星云棋牌官网下载

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                              学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 宪法论文

                              生态文明的宪法规范体系与保障

                              时间:2017-12-13 来源:当代法学 作者:张震 本文字数:13264字

                                摘    要: 生态相对于环境等概念, 是一个更高层级的概念体系。生态文明写入宪法, 兼具法律体系外部和内部的双重意义, 在我国宪法文本中形成了生态环境保护较为完整的包括显性规范和隐性规范在内的规范体系。生态文明入宪的体系性功能包括层进的三个方面, 即生态观的宪法表达, 生态制度的宪法安排以及生态权利的宪法保障。这将观念变革与制度建构相结合, 将人的美好生活诉求与对生态的基本尊重相结合, 以满足人、国家与生态三者的最大利益为目标。从而实现宪法在生态领域对于国家发展与公民需求之间规范的系统保障功能。

                                关键词: 生态文明; 入宪; 生态观; 生态制度; 生态权利;

                              生态文明的宪法规范体系与保障

                                20SHIJI60NIANDAIYILAI, SUIZHEGONGYEHUAJINCHENGDEJIAKUAI, HUANJINGWURANYIJINGYOUQUYUXINGWENTIZHUJIANFAZHANCHENGWEIQUANQIUXINGWENTI。WOGUOZAIGAIGEKAIFANGYIHOU, JINGJIQUDELETUFEIMENGJINDEFAZHAN, DANYOUYUYIDUANSHIJIANNEIMEIYOUCHULIHAOJINGJIFAZHANYUHUANJINGBAOHUDEGUANXI, HUANJINGWURANYUJIAYANZHONG。JINNIANLAI, DANGHEZHENGFUGAODUZHONGSHIHUANJINGBAOHU。DANGDESHIQIDABAOGAOTICHULESHIXIANQUANMIANJIANSHEXIAOKANGSHEHUIFENDOUMUBIAODEXINYAOQIU, QIZHONGSHOUCITICHULESHENGTAIWENMINGZHEIYIGAINIAN。DANGDESHIBADABAOGAOTICHULEWUWEIYITIJIANSHE, QIZHONGSHOUCITICHUSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE, BINGJIANGQIZHIYUYUJINGJIJIANSHEXIANGDENGDEGAODU。DANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOSHOUCITICHUJIANSHESHENGTAIWENMINGSHIZHONGHUAMINZUYONGXUFAZHANDEQIANNIANDAJI, QIANGDIAOSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEGONGZAIDANGDAI, LIZAIQIANQIU, BINGQIANGDIAOYAO“JIAKUAISHENGTAIWENMINGTIZHIGAIGE, JIANSHEMEILIZHONGGUO”。SHIJIUJIEERZHONGQUANHUIGONGBAOZAICIQIANGDIAOLELVSEFAZHANLINIANYUSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEZHONGYAOXING。2018NIAN3YUE, JI2004NIANXIUXIANZHIHOU, 1982NIANXIANFAZAICIXIUGAI, SHENGTAIWENMINGZHENGSHIXIERUXIANFA, SHISHENGTAIWENMINGZHEIYIGAINIANCONGZHENGZHIGAINIANYUESHENGWEIFALVGAINIAN, CHENGWEIXIANFASHANGDEJIBENLINIAN, BINGDUIJIYOUDEXIANFAYUANLI、GONGQUANLIYUNYONGHEXIANFASHISHICHANSHENGSHENYUANYINGXIANG。[1]

                                一、生态文明的宪法意义

                                SHENGTAIXIANGDUIYUHUANJINGGAINIAN, SHIYIGEGENGGAOCENGJIDEGAINIANTIXI, GENGJIAFUYOUZONGHEXINGDENEIHAN, QIANGDIAODUOZHONGHUANJINGYAOSUDEHEXIEGONGSHENG, JIGUANZHUGEHUANJINGYAOSUZHIJIANDEXIEDIAOXING, YEZHONGSHIHUANJINGYAOSUYUQITAYAOSUZHIJIANDEGUANXI。SUOWEISHENGTAIWENMING, SHIZHIRENLEIDUIBAOKUOGONGYEWENMINGZAINEIDECHUANTONGWENMINGXINGTAIJINXINGXITONGFANSIDECHENGGUO, SHIRENLEIWENMINGDEJIBENLINIAN、FAZHANDAOLUHEFAZHANMOSHIDEZHONGDATISHENG, SHIRENLEIWENMINGDEYIZHONGQUANXINDEXINGTAI;YESHIZHIRENLEIZUNXUNREN、ZIRAN、SHEHUIHEXIEFAZHANZHEIYIKEGUANGUILVERQUDEDEWUZHIYUJINGSHENDENGFANGMIANCHENGGUODEZONGHE。SHENGTAIWENMINGQIANGDIAORENMIANDUISHENGTAIDEZIJUEYUZILV, QIANGDIAORENYUZIRANHUANJINGDEXIANGHUYICUN、XIANGHUCUJIN、GONGCHUGONGRONG, JIZHUIQIURENYUSHENGTAIDEHEXIE, YEZHUIQIURENYURENDEHEXIE, ERQIERENYURENDEHEXIESHIRENYUZIRANHEXIEDEQIANTI。SHENGTAIWENMINGZHISHAOBAOHANSANGECENGMIAN, JISHENGTAIYISHIWENMING、SHENGTAIZHIDUWENMING、SHENGTAIXINGWEIWENMING。[2]SHENGTAIWENMINGXIERUXIANFA, JIJUYOUYIBANYIYI, YEJUYOUTEDINGDEXIANFAYIYI。GUOJIAQUANLIHEGONGMINQUANLISHIXIANFAZUIZHUYAODENEIRONG, LIANGZHEDEGUANXISHIXIANFADEJIBENMAODUN。YINCI, QUANSHISHENGTAIWENMINGDEXIANFAHANYIYEYINGDANGWEIRAOGUOJIAYUGONGMINJIQILIANGZHEGUANXIZHANKAI。SHOUXIAN, XIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIWENMINGSHIDUIRENDEZUNYANDEZHANGXIANYUBAOZHANG。BUGUANSHIJIYUYIBANXIANFAYUANLI, HAISHIWOGUOXIANFADI1TIAODEGUIDING, JUNMINGQUELERENMINJIANLIGUOJIADEZHENGZHISHISHI。RENSHIXIANFADEDIYIYAOSU, RENDEZUNYANSHIXIANDAIXIANFADEHEXINJIAZHI。[3]SHISHISHANG, RENDEZUNYANSHIYIGENEIHANFENGFUERQIEBUDUANFAZHANDEJIAZHITIXIYUGUIFANTIXI, ZAIDANGDAISHEHUI, RENDEZUNYANDESHIXIANXUYAOLIANGHAOHUANJINGDEZHICHENG。[4]ZHENGRUSHIJIUDABAOGAOZHICHUDE, HUANJINGSHUYURENMINRIYIZENGZHANGDEMEIHAOSHENGHUODEZHUYAOGOUCHENGYAOSUHEJUTIBIAOXIANZHIYI。QICI, XIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIWENMINGSHIDUIGUOJIAFAZHANMUBIAODEMIAOSHUYUTISHENG。GUOJIASHIXIANFADIAOZHENGDEZUIZHUYAODUIXIANG, XIANFAWEIHURENDEZUNYAN、BAOZHANGRENQUANDEJIBENGONGNENG, ZHUYAOTONGGUOGUIFANGUOJIAXINGWEILAISHIXIAN。YUTAGUOXIANFAYIYANG, WOGUOXIANFAYEGUIHUALEGUOJIAFAZHANDEMUBIAOYULANTU, JIJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO。ZAIDANGXIA, SHENGTAIHUANJINGBEIRENWEISHIJIANCHENGXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO, SHIXIANGUOJIAYONGXUFAZHANDEJIBENTIAOJIANHEBIAOZHIZHIYI, ZHENGSUOWEILVSHUIQINGSHANJIUSHIJINSHANYINSHAN。ZONGZHI, XIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIWENMINGJIANGRENYUGUOJIAJINMILIANXIZAIYIQI, TONGGUOGUOJIAKECHIXUXINGFAZHANYUJIANSHE, CUJINRENMINDUIMEIHAOHUANJINGSHENGHUODEZHUIQIU;JIBAOZHANGRENDEXUQIU, YEGUIFANRENDEXINGWEI, JIZHUZHONGGUIFANGUOJIA, YEQIANGDIAOJIANSHEGUOJIA, TONGGUODIAOHEJINGJIFAZHANYUHUANJINGBAOHUDELINIAN, SHIXIANYUBAOZHANGRENMINMEIHAOSHENGHUODEMUBIAO。SHENGTAIWENMINGXIERUXIANFADETESHUYIYITIXIANZAIYIXIAFANGMIAN:

                                DIYI, FALVTIXIWAIBUDEYIYI。FALVGUIFANBUJINJINJUYOULUOJIJIEGOU, YEJUYOUJINGYANJIEGOU。[5]XIANFAJISHIGENBENFALVGUIFAN, JUYOUDUISUOYOUDEFALVGUIFANDEYIJUYUGUIZHIGONGNENG, YEJUYOUZHENGZHIZHENGHE、QUERENYUQUANSHIDEGONGNENG。DANGGUOJIAJIYUDUIJINGJISHEHUIDEZHILIDEZONGHEJINGYAN, ZUOCHUYIDINGDEZHENGZHIJUEDUANZHIHOU, ZUIZHONGSHANGSHENGWEIXIANFAGUIFAN, ZHEIJIHUSHISHIJIEGEGUOXIANFAFAZHANDEPUBIANGUILV。DANXIANFADUIGUIFANZHIWAIDEZHENGZHITIZHI, BUJINJINSHIHUIYING, GENGHUIYINDAOHEGUIZHIZHENGZHITIZHIDEGONGNENGSHIXIAN。XIANXINGXIANFAXUYANHEDI1TIAOQUEDINGLEWOGUOXIANFATEYOUDEZHENGZHITIZHI。JIZAIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDELINGDAOZHIXIA, RENMINJIANLILEZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUO, JIANCHIDANGDELINGDAOSHIWOGUOXIANFASUOQUELIDEZHENGZHITIZHIDEHEXIN。[6]XIANXINGXIANFAJIANGDANGDELINGDAO、RENMINZHUQUANHEGUOJIAJIANSHEYUYILEGUIFANSHANGDETONGYIYUZHENGHE, ZAIDANGDELINGDAOZHIXIA, XIANFADEZHIDING、XIUGAIYUZHIDUANPAIJUNTIXIANWOGUOXIANFADEGUIFANYAOQIU。SHENGTAIWENMINGDEGAINIAN, XIANSHIGUIDINGZAIDANGDEWENJIANYUJUEDINGDANGZHONG, DANGDUIQIRENSHIBUDUANTISHENGBINGRIYICHENGSHUSHI, XIERUXIANFASHIWOGUOZHENGZHITIZHIDEZIRANFANYING, TIXIANLEDANG、RENMINYUGUOJIADUIYUSHENGTAIWENMINGRENSHIDEGAODUTONGYI, YEYOULIYUJIAKUAISHENGTAIWENMINGTIZHIGAIGE, JIANSHEMEILIZHONGGUO。JUTIERYAN, YISHIJIANGDUIGUOJIADEFAZHANLINIAN, FAZHANFANGSHIYIJIFAZHANMUBIAOCHANSHENGSHENKEDEYINGXIANG, MOUZHONGYIYISHANGJIANG, SHENGTAIHUANJINGTIGONGGUOJIAFAZHANDEZIYUANBINGFU, YEJUEDINGLEGUOJIAKECHIXUFAZHANDENENGLIYUKENENGXING。ERSHIJIANGDUIRENDEGUANNIAN、XINGWEIFANGSHIDENGCHANSHENGSHENYUANDEYINGXIANG。DANGRENDEYISHIYUGUANNIANZHONGXINGCHENGSHENGTAIDEGAINIAN, HUIZIJUEDIAOSHIRENYUSHENGTAIDEGUANXI, YEHUIGUIFANZIJIDEXINGWEIBINGJINLIANGHEHUSHENGTAIDEJIBENYAOQIU。

                                DIER, FALVTIXINEIBUDEYIYI。SHENGTAIWENMINGXIERUXIANFA, TIXIANLEXIANFAGENBENFADESHUXING, YEJIANGJINYIBUDUIXIANFABENSHENCHANSHENGZHONGDAYINGXIANG。SHOUXIAN, ZHONGGUODEXIANFAGUANTIXIZHONGJIARULESHENGTAIGUAN, ZHEISHIXIANFADUIGUOJIAGENBENWENTI、GENBENZHIDUFAZHANBIANGEDEJIJIHUIYING, YESHIXIANFAGUIFANZIWOFAZHANYUWANSHANDEZHONGYAOBUZHOU;QICI, WUDAGUOJIAJIBENZHIDUTIXIDEDAOQUELI, “WUWEIYITI”XIEDIAOFAZHANDEXIANFAZHICHENGJIAGOUWANCHENG;ZAICI, SHENGTAIQUANLIDEQUANLIZHUTIDEDAOLEQUEREN, QUANLIYUYIWUDEDAOTONGYI, WEIHOUXUSHENGTAIQUANLIDEJUTIHUA、BUMENFAHUATIGONGLEXIANFAYIJU;ZUIHOU, SHENGTAIZHIDU、SHENGTAIQUANLIJIANGWEIXIANFASHISHIDAILAIGENGJIAFENGFUDENEIRONG, YECHONGSHILEXIANFASHISHIDESHENGMINGLI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SHENGTAIWENMINGXIERUXIANFA, SHIQICHENGXIANCHUGUOJIAGENBENWENTIHEGENBENZHIDUSHANGDESHUXING, YIXIANFAWEIYIJU, SHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEFAZHIHUANENGGOUFENCENGYOUXIAOTUIXING。SHENGTAIWENMINGCHENGWEIXIANFAGUIFAN, HUIDUIFALVTIXIDEGAINIANYIJINEIRONGCHANSHENGSHENKEYINGXIANG。JIUHUANJINGZIYUANFAXUEERYAN, QIXUEKEMINGCHENGHEYANJIUFANCHOUJUNBAOKUOHUANJINGFAHEZIRANZIYUANFALIANGGEBUFEN, HUANJINGFAQIANGDIAODUIHUANJINGDEBAOHU, ZIRANZIYUANFAQIANGDIAOHUANJINGYAOSUBENSHEN, LIANGZHEDEBUTONGYUFENQI, MOUZHONGYIYISHANGYEDAILAILEHUANJINGZIYUANFAXUEZAIWENTIYANJIUYUXUEKEFAZHANSHANGDEZHUDUOKUNJING, ERJIYUXIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIJISHENGTAIWENMINGGAINIAN, SHENGTAIFADETIFAKEYIJIANGLIANGZHEYITONGWEISHENGTAIFAQUANYIBAOZHANGJICHUDEXINGSHIRONGRUSHENGTAIZHENGTIYUJINGXIADESHENGTAIFATIXI, ZAICIYIYISHANG, BAOCHILIANGFADULIXINGBINGJIANGQILINIANYUGONGNENGTONGYIYUSHENGTAIFAZHIXIA, YICUCHENGQIZHIDUYUJIAZHIDEYOUJIRONGHE, KECHENGWEITUIJINWOGUOSHENGTAIWENMINGDINGCENGLIFABUJUYUYUZHISHENGTAIFADIANTIXIJICHUDELIXIANGXUANZE。[7]

                                二、生态文明的宪法规范体系

                                CONGWOGUOXIANFAWENBENZHONGGUANYUSHENGTAIWENMINGYUHUANJINGBAOHUDEGUIFANTIXILAIKAN, SHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIANJINYIBUBUQILEZHEIYIGUIFANTIXI, SHIZHIGENGQUWANZHENGHETIXIHUA。DANGRAN, YOUBIYAOTONGHEYUNYONGGUIFANXIANFAXUEHEXIANFAJIESHIXUEDEFANGFAJINXINGQUANSHI。ZAIBIZHEKANLAI, BAOKUOLIANGTIAOXIANSUO, JIXIANXINGXIANFAGUIFANHEYINXINGXIANFAGUIFAN。SUOWEISHENGTAIWENMINGDEXIANXINGXIANFAGUIFAN, SHIZHIZHIJIEYUSHENGTAIWENMINGDEGAINIANGUANLIAN, ZHIJIETIXIANSHENGTAIWENMINGNEIHANYUYAOQIUDENEIRONG。SUOWEIYINXINGXIANFAGUIFAN, SHIZHIXIANXINGXIANFABINGWUMINGQUEGUIDING, DANSHITONGGUOXIANXINGGUIFANKEYIQUANSHICHULAIDEYOULIYUSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEXIANGGUANGUIFAN。

                                (一) 显性规范

                                1. 宪法序言中的“新发展理念”、“生态文明”与“美丽”

                                CONGXIANFAWENBENSHANGLAIKAN, “XINFAZHANLINIAN”SHIGUOJIAJIXUTUIJINSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAGUOCHENGZHONGSUOYAOZUNXUNDEFAZHANGUIFAN, FAZHANGUIFANDEMUDEZAIYUTUIDONGBAOKUOSHENGTAIWENMINGZAINEIDE“WUGEWENMING”DEFAZHAN, ERQIANLIANGZHEZHIJIEZUIZHONGMUBIAODOUZAIYUJIANSHE“MEILI”DESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO。XIANFAXUYANZHONGDE“XINFAZHANLINIAN”BAOKUO“CHUANGXIN、XIEDIAO、LVSE、KAIFANG、GONGXIANG”。ZUOWEIXINDEGUOJIAFAZHANLINIANZHIYI, WEIGUOJIAYONGXUFAZHANTIGONGZHIYIN, QIZHONG“LVSE”JIQIANGDIAOFAZHANYOUZHONGSHISHENGTAI, XIEDIAOTONGHEJINGJIFAZHANYUHUANJINGBAOHU, YIWEIZHEXIANFADUIJIANGUHUANJINGBAOHUYUJINGJIFAZHANLINIANDEQUERENBINGJIANGJINXINGXIANGGUANDEZHIDUANPAI。

                                XIANFAXUYANZHONGQIANGDIAOSHENGTAIJIANSHEYUJINGJI、ZHENGZHI、WENHUA、SHEHUIJIANSHETONGDENGZHONGYAO, WUZHEGOUCHENGYIGETONGCHOUFAZHANYUJIANSHEDEZHENGTI。GUOJIASHISHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEQUANLIZHUTI, GONGMINSHISHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEQUANLIYUYIWUZHUTI。SHENGTAIWENMINGSHIYIGEHANGAIDUOFANGMIANNEIRONGDEZHIDUTIXI, SHENGTAIWENMINGTIZHIGAIGESHIDANGXIASHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEZHONGDIANNEIRONG。DANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOZHICHU, “DAOBENSHIJIZHONGYE, …BAWOGUOJIANCHENG…SHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO。DAONEISHI, WOGUOWUZHIWENMING、ZHENGZHIWENMING、JINGSHENWENMING、SHEHUIWENMING、SHENGTAIWENMINGJIANGQUANMIANTISHENG”, WEICI, XIANXINGXIANFAYU2018NIANZUOCHUXIUGAI, GUIDING“TUIDONGWUZHIWENMING、ZHENGZHIWENMINGHEJINGSHENWENMING、SHEHUIWENMING、SHENGTAIWENMINGXIEDIAOFAZHAN”, ZHEIJIANGZHIXIANGJUYOUSHENGTAIYIYIDEXIANFALINIAN、ZHIDUANPAIYUXINGWEIMOSHIDEBIANGE。

                                2018NIANXIANFAXIUGAIHOU, DUIYUGUOJIAFAZHANMUBIAODEMIAOSHUYOU2004NIANGUIDINGDE“BAWOGUOJIANSHECHENGWEIFUQIANG、MINZHU、WENMINGDESHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA”DIAOZHENGWEI“BAWOGUOJIANSHECHENGWEIFUQIANGMINZHUWENMINGHEXIEMEILIDESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO, SHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXING。”CICHUXIUGAI, WENZISHANGDEBIANHUAZHUYAOYOUSANCHU, JI“XIANDAIHUA”[8]、“QIANGGUO”YIJI“ZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXING”。CONGLUOJISHANGKAN, SHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXINGXUYAOJIANCHENGSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUO, ERSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAQIANGGUODEZHUYAOBIAOZHIBIANSHI“MEILI”。YINCIBIXUZHANZAIZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXING, YONGXUFAZHAN, GUOJIAZHILIXIANDAIHUA, JIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIQIANGGUODEGAODURENSHI“MEILI”YIJI“SHENGTAIWENMING”DESHENKEXIANFAJIAZHIYUNEIHAN。

                                2. 宪法第9条和第26条中的环境与资源条款

                              星云棋牌官网下载   GAILIANGTIAOSHUYUSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEZHIDUXINGTIAOKUAN。ZHUYAOBAOKUOSANGEFANGMIANDENEIRONG。QIYI, SHENGTAIFANCHOUDEXIANFAJIEDING。ZHUYAOBAOKUOYIXIANEIRONG: (1) ZIRANZIYUAN。SUOWEIZIRANZIYUANSHIZHIRENLEIKEYIZHIJIEHUODEBINGYONGYUSHENGCHANHESHENGHUODETIANRANCUNZAIDEZIRANWU。RUTUDIZIYUAN、QIHOUZIYUAN、SHUIZIYUAN、SHENGWUZIYUAN、KUANGWUZIYUANDENG。[9] (2) SHENGHUOHUANJING。SUOWEISHENGHUOHUANJINGSHIZHIYURENLEISHENGHUOMIQIEXIANGGUANDEGEZHONGTIANRANDEHEJINGGUORENGONGGAIZAOGUODEZIRANYINSU, RUKONGQI、HELIU、SHUITANG、HUACAOSHUMU、FENGJINGMINGSHENG、CHENGZHEN、XIANGCUNDENGDENG, BAOKUOZIRANHUANJINGHESHEHUIHUANJING。[10] (3) SHENGTAIHUANJING。SUOWEISHENGTAIHUANJINGSHIZHIYIZHENGGESHENGWUJIEWEIZHONGXIN, KEYIZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEYINGXIANGRENLEISHENGHUOHEFAZHANDEZIRANYINSUHERENGONGYINSUDEHUANJINGXITONG。[11]SHANGSHUSANGEGAINIANZHONGGONGTONGHANYOULIANGDIANYAOSU, JIRENHEZIRAN。LIANGZHEDEXIANFAJIAZHIZAIGENBENSHANGSHITONGYIDE。RENSHIXIANFADEDIYIYAOSU, RENDEZUNYANYUXINGFUSHIXIANDAIXIANFADEHEXINJIAZHI, ERZAIDANGXIA, ZHIYOUBAOHUHAOZIRANYUHUANJING, CAINENGGENGHAOBAOZHANGRENDEMEIHAOSHENGHUO。QIER, GUOJIADUIYUSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEZHIDUXINGXINGWEI。XIANFADI9TIAO、DI26TIAOGUIDINGLEGUOJIAJIANJUBAOHUHUANJINGBINGGAISHANHUANJINGDERENWU。ZHEIJISHIZAIJINXINGMUBIAOFENCENG, YEHUIGENJUBUTONGMUBIAOCAIQUBUTONGDEZHILISHOUDUANHECUOSHI。QISAN, SHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEZHONGGONGMINDEYINGRANXINGWEIMOSHI。ZHUYAOZHIJINZHIRENHEZUZHIHUOZHEGERENYONGRENHESHOUDUANQINZHANHUOZHEPOHUAIZIRANZIYUAN。BIAOMIANSHANGKAN, ZHEISHIDUIGONGMINWEIFAXINGWEIDEJINZHI, HUANJINGSHUYUGONGGONGLIYI, GONGMINDANGRANYOUBAOHUHEGAISHANHUANJINGDEYIWU;DANSHISHISHANG, DANGGONGMINSHULIZHENGQUEDEHUANJINGGUANNIAN, GUIFANZIJIDEHUANJINGXINGWEI, ZUIZHONGDESHOUYIZHEHAISHIGONGMINZISHEN。

                                3. 宪法第89条中的明确生态职权条款

                                2018NIANXIUXIAN, XIANFADI89TIAOZUOCHUXIUGAI, GUOWUYUANDEZHIQUANZAI“LINGDAOHEGUANLIJINGJIGONGZUOHECHENGXIANGJIANSHE”ZHIHOUZENGJIAGUIDING“SHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE”。ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHE“SHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE”CHENGWEIGUOWUYUANDEYIXIANGZHONGYAOZHIQUAN, ERQIEYUJINGJIGONGZUOHECHENGXIANGJIANSHEFANGZAIYIQIGUIDING, TIXIANLEXUYANZHONGXINFAZHANLINIANZHONGDELVSEFAZHAN, JIJINGJIFAZHANYUSHENGTAIJIANSHEBINGZHONG。

                                (二) 隐性规范

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YIJU“FALVDEYIYIMAILUO”DEJIESHIFAYIJIGUANZHULIFAMUDEDEJIESHIFA, [12]ZAIXIANFATIAOKUANDEJIEGOUZHONG, YIJUSHENGTAIWENMINGDEXIANXINGGUIFANSUOGUANLIANDESHANGXIAWENDENEIHANYIJITONGGUO2018NIANXIUXIANSUOCHENGXIANDEJUYOUMINGXIANQINGXIANGXINGDESHENGTAILIFAMUDE, KEYIJINYIBUJIESHISHIBIESHENGTAIWENMINGDEYINXINGGUIFAN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   QIYI, SHENGTAIGUANNIAN。SHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIAN, BUJINYIWEIZHESHENGTAIZHIDUDEJIANGOU, YEYIWEIZHESHENGTAIGUANNIANDEQUELI。TEDINGDEXIANFASHENGTAIGUANYOUZHUYUSHENKELIJIESHENGTAIWENMINGHELVSEFAZHANDEGAINIANJIQIZHONGYAOYIYI;YOUZHUYUZHUDONGYOUXIAOSHISHIXIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIZHIDU;YOUZHUYUYOUXIAOGUIFANGUOJIAHEGONGMINDEHUANJINGXINGWEI。MAKESIZAOZAI《1844NIANJINGJIXUEZHEXUESHOUGAO》JIUYIJINGCHANSHULERENYUZIRANDEGUANXI, JIRENLEISHEHUIYOUBIEYUZIRANJIEDANYOUJINJINYIFUYUZIRANJIE, BENZHISHANG, RENYUZIRANYINGHEXIETONGYI。TAZHICHU:“WULUNSHIZAIRENNEILIHAISHIZAIDONGWUNEILI, RENLEISHENGHUOCONGROUTIFANGMIANLAISHUOJIUZAIYUREN (HEDONGWUYIYANG) KAOWUJIJIESHENGHUO, ERRENHEDONGWUXIANGBIYUEYOUPUBIANXING, RENLAIYISHENGHUODEWUJIJIEDEFANWEIJIUYUEGUANGKUO。”[13]XIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISHENGTAIWENMINGGUANSHIDUIMAKESIZHUYISHENGTAIGUANJICHENG、FENGFUYUFAZHAN。[14]DANGDESHIJIUDATICHUDE“SHEHUIZHUYISHENGTAIWENMINGGUAN”SHIDUIDANGXIASHENGTAIGUANNIANDEJIZHONGGAIKUO, QIZAIXIANFASHANGDESHIZHINEIHANKEQUANSHIWEITONGGUOZUNZHONGHEBAOHUHUANJING, MANZURENDEMEIHAOSHENGHUOSUQIU, SHIXIANHUANJINGZHILIXIANDAIHUA, BAOZHANGGUOJIAYUMINZUDEYONGXUFAZHAN。

                                QIER, SHENGTAIQUANLI。SHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE, KEYISHIXIANGUOJIADEKECHIXUFAZHAN, ZUIZHONGYOULIYUSHIXIANGONGMINDEMEIHAOHUANJINGSHENGHUO, YINCISHENGTAIWENMINGYEYUNHANZHESHENGTAIQUANLIDENEIRONG, SHENGTAIQUANLIDEXIANFAHUASHIDASHISUOQU。YOUXUEZHEZHICHU, SHENGTAIQUANLIHESHENGTAIJIAZHIWENTIDETICHU, SHIJISHANGSHIYAOQIUBASHENGTAIWENTILIERUZHENGCHANGDEZHIDUHEFALVKUANGJIAZHINEI, BASUOWEIDEWAIBUXINGWENTINEIBUHUA。[15]WEICI, ZAIQUANLISHEHUIHUAXIANGQUANLISHENGTAIHUAZHUANXINGDEGUOCHENGZHONG, DUI“RENLEIHESHENGTAIGONGTONGLIYI”DEBAOHU, JISHIDUI“SHENGTAIQUANLI”DEBAOHU, ZHEIJIANGCHENGWEIXIANFADEZHONGXINRENWUHEZHONGYAOTEZHENG。[16]

                              星云棋牌官网下载   QISAN, SHENGTAIQUANLI。SHENGTAIWENMINGXIERUXIANFA, YIWEIZHESHENGTAIJIANSHEYINGGAIGUANCHEDAOGEGUOJIAJIGUANZHIQUANXINGSHIDEQUANGUOCHENG, TEBIESHIRENDADELIFAYIJIZHENGFUXINGZHENGZHIQUANDEXINGSHI。YINCI, CHULEXIANFADI89TIAODI (LIU) XIANGSUOMINGQUEGUIDINGDESHENGTAIZHIQUAN, HAIYIWEIZHEXIANFADI62TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDINGJIBENFALVDEZHIQUANZHONGYOUGUANSHENGTAIDELIFAYINGCHENGWEIZHONGYAONEIRONG;XIANFADI89TIAODI (YI) XIANGGUIDINGDEGUOWUYUANZHIDINGXINGZHENGFAGUIHEFABUJUEDINGMINGLINGDEZHIQUANZHONGYOUGUANSHENGTAIDENEIRONGYEYINGBEICHONGFENZHANXIAN。XIANGYINGDE, BUJINJINSHIZHONGYANGGUOJIAJIGUAN, XIANFADI99TIAOHEDI107TIAOGUIDINGDEDIFANGRENDAHEDIFANGZHENGFUDEZHIQUANZHONGYELIYINGBAOHANSHENGTAIJIANSHEDENEIRONG。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANG, SHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIANJUYOUSHUANGZHONGFALVYIYI, SHIDEXIANXINGXIANFAXINGCHENGJIAOWEIWANZHENGDESHENGTAIGUIFANTIXI。YIXIANFASHENGTAIGUIFANWEIYIJU, SHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIANDETIXIXINGGONGNENGKEQUANSHIWEIZAISHENGTAIGUANDEZHIYINZHIXIA, GUIDINGBINGSHISHISHENGTAIZHIDUBINGYUYIFAZHANWANSHAN, ZUIZHONGSHIXIANDUISHENGTAIQUANLIDEXIANFABAOZHANG。ZHEIJIANGGUANNIANBIANGEYUZHIDUJIANGOUXIANGJIEHE, JIANGRENDEMEIHAOSHENGHUOSUQIUYUDUISHENGTAIDEJIBENZUNZHONGXIANGJIEHE, YISHENGTAIQUANLIDEBAOZHANGWEIZUIZHONGMUBIAO。GAIKUOERYAN, JISHENGTAIGUAN→SHENGTAIZHIDU→SHENGTAIQUANLI。XIAWENJIANGYICIZHANKAILUNSHU。

                                三、生态观的宪法表达

                                1.生态观是中国宪法价值观体系的重要组成部分

                                SHENGTAIWENMINGXIERUXIANFAYIWEIZHEZHONGGUOXIANFAGUANTIXIJINYIBUFENGFU, JIