应有官方记录, 必须在总统记录法案下保存。查阅总统记录发现, 自特朗普上任以来, 就将他的推特个人账号变成了总统工作的组成部分, 除了用它宣传政策、议程推广外, 还掺杂回击批评者、“拉黑”反对者等特定行为。此账号内容已大面积触及公共信息, 基于公众惯性思维, 其间夹杂的总统行为已被同质化, 显着区别于无公共信息职能的个人账号。并且更重要的是, 总统通过这个账号实施了仅有总统才可以实施的行动。因此, 尽管存在诸多理由致使总统以为, 该帐号一定程度表现出的私人属性, 导致规范政府空间之规定可能存在无法适用的空间。但事实表明, 其私人属性被特朗普实施的“公共领域”行为所淡化甚至磨灭, “@realDonaldTrump星云棋牌官网下载”已彻底变成公众公开讨论观点、探讨议程的“公共领域”。总统在推特帐号发布公共信息与最新政策、动态, 用户们进行跟进、评论、回复以及转发的空间确属“公共讨论版”。

                              二、“拉黑”行为的法律属性分析

                              DANGQIAN, RENRENJIEZHIZONGTONGWEIXIANLE, DANBENANPANJUEBINGWEIJUTISHIMING“LAHEI”XINGWEIJIUJINGQINFANLEHEZHONGXIANFAQUANLI, WEICIWOMENXUYAODUI“LAHEI”DEFALVSHUXINGZHANKAIFENXI。

                              (一) 什么是“拉黑”?

                              CHULEZHUDUOJIAOHUFANGSHIWAI, 2016NIANYINGWANGMINFAQI“TUITEJINGYIN”YUNDONGHOU, TUITEGONGSITUICHUSANDAKONGZHIGONGJULAI“XIANZHI”BULIANGYONGHU, RANGGUANGDAYONGHUYONGYOUGENGZIYOUDESHEJIAOKONGJIAN。DIYIGESHIMute, JI“JINGYIN”MOSHI, NENGYINZANGTARENDETUIWEN, ERQIEDUIFANGYEBUHUIZHIDAONIBATAMENSHEWEI“JINGYIN”。DIERGESHIclock, JI“PINGBI”MOSHI, DANGNIZAITUITESHANGPINGBILEMOUXIERENHOU, TAMENJIUWUFAZAIGUANZHUNI, YEBUNENGXIANGNIFASONGTUIWENHUOSIXIN。DISANGESHIreport, JI“JUBAO”MOSHI, ZAIBIYAODEQINGKUANGXIAJUBAOQITAYONGHU, RANGGUANFANGJINXINGDIAOCHA, YIWEIHUYONGHUDEZISHENANQUAN。

                              该案七名个人原告均为推特用户, 他们每个人都推着一条批评总统或其政策的信息, 以回应来自“@realDonaldTrump”账户的推文。此后, 每个原告账户都被“拉黑”。根据推特用户协议, 当一个用户想要阻止另一用户在推特平台上与他的帐户交互, 可以通过阻止用户的做法实现, 这就叫做屏蔽、阻塞、阻止或者“拉黑” (以上表述均为block的中文翻译, 本文不作区分) 。推特公司赋予用户“拉黑”其他用户的能力, 但用户自己决定是否使用。如果用户被封锁, 系统不会主动通知。当用户登录到已被“拉黑”的推特帐户时, 无法查看或回复“拉黑”用户发布的任何推文。法官在案件审理完毕后提出建议, 称特朗普可以设置“静音”。那么, “静音”为何可以, “拉黑”却违宪呢?法官解释, 被“静音”的账户仍然可以直接回复总统的账户, 哪怕这则回复最后没有被看到, 而屏蔽用户的话, 他们就不能回复了, 这就是“拉黑”与“静音”的本质区别。与“拉黑”不同, “静音”允许用户从自己的推特删除一个帐户的推特, 而不妨碍被删除用户的跟踪与浏览。“静音”不会导致阻塞, 也不会禁止交互。显然, 倘若总统开启“静音”模式, 选择无视某些用户、不回应某些言论, 不存在合法性之争, 因为此时没有任何人的利益遭到侵害。但如果总统主动屏蔽账户持有人, 禁止其查阅、接受账号最新动静, 实质上就等于阻止公众访问“公共讨论版”, 不仅忽视某些演讲者, 而是从根本上不与其接触, 并积极限制“个人自由发言权”和“提倡观点”的行为, 就进入了第一修正案禁止的范围。简而言之, “拉黑”违宪, 而“静音”不违宪。

                              (二) “拉黑”行为的定性

                              JIANYUZONGTONGZHANGHAOBAGONGMINZHANGHAOYUYI“LAHEI”, ZHIJIECHANSHENGLIANGZHONGHOUGUO, BINGFENBIEDUIYINGZHEDUI“LAHEI”XINGWEIDEBUTONGPINGJIA:YIZHONGHOUGUOSHIGONGMINZHANGHAOWUFAJIESHOUHECHAKANZONGTONGZHANGHAOFABUDEDONGTAIJIXINXI, “LAHEI”WANGMINDENGYUBODUOLEGONGZHONGXINXIZHIQINGQUAN。LINGYIZHONGHOUGUOSHIGONGMINZHANGHAOWUFAYUZONGTONGZHANGHAOFABUDEDONGTAIXIANGXIAYUYIPINGLUNHUOZHUANFA, JINER“LAHEI”XINGWEIQINFANDESHIGONGMINYANLUNZIYOUQUAN。DUILIANGZHONGGUANDIANJINXINGHELIXINGYUHEFAXINGFENXI, ZHUNQUEDINGXING“LAHEI”XINGWEI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DIYIZHONGQINGXINGXIA, JIANG“LAHEI”XINGWEIPINGJIAWEIQINFANGONGZHONGXINXIZHIQINGQUAN, YOUQIHELIXING, DANMIANLINDEZUIDAZHANGAISHIGONGZHONGXINXIZHIQINGQUANDEXIANFAYIJUWENTI。

                              首先, 基于总统账号的“公共领域”属性, 将“拉黑”行为认定为侵犯公众信息知情权有其合理性。自总统就职以来, “@realDonaldTrump星云棋牌官网下载”账户已经在白宫社会媒体主任和总统助理Daniel Scavino的帮助下运作。甚至, 有时会在其他官方渠道向公众公布这些事项之前, 使用该帐户来公布与政府业务有关的事项。由此可见, 总统账号的“公共领域”属性已为公众认可和接受, “拉黑”导致用户不能获取公众信息, 侵犯其知情权, 因此观点有合理性。然而, 合理并不等于合法。美国宪法第一修正案, 并未明确规定公众信息知情权。美国联邦最高法院在1971年“五角大楼文件”一案已经充分表明, 宪法第一修正案本身并非绝对, 故由此衍生的公众知情权的, 绝对性更是无从谈及。[2] (P81) 所以, 将“拉黑”行为评价为侵犯公众信息知情权, 存在宪法依据不充分的根本性障碍。

                              QISHI, GONGZHONGZHIQINGQUANDEXIANFAYIJUWENTI, MEIGUOLILUNYUSHIJIANZAOYISHEJI。DANGQIANLILUNTONGSHUORENWEI, ZHIQINGQUANNENGGOUCONGYANLUNZIYOUBEIHOUDEJIBENFALISIXIANGZHONGTUIDAOERLAI, BAOHUYANLUNZIYOUBENSHENJIUYIWEIZHEBAOHUZHIQINGQUAN。SHUOHUAZHEBIXUDUIJUTIQINGKUANGYOUQUANMIANBAWO、CHONGFENLEJIE, CAIYOUKENENGSHIXIANYANLUNZIYOUDEZUIWANMEIJINGJIE。RUMEIGUOYOUXUEZHERENWEI:“DIYITIAOXIUZHENGANMINGQUEDE, GONGMINXIANGYOUHUODEXINXIDEQUANLI, YOUQISHIGUANXIDAOTAMENDEGUANLIDEXINXI, ZHEISHIZAIMINZHUSHEHUIZHONGYOUYIYIDIBIAODADEYOUYUEZHICHU。”[3] (P165) WOGUOYEYOUYANJIUZHERENWEI, JINGUANDIYIXIUZHENGANBINGMEIYOUDUIXINXIGONGKAIJIAYIGUIDING, DANQIDUIMEIGUODEXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUQIDAOJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG;MEIDANGZHENGFUXINGWEISHEJIDAODUIXINXIHUODUIYANLUNJIAYIGUIZHISHI, ZHENGFUBIXUBAOCHIDUIYANLUNZIYOUDEZUGOUZHONGSHI。[4] (PP247-277) ZAISIFASHIJIANCENGMIAN, MEIGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANYIXILIEPANLIBIAOMINGLEYIJUXIANFADIYIXIUZHENGANBAOHUZHIQINGQUANDEGUANDIAN。1980NIAN, LISHIMANBAOZHIGONGSISUFUJINIYAANMINGQUEYAOQIUMEIGUOXINGSHISHENPANGUOCHENGDUIDAZHONGMEITIGONGKAI, FATINGDUIGONGGONGMEITIKAIFANG。ZHICI, MEITIHEMINZHONGZHENGSHIJINRUFATING、CANYUTINGSHEN, ZHIQINGQUANDEBAOHUDEDAOMINGXIANZENGQIANG。DANGRAN, ZHIQINGQUANYUYANLUNZIYOUQUANHAISHICUNZAIMINGXIANCHABIEDE。XIANFADIYIXIUZHENGANYEZHISHIMINGQUEJINZHIZHENGFUFANGAIGONGMINXINGSHIYANLUNZIYOU, ERDUIYUZHENGFUYINGDANGZHUDONGGONGKAIXINXI、YIHEZHONGXINGSHIGONGKAIXINXIDENGSHIXIANG, WEIZHIKEFOU。YUSHI, ZUIGAOFAYUANYIBANZUNXUNHEXIANXINGJIESHI, JIANGDIYIXIUZHENGANJIESHIWEIBUSHOUZHENGFUXIANZHIFABIAODEQUANLI。[5] (P400) YINCI, TANGRUOKENDINGZHIQINGQUANHEYANLUNZIYOUQUANLICUNZAINEIZAILIANXI, SHENZHISHIYIDINGDEYICUNGUANXI, CONGXIANFAYIJUJIAODU, JIANG“LAHEI”XINGWEIPINGJIAWEIQINFANGONGZHONGXINXIZHIQINGQUANDEZUIDAZHANGAIBIANKEQINGCHU。

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                            星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIAN, CONG“LAHEI”SUNHAIDEZHIJIEHUDONGXINGLAIKAN。TUITEZUOWEIYIGEPINGTAI, QISHEJICHUZHONGWEIYUNXUYONGHUYUQITATUITEYONGHUJIAOHU, YONGHUKEYISHIYONGTUITELAIXIANGTAMENDEDANGXUANDAIBIAOQINGYUAN, HUOZHEYIZHIJIEDEFANGSHIYUTAMENJINXINGJIECHU。ZAIHUDONGKONGJIAN, DANGYONGHUBEI“LAHEI”SHI, SANGSHIDESHIZHIJIEYUZUSAIYONGHUFASONGTUITEJIAOHUDENENGLI。SUISHUOYONGHUYOUGUIBIBEI“LAHEI”DESHOUDUAN, RUSHIYONGHULIANWANGLIULANQI, HUOWEIDENGLUDAOTUITEDEQITAYINGYONGCHENGXUHUORIZHI, JINRUYIGEMEIYOUBEIZUZHIDETUITEZHANGHU, CHAKAN“LAHEI”YONGHUDETUIWENNEIRONGHUOSHIJIANXIAN。DANXIANGBIZHIXIA, ZHIJIEHUDONGDENENGLIYIJINGSUNHAI, BUNENGWANQUANZHONGJIAN, ERBENANYUANGAOBEIQINFANDEQUANLIZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGJINRUHUDONGKONGJIANDENENGLI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   QICI, CONG“LAHEI”CHANSHENGDESHUANGZHONGHOUGUOKEFOUJINXINGBAOHANPINGJIALAIKAN。QINFANYANLUNZIYOU, DAOZHIGONGMINFABIAOYANLUNYUYANLUNBEIPINGBIDEHOUGUO, SHIZHISHANGSHIBAOHANLEQINFANZHIQINGQUAN, WUFAHUODEXINXIZHEIYIHOUGUODE。DANGGONGMINWUFAJINXINGBIAODASHI, JICUNZAIWUFAJINRU“GONGGONGLINGYU”ZHEIYIQIANTI。YANGEYIYISHANGJIANG, WUFAJINRU“GONGGONGLINGYU”CAISHIDUIGONGZHONGZHIQINGQUANDEBODUO, WUFABIAODAJIBIAODABUBEIKANJIANZEWEIYANLUNZIYOUDEQINFAN。FANZHI, CONGQINFANGONGZHONGZHIQINGQUANDEJIAODU, QUEBUNENGBAOHANPINGJIAQINFANYANLUNZIYOUZHEIYICENGMIAN。YINCI, RUOJIANG“LAHEI”XINGWEIDINGXINGWEIQINFANGONGZHONGZHIQINGQUANXIANRANGUOYUPIANMIAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZUIHOU, CONGBENANZUIZHONGPANJUEDENEIRONGBIAOSHUKAN。NIUYUELIANBANGFAYUANDEPANJUESUIWEIMINGQUENAYITIAONAYIKUAN, DANJIYUFAGUANDELUNDUAN, KEYICONG“YINWEIZHEIQINFANLEGONGZHONGLAIZIMEIGUOXIANFADIYIXIUZHENGANDEQUANLI”“MEIYOURENHEZHENGFUGUANYUANKEYILINGJIAYUFALVZHISHANG”[6] (PP73-74) JINXINGWENBENJIESHIHETIXIJIESHI。WULUNZAIXINGSHISHANGHAISHIZAISHIZHISHANG, “LAHEI”XINGWEIJUNYINGDANGDINGXINGWEIQINFANGONGMINYANLUNZIYOU。XINGSHISHANG, GONGMINZIYOUFABIAOYANLUNDEQUANLISHENSHENGBUKEQINFAN, SHIMEIGUODIYIXIANFAXIUZHENGANMINGWENGUIDINGDE, SUIRANLILUNTONGSHUOCHENGRENGONGZHONGZHIQINGQUANDECUNZAI, DANYANLUNZIYOUHANGAIZHIQINGQUANXIANGGUANNEIRONG, JIANGQIPINGJIAWEIYANLUNZIYOUGENGWEIZHIJIE、JIANMING;SHIZHISHANG, “LAHEI”XINGWEIYINFADEZHIJIEHOUGUO, SHIGONGMINZHANGHAOWUFAYUZONGTONGZHANGHAOFABUDONGTAIXIAYUYIPINGLUNHUOZHUANFA。

                              三、“拉黑”行为与低价值言论的限制

                              YOUGUOBIYOUYIN, TELANGPUZAITUITESHANGYOU5000DUOWANDEGUANZHUZHE, WEIHEPIANPIAN“LAHEI”QIMINGYUANGAO?TONGGUOFENXIFAXIAN, QIZHONGSANMINGYUANGAOFABIAOLE“DIJIAZHIYANLUN”, XUYAOJINXINGYANLUNXIANZHI, DAN“LAHEI”BUSHISHIDANGDEXIANZHISHOUDUAN, BINGQIEWEIFANLEZONGTONGZHIYELUNLI。

                              (一) 被“拉黑”对象究竟说了什么?

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DIYIWEIYONGHUSHIHUASHENGDUNDEYIMINGZHENGZHIZIXUNZHEJIANZUOJIA, TAZAIZONGTONGJIANG“Fake News”MEITICAIZAIJIAODI, LAIQINGZHUCHENGGONGJINGXUANSHI, FABIAOPINGLUNCHENG, “SHIELUOSIBANGTELANGPUYINGDELEZUIZHONGDEXUANJU”。DIERWEISHIMALILANDAXUEDEYIMINGSHEHUIXUEJIAOSHOU, TAPINGLUNDAO“FUBAIWUNENGDEZHUANZHI、ZHENGCE”。DISANWEISHIMINGCHUANGZUOXINGNVGESHOU, TAZAIDUIZONGTONGYITONGMANMAHOU, SHANGCHUANLEJIAOHUANG“XIANQILIAN”DEBIAOQING, CHAOFENGQUANSHIJIEDOUZAIMOMOKANTELANGPU“ZUOXIU”。DISIWEISHIMINGPUTONGWAIKEYISHENG, PIPINGTELANGPUXIELECUOBIEZI。DIWUWEISHIMINGDEKESASIZHOUJINGGUAN, ZAI“TELANGPUSHIDAIDEDIYIGEMEIKUANGZAIBINXIFANIYAZHOUKAIYE”DEDONGTAIXIALIUYAN, “GONGXIA, HEIFEIBING (YINZHANGQIXIRUMEICHENWEILISUOZHIDE) YAOCHUXIANLE”。DILIUWEISHIWEIZUOJIA, QIYANLIFANDUIZONGTONGJIANGYAOTUICHU《BALIQIHOUXIEDING》。DIQIWEISHIWEINIUYUEMANHUAJIA, ZAITUIWEN“WULUNRUHE, YAODUIJINRUGUOJIADERENYANGESHENCHA, QUEBAOWOMENDEGUOJIAANQUAN”XIALIUYAN“NIXUYAODESHIYANGESHENCHANIDEZHENGFU”。

                              KEJIAN, ZHEIQIWEIYONGHUYANLUNZIYOUDEXINGSHIDUIYANLUNZIYOUDEXINGSHIZHESHIYOUZOUZAIFALVDEBIANYUAN。QIANGDIAOQUANLIDEBIANJIESHIXIANDAIXIANFADEYAOQIU, ZAILEISIANJIANZHONG, MEIGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANTONGCHANGHUIYUNYONG“SHUANGJIELILUN”PINGJIAYANLUN, ZHUNQUEBIANXI“GAOJIAZHIYANLUN”YU“DIJIAZHIYANLUN”。“GAOJIAZHIYANLUN”DENEIRONGYIBANBAOKUOZHENGZHI、ZONGJIAO、WENHUAJIYISHUFANGMIANDEYANLUN。XINGSHISHANGCHULEKOUTOU、WENZIHUOTUHUADECHUANDA, HAIYOUTEDINGSHIJIAN、KONGJIANXIASHISHIDEXINGWEIHUODONGZUOWEIBIAODAXINGSHIDEXIANGZHENGXINGYANLUN, ZHURUYOUXING、JIHUIDENG。ZAIBAOHUCHENGDUSHANG, GUOJIAYINGDANGYONGZUIGAOBIAOZHUNLAIBAOZHANG“GAOJIAZHIYANLUN”, JIBIANSHIGUOJIADELIFAQUANYEYILVBUDEDUIQIJIAYIXIANZHI。DUIBILAIKAN, “DIJIAZHIYANLUN”ZAIXINGSHISHANGBINGWUTESHU, DANNEIRONGSHANGQUBIEXIANZHE, DUOWEIFEIZHENGZHIYANLUN、SHANGYEYANLUN, BINGDAIYOUWEIXIE、FEIBANGSECAI, HUOTIAOXIN、CHOUHENTAIDU。YIN“DIJIAZHIYANLUN”CUNZAIHEFAXINGYUHELIXINGDEFOUDINGXINGPINGJIA, QIBAOZHANGCHENGDUYEYINGDANGJIANGDI。YIJU“SHUANGJIELILUN”QUFENQIMINGYUANGAOYANLUNJIAZHIDEGAODI:DIYI、ER、WU、LIUWEIWEISHEJIZHENGZHINEIRONGDEYANLUN, SHUYU“GAOJIAZHIYANLUN”;DISAN、SI、QIWEIZESHIZHENDUITELANGPUGERENDE、CHUNCUITIAOXIN、CHOUHENXING, QIEJUYOURENSHENGONGJIXINGSECAIDEYANLUN, SHUYU“DIJIAZHIYANLUN”。

                              (二) “拉黑”并非限制低价值言论的适当手段

                              YI“SHUANGJIELILUN”WEIJICHU, GENJUBUTONGDUIXIANG, JIANGYANLUNZIYOUDEXIANZHIFENWEILIANGLEI, YISHIZHENDUIYANLUNNEIRONGDEXIANZHI;ERSHIFEIZHENDUIYANLUNNEIRONGDEXIANZHI。QIANZHEXIANZHIDUIXIANGWEIBIAODAMOUYITEDINGLEIXINGDENEIRONG, YIHUOSHIMOUYITEDINGGUANDIANDEYANLUN。ERHOUZHEXIANZHIDUIXIANGBUZHIJIEZHENDUIYANLUNNEIRONG, ERSHITONGGUODUIYANLUNBIAODADEFANGFAHUOQUDAODEXIANDINGYUGUANKONG, CONGERDADAOXIANZHIMUDE。JULISHUOMING, SOUCHA、JIANYANTEDINGZHENGZHIHUOZONGJIAOGUANDIANDECHUBANWU, JIUSHUYUZHENDUIYANLUNNEIRONGDEXIANZHI, ZHIZAIKONGZHIYANLUNCHUANBODEYINGXIANGLI。ERZHURUBAOZHIDEFAXINGXIANE、JIHUIYOUXINGDESHIJIAN、DIDIANGUANZHIDENGJIUSHUYUFEIZHENDUIYANLUNNEIRONGDEXIANZHI。“LAHEI”SHIFEIZHENDUIYANLUNNEIRONGDEXIANZHI, SHUYUXIANZHIYANLUNBIAODADEFANGFAHUOQUDAO。WUYONGZHIYI, TELANGPU“LAHEI”WANQUANQINFANSIMING“GAOJIAZHIYANLUN”FABIAOZHEDEQUANLI。DUIYUSANMING“DIJIAZHIYANLUN”FABIAOZHELAISHUO, KEYIJINXINGXIANZHI, DANBUSHIYIWEIZHEZONGTONGKEYIYONG“LAHEI”LAIXIANZHI。

                              首先, 从手段的适当性角度来看。针对非内容的言论限制, 也必须契合增进利益之目的, 不可旨在压制言论自由, 且限制措施所致后果亦不得超越追求政府利益。仅凭借公民的一句“低价值言论”, 径自剥夺宪法赋予公民的基本权利, 存在权利与责任的不对等。其次, 从总统的职业伦理角度来看。华盛顿担任总统时, 有好友欲向其谋求一官半职, 被严词拒绝称, 作为华盛顿可以为好友做任何事情, 但是作为总统却无能为力。他阐释了公共管理者在公共管理中应具备的职业伦理。在美国, 总统无疑是公共管理者的典型代表, 承载了更多的公民信托, 所以, 总统不应仅仅符合一般个人之道德水准, 应有更高的职业伦理要求。一是, 总统应切实执行法律。美国总统权力的行使范围与界限应当严格基于美国宪法授权。二是, 作为总统还要规范一言一行, 为社会树立典范。应当明确, 某行为在私人生活领域能够接纳, 转至公共领域, 很可能不被容忍。特朗普顺应时代潮流, 开通推特账号, 运用新媒体介质了解民众诉求, 不失为总统行政手段与方式的革新, 为人称道。可以说, “@realDonaldTrump”实现了总统直接与美国人民交流之可能。然而, 总统“拉黑”与私人“拉黑”是不可等同的。这一违宪行为使得总统名誉受损, 前期努力功亏一篑。不仅因此行为并非法律授权的职务行为, 还与宪法精神要求的总统的职业伦理完全相悖。

                              四、“自觉解禁”还是“判决解禁”?

                              DANGYUANGAOXUNQIU“JINLINGXINGJIUJI”HE“SHENGMINGXINGJIUJI”SHI, ZHUANXIANGLESHIDANGDEJIUJIWENTI。ZAIBENANZUIZHONGPANJUEZHONG, FAGUANDAODIYINGBUYINGGAIMINGQUEYAOQIUZONGTONGLIJIJIECHUPINGBI, CONGERYINFA“ZIJUEJIEJIN”YU“PANJUEJIEJIN”DEZHENGYI。YISHIZHICHIFAYUANJINJIU“LAHEI”XINGWEIXUANBUWEIXIAN, BUXIEMINGZONGTONGHOUXUDEZERENYIWU;ERSHIFAYUANCHUXUANGAOWEIXIAN, HAILELINGZONGTONGBIXUDIYISHIJIANCAIQUXINGDONG, JIECHUPINGBI。SHANGSHULIANGZHONGPANJUEFANGSHIKEYIGAIKUOWEI“ZIJUEJIEJIN”YU“PANJUEJIEJIN”, ZUIZHONGDEXUANZEQIANSHEDAOMEIGUOFENQUANZHIDUYUWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUZHIGENBEN。

                              (一) 纽约联邦法院的选择

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SIFAZHIYUXINGZHENG, MEIGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANTONGGUOYIXILIEPANLIMINGQUESHUDIAN:FENQUANYUANZEBINGBUFANGAIMEIGUOZONGTONGXINGSHIYIQIEGUANXIAQUAN;QUEDINGZONGTONGZAISHIDANGDEQINGKUANGXIAFUCONGSIFACHENGXU;FAYUANZAIXINGSHIGUANXIAQUANZHIQIAN, BIXUPINGHENGXIANFALIYIDEQUANZHONG, YIFANGZHIDUIXINGZHENGBUMENQUANLIHEZHINENGDEQINFAN。LIRU, ZAIMIXIXIBIZHOUSUYUEHANXUNYIAN, ZUIGAOFAYUANZUIZHONGXUANZESHISHIYUEHANXUNDE“JINZHILING”, ERFANGQIZHIXING“XINGZHENGBUMENDEZHIQUAN”PANJUE。ZAIBIANCIZHONG, SITANBOLIJIANCHAZHANGJIANCHIRENWEI“FAYUANDESIFAQUANLIBUNENGQINFANXINGZHENGSHOUNAODEXINGZHENG (ZHIXING) QUAN”。[7] (P481) YIBANSHUOLAI, MEIYOUYIXIANGFAANMINGQUEGUIDING, MEIGUOFAYUANKEYITONGGUOPANJUEYAOQIUZONGTONGZHIXINGZHIWU。RENHEZHURUZHIXINGZHIQUANDEPANJUE, DOUBUNENGZHIDAOZONGTONGYIMOUZHONGFANGSHIZHIXINGFALV, YEBUYAOQIUTAZHIXINGRENHESHIZHIXINGDEZHENGCE。DANZHEIYEBINGBUYIWEIZHEDUIYUZHENGFUXINGWEIWEIXIANPANJUEDEZHIXING, ZHINENGYOUZHENGFUZIYOUCAILIANG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DUIYUTELANGPUYINWEIXIANCHENGDANJIECHUPINGBIDEZEREN, BINGBUSHIYIXIANGZONGTONGBIXUZUNZHAOXIANFAHEQITAFALVXINGSHIDEYIWU。ZAIMEIGUO, ZONGTONGDEXINGWEI, BIXUZUNSHOUZHENGSHIZHIDINGXIANFAHEQITAXIANFAXINGFAGUIDEYAOQIU。SUOYI, FAYUANKENENGMIANLINWUFAYAOQIUTELANGPULIJIJIECHUJINZHIDENANTI。DANSHI, DUIZONGTONGZHULIDaniel ScavinoLAISHUO, FAYUANDEJINLINGRENGRANYOUXIAO, DUIWEIXIANXINGWEIDEJIUZHENGGENGLEISIYUBUZHANGJIZHIZEDELVXING, BIJING, MEIYOUYIGEMEIGUOZHENGFUGUANYUANXIANGYOUWEIXIANXINGWEIDEZIYOUCAILIANGQUAN。TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIA, ZHIJIEDEFALVCHENGXUKEYIZUOYONGYUYIGEJIAODIDEXINGZHENGGUANYUAN。YINCI, ZHENDUIZHENGFUDEWEIXIANXINGWEI, FAYUANKEYIZHIJIESHOUYUJINLINGJIUJI。JIZAIBENANZHONG, FAYUANWANQUANKEYITONGGUODUIScavino“PANJUEJIEJIN”DEFANGSHI, CHANSHENGYUESHUHUOQIANGPOZONGTONGDEFALVXIAOGUO。DANFAYUANRENGRANJUJUEZHEIYANGZUO, NANDAOZHENGRUBEIGAOFANGZAIFATINGBIANCHENG“FAYUANWUQUANXIANGZONGTONGFAHAOSHILING”MA?BINGFEIRUCI, FAGUANRENWEI, DUITELANGPUDE“LAHEI”XINGWEI, YIJINGMEIYOURENHEBIYAO、MEIYOURENHEYIYIZAIYUYI“FALVSHANGDESHENCHA”。LIYOUYOUER:YISHICHUYUYIZHONGLIJIE, ZHANGXIANSIFADUIXINGZHENGDEZUNZHONG。QIANGDIAOFALVSHISHENME, CAISHISIFABUMENDEZERENHEYIWU, ERBUSHIZHIDAOXINGZHENGQUANRUHEXINGSHI。ERSHIYINWEI“ZIJUEJIEJIN”HENDACHENGDUSHANG, KENENGZUYIDADAOTONGYANGMUDE。ZUIGAOFAYUANZHICHU, WOMENYINGGAI“JIADINGZONGTONGHEQITAXINGZHENGRENYUANZIJUELVXINGPANJUEDEKENENGXINGHENDA”“GUANYUANMENJIANGKESHOUSIFADEQUANWEI”, YINWEIMEIYOUYIGEZHENGFUGUANYUANZAIFALVZHISHANG, ERQIESUOYOUZHENGFUGUANYUANDOUYINGMINGBAI, YIDANXUANBULEFALV, JIUBIXUZUNSHOUFALV。[6] (PP72-73) YINCI, NIUYUELIANBANGFAYUANJIADINGZONGTONGHEScavinoHUIJIUZHENGWEIFANXIANFADEFENGSUOXINGWEI, XUANZELE“ZIJUEJIEJIN”。

                              (二) “自觉解禁”的评价与意义

                              DUIYUNIUYUELIANBANGFAYUANDEXUANZE, GEFANGBAOBIANBUYI。NAITEYANJIUSUODEZHIXINGZONGJIANJIAMIER·JIAFEIERDAIBIAOYUANGAOFANGBIAOSHISHIFENMANYI, FAYUANDEXUANZECHONGFENSHUOMINGZAIXINDETONGXINSHEJIAOPINGTAISHANG, FAYUANJINSHENDIJIANGDIYIXIUZHENGANDEHEXINYUANZEYONGYUZHENGFUSHENCHA。ZHEIZHONGPINGJIAYEHUODEGAODUDESHEHUIRENTONG, MINZHONGJUNBIAOSHIBENCICAIJUEJUYOUHUASHIDAIDESHENYUANYINGXIANG, SHENZHIWEIFAYUANRIHOURUHEJIANGDIYIXIUZHENGANYINGYONGYUTEDINGWANGLUOSHEJIAOPINGTAIDIANDINGJICHU。RANER, BAIGONGQUEMEIYOUHUIYINGPINGLUNQINGQIU, SHENZHIMEIGUOSIFABUDAIBIAOZONGTONGFANG, YIJINGFASONGGUANFANGYOUJIANMINGQUECHUANDA, ZUNZHONGDANBURENTONGFAYUANDEPANJUE, BINGZHENGZAIKAOLVCAIQUXIAYIBUXINGDONG。“XIAYIBUXINGDONG”YEJIBEIGAOFANGYOUSHANGSUZHIKENENG。ZHIYUTUITEGONGSI, XIEJUEZHIPING, BINGXUANCHENGQIBINGFEISUSONGZHUTI, YONGYOUBUSHEJIRENHEYIFANGDEDULIDIWEI, DUICAIPANJIEGUOCAIQUMINGXIANHUIBIDETAIDU。

                              YUKEGUANPINGJIA“ZIJUEJIEJIN”, YINGCONGMEIGUOWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUGENBENSHANGLIJIE。YIGEXIANMINGDEDUIBI, JISHI“SHUIMENSHIJIAN”。LIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANZELINGZONGTONGBIXUJIAOCHULUYINDAI, QIEZAIPANJUEZHONGCHANMING“WULUNZAIRENHEQINGKUANGXIA, ZONGTONGDOUBUDEXIANGYOUJUEDUIDE、BUSHOUXIANZHIDEXINGZHENGTEQUAN。”[8] (P335) “SHUIMENSHIJIAN”DEPANJUEJUYOUQIANGZHIZHIXINGNEIRONG, QIELIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANYUNYONGHEXIANXINGJIESHIFANGFA, DUIXIANFASHANGDEZONGTONGTEQUANJINXINGXIANDING, HUAJIELEZONGTONGQUANLIYUGUOHUIQUANLIXIANGHUZHENGDUODEGANGAJUMIAN, JIDACHENGDUSHANGRUOHUALEZHANGQICUNZAIDE“QIANGZONGTONG”QUSHI, TISHENGSIFAQUANWEI。ERBENANPANJUEBUCUNZAIRENHEQIANGZHIXINGDEZHIXINGNEIRONG, DUIZONGTONGSHIFOUXUYAOCAIQUJIEJINCUOSHIWEIZHIKEFOU, SIHUWEIBEISHENCHAZHIDUDESHEZHIMUDEYUSIFACHUANTONG。RUJINDE“ZIJUEJIEJIN”, BUMIANRANGRENXIXU, ZHEISHILISHIDEDAOTUIMA?QIAQIAXIANGFAN, NIUYUELIANBANGFAYUANDEXUANZESHIJISHANGCHONGFENBIAOMINGSIFAQUANDUIXINGZHENGQUANDEZUNZHONGTAIDU, JIUZONGTONGWEIXIANZUOCHUDINGXING, ZHIMAICHULEQIGAIYOUDENEIYIBU。LIANBANGFAGUANRENWEIZHENDUIGAISHIJIAN, WUXUZAIFALVCENGMIANSHANGCAIQUTESHUDEBUJIUCUOSHI。ZAIMEIGUOZHIDUKUANGJIAXIA, RANGSIFAZHIHUIZONGTONGRUHEDUIDAIWEIXIANPANJUE, XIAYIBURUHEXINGDONG, SHIWEIHUANGMIU。KEJIAN, SIFAZHIYUXINGZHENG, BUZAIYIWEIQIANGDIAOSHUQINGSHUZHONG。JIEXIALAIRUHEZUO, ZONGTONGSIHUYOUTAIDUOXUANZEYUDI, KEYIZHIZHIBULI, KEYILIJIJIEJIN, YIKESHANGSU。DANZUIZHENGQUEDEXUANZERENRENJIEZHI, ZHEIYEHAOSIFAYUANQIPANZONGTONGKEYI“ZHICUOJIUGAI”, JIJIZHUDONGZUOWEI, ERFEIYIWEIXIAOJIBEIDONG, SHOUZHIYUSIFA。SHISHISHANG, TELANGPUDETUITEYIJINGJIECHULEDUIQIWEIYUANGAODEFENGSUO, SIFABUDUICIYEYUYIZHENGSHI。KEJIAN, XINMEITISHIDAIDELAILIN, SHIDEMEIGUOSIFAQUANYUXINGZHENGQUANDEZHIYUEYUPINGHENGYEFASHENGLEBIANHUA。MEIGUODEWEIXIANSHENCHA, BEIWEIYIZHONGREN, QISHELIYOUZHEDUTEBEIJING。MINZHONGDUIFENQUANZHIDUJIYUHOUWANG, QIPANTAWANMEIDICHONGRENMEIGUOXIANFASHOUHUSHENZHIJIAOSE, JIMEIGUODEZHENGZHISHENGHUODAILAIYIPAIANNINGYUPINGHE。TUOKEWEIERJINGCAIMIAOSHU:“MEIYOUYIGEGUOJIACHUANGZHIGUOXIANGMEIGUONEIYANGDEQIANGDADESIFAQUAN, TADEZHIQUANFANWEI、TADEZHENGZHIYINGXIANG、LIANBANGDEANDINGYUSHENGCUNBENSHENQUJUEYUQIWEILIANBANGFAGUANDECAIZHI。”[9] (P168) RANER, MIANDUIJISHUDEGEXIN、XINMEITIDECHONGJI, QUANLITIXIRUHEJIAGOU, “SANQUANFENLI”DEJIEXIANYUHUAFENBIAOZHUNSHIFOUZHONGXINKAOLIANGDENG, YETOUGUO“LAHEI”ANJIANYINFALEWOMENZHUDUOSIKAO。

                              五、一点启示

                              MEIGUOZONGTONGTELANGPU“LAHEI”WEIXIANYIAN, CHONGFENZHANSHIZAIHUDONGXINGSHEJIAOPINGTAIJISHUSHENGXINGDEDANGXIA, LIJIEHEBAOZHANGGONGMINYANLUNZIYOU, YIJIANLIZHENGFUYUGONGZHONGDEXINXINGDUIHUAGUANXIZHEIYISHIDAIMINGTI。DUIWOGUOZAITUIDONGZHENGWUXINMEITIJIANSHEGUOCHENGZHONG, ZENGQIANGZHENGWUWEIBOYUGONGMINYANLUNZIYOUDEHUDONGXING, TISHENGZHENGWUWEIBOYANLUNGUIZHIDEFAZHIHUAJUYOUJIJIDEQIFAYIYI。

                              (一) 建设以互动为核心职能的政务微博

                              WEIBOQIYUANYUTUITE, ZAIWOGUOXINGQIBINGFAZHANWEIDANGQIANZUIHUOREDEMEITIJIEZHIZHIYI。XIANGJIAOYUMEIGUOBUTONGZHENGZHITIZHIYUTURANGHUANJING, WOGUOXIANSHAOZHENGZHIGONGZHONGRENWUDEGERENWEIBOZHANGHU, GENGDUODEBIAOXIANXINGSHIWEIZHENGWUWEIBO。WOGUOZHENGWUWEIBODEJIANSHERUHUORUTU, QIZHONGZHIYIYUBENANMINGXIANXIANGGUAN, JIFAHUIZHENGWUWEIBODEHEXINHUDONGZHINENG。“LAHEI”SHITELANGPUDUITUITEYONGHUSUOXIANGYOUDEHUDONGXINGZHIWANQUANQINFAN, TONGYANG, JIAQIANGZHENGFUYUGONGMINZHIJIANDEHUDONGXINGZHENGSHIZHENGWUWEIBOCUNZAIDEJIAZHI。WOGUOXIANFADI35TIAOGUIDING:“ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGONGMINYOUYANLUN、CHUBAN、JIHUI、JIESHE、YOUXING、SHIWEIDEZIYOU。”ZHEISHIWOGUOWEIBOGONGMINYANLUNZIYOUQUANBAOZHANGYESHIZENGQIANGZHENGWUWEIBOHUDONGGONGNENGDEXIANFAYIJU。

                              ZHENGWUWEIBODEYUNYINGZHONG, SUNHAIHUDONGXINGDEXIANXIANGSHIFENYANZHONG, ZHUYAOYOUER:SHOUXIAN, SHIJIANZHONG, ZHUDUOBUSHIDE“GUANFANGCHENGQING”“QUANWEIGONGBU”DEWEIBOFASHENG, XUERUOLEZHENGWUWEIBOBENSHENDEGUANFANGQUANWEIXING, JIUERJIUZHI, HAIDAOZHIGONGZHONGDUIZHENGFUCHANSHENGSHIWANGQINGXU。YUZONGTONGZHANGHAODESHUANGZHONGLINGYUSHUXINGBUTONG, ZHENGWUWEIBOSHIWANQUANDAIBIAOWOGUOZHENGFUBUMENDE, QIRICHANGYUNXINGYUGUANLIDEBUMENJIRENYUANBINGBUJUYOUDULIRENGEHESIXIANGBIAODA, LIYINGFANYINGGONGQUANLIXINGSHIGUOCHENGZHONGSUOCHANSHENGDEGEZHONGQUANLIYIWUGUANXI。SUISHUOGAIZHONGBUFUZEDEXIANXIANGKENENGYUANZIGEBIELINGDAO、GUANYUANDEBULIANGZUOFENG, DANTANGRUOBUYANCHENGBUSHI“GUANFANGHUIYING”“GUANFANGSHUOMING”, BIANWUFASHIGONGZHONGLEJIEZHENXIANG、XIANGXINZHENGFU。QICI, WOGUOCUNZAIBUFENZHENGWUWEIBOZHIXIABUNENGPINGLUN、WUFAZHUANFADEXIANXIANG。ZHEISHIWEIBOGUANLIZHEZHUGUANGUYIDECHENGXUSHEZHI, HAISHIWEIBOPINGTAIXIANZHIYONGYUDEYAOQIU, YINFASHENSI。WULUNHEZHONGYUANYIN, GAIXIANXIANGDOUSHIYOUWEIZHENGWUWEIBOSHELIMUDEYUYIYIDE。XINXIGONGKAICAIYOUYANLUNZIYOUDEJICHU, BUNENGWEIGONGKAIERGONGKAI, JIESHOUZHENGFANGLIANGFANGMIANDESHENGYIN, HUIFUHUDONGCAISHIZHENGWUWEIBODEZUIDAZHINENGSUOZAI。

                              (二) 政务微博言论规制的法治化

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YUSIRENYONGHUWEIBODEZHANGHAOSHIYONGBUTONG, ZHENGWUWEIBOYUXIANFAYANLUNZIYOUDEBAOZHANGGUANXIMIQIE。ZHENGWUWEIBOJIANGGONGMINFABIAOYANLUNDEZIYOUCHENGDUTUIDAOJIZHI, WUYIDUIXIANFABAOZHANGDEYANLUNZIYOUQUANLIZHIXINGSHI、GONGGONGZHENGCEZHISHISHIDAYOUBIYI, TUOZHANLEGONGMINCANYU, QIANGHUALEGONGMINJIANDU。DANSHI, ZHENGRUXIANFADI51TIAOSUOGUIDINGDE, “ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGONGMINZAIXINGSHIZIYOUHEQUANLIDESHIHOU, BUDESUNHAIGUOJIADE、SHEHUIDE、JITIDELIYIHEQITAGONGMINDEHEFADEZIYOUHEQUANLI”。RENHEQUANLIBAOKUOWEIBOYANLUNZIYOUDEXINGSHIYEBUSHIJUEDUIDE, QICUNZAIXIANFAJIEXIAN。JIYUZHENGWUWEIBODUYOUDEZHENGSHIXINGYUQUANWEIXING, YIDANGONGMINYANLUNZIYOUQUANXINGSHIBUDANG, HENKENENGDAOZHIRAOLUANSHEHUI、JINGJIZHIXUDEWEIFAHOUGUO, SHENZHISHIXINGSHIFANZUI。YINCI, YIZHENGWUWEIBOWEIMEIJIE, GONGMINYANLUNZIYOUQUANDEXINGSHIBIXUZAIFALVKUANGJIAZHINEIZHANKAI。ZONGSHANG, JIAQIANGDUIZHENGWUWEIBOYANLUNZIYOUDEBAOZHANGYUGUIFANSHI“HULIANWANG+”FAZHANDEBIRANYAOQIU, SHIWANQUANFUHEWOGUOFAZHANXIANZHUANGJIZHEIYIJIEDUANDEJIBENGUOQINGDE。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1994NIANYILAI, WOGUOYIXIANGJICHUTAILEXIANGDANGYIPIGUANSHEHULIANWANGDEFALVFAGUI, RU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOWANGLUOANQUANFA》《HULIANWANGXINXIFUWUGUANLIBANFA》《HULIANWANGWENHUAGUANLIZANXINGGUIDING》DENG。CIWAI, ZUIGAORENMINFAYUAN、ZUIGAORENMINJIANCHAYUANCHUTAIDE《GUANYUBANLILIYONGXINXIWANGLUOSHISHIFEIBANGDENGXINGSHIANJIANDESIFAJIESHI》GUIDING, LIYONGXINXIWANGLUOFEIBANGTAREN, TONGYIFEIBANGXINXISHIJIBEIDIANJI、LIULANCISHUDADAO5000CIYISHANG, HUOZHEBEIZHUANFACISHUDADAO500CIYISHANGDEKEGOUCHENGFEIBANGZUI。KEYISHUO, WOGUOMUQIANCHUBUQUELILEWANGLUOYANLUNDEFALVGUIZHITIXI, DANSHIJIYOULIFAZHENGTIWEIJIEJIAODI, NEIRONGXIANGDUICHOUXIANGCAOZUOXINGBUQIANG。TEBIESHI, ZHEIXIESHANGSHUYUZHENDUIHULIANWANGYANLUNDEYIBANGUIFAN, DUIYUZHENGWUWEIBOYANLUNDEZHUANMENGUIFANSHANGWEIKONGBAI。

                              BIXUMINGQUEDESHI, ZHENGWUWEIBOYUSIRENYONGHUWEIBODEGUIZHIYINGYOUSUOBUTONG, ZAIPEIYULIANGHAOWANGLUOLUNLIDEJICHUSHANG, FALVDUIYANLUNDEXIANZHIBUYITAIYAN, YINGGAIBINGCHIYIXIALICHANG:DIYI, DUIYUZHENGFUDEGONGGONGSHIWUYUNXUZIYOUPINGJIA, YONGXIJINPINGTONGZHIDEHUAJIANGJIUSHI“YAORONGDEXIAJIANRUIPIPING”。BIRU, GONGMINTONGGUOZHENGWUWEIBOJIANJU、JIEFAZHENGFUHUOZHEGONGZHIRENYUANWEIFAWEIJI, JISHIJIANJU、JIEFADEBUFENNEIRONGSHISHI, ZHIYAOBUSHIGUYINIEZAOSHISHIFEIBANGDE, JIUBUYINGZHUIJIUFALVZEREN。DIER, ZHENGWUWEIBOYINGFAHUIZHULIUDAOXIANGZUOYONG, YINLINGBIAOZHUNDEJIANLI。RUZHENDUIZHENGWUWEIBOYULUNBUSHI、LANYONGYANLUNZIYOUDENGXIANXIANG, JIANYIQUFENSHOUDUANDEYANZHONGXING、QINGJIEDEELIEXING, JIEHEWEIBOZISHENSHUXING, RUYUEDULIANG、ZHUANFALIANGDENG, LIANGHUACHENGJUTIDE、KEDUIYINGDE、DENGJIZHIDEBIAOZHUN。RUSHI, GOUJIANDEXINGYEBIAOZHUNYIFANGMIANGENGJUBEIKECAOZUOXING, LINGYIFANGMIANKEYIMIBUXIANXINGFALVLOUDONG、TIANBUFALVKONGBAI, GENGHAODIGUIZHIGONGMINZAIZHENGWUWEIBOSHANGXINGSHIYANLUNZIYOUQUAN。

                              参考文献:

                              [1][德]尤根·哈贝马斯.公共领域的结构转型[M].曹卫东等译.上海:学林出版社, 1999.
                              [2]许加彪.美国知情权和新闻业的关系[J].当代传播, 2011 (5) .
                              [3][美]T·巴特·卡特等.大众传播法概要[M].黄列译.北京:中国社会科学出版社, 1997.
                              [4]周汉华.美国政府信息公开制度[J].环球法律评论, 2002 (3) .
                              [5][美]唐纳德·M·吉尔摩等.美国大众传播法:判例评析 (第六版) [M].梁宁等译.北京:清华大学出版社, 2002.
                              [6]Case 1:17-cv-05205-NRB Document 72 Filed 05/23/18.
                              [7]John William Wallace, United States Reports, Supreme Courts vol.71 Cases Argued and Adjudged in The Supreme Court of The United States.December Term.
                              [8][美]尼克松.尼克松回忆录 (中册) [M].裘克安译.北京:商务印书馆, 1979.
                            星云棋牌官网下载   [9][法]托克维尔.论美国的民主 (上卷) [M].董果良译.北京:商务印书馆, 1988.

                              注释:

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1 BENANDEXIANGGUANXINXI, XIAWENRUWUTEBIESHUOMING, JUNCHUZIMEIGUOCAIJINGWANGZHAN, , ZUIHOUFANGWENRIQI:2018NIAN8YUE30RI。

                              周汇慧.特朗普推特“拉黑”事件的宪法思考[J].中共杭州市委党校学报,2018(06):65-71.
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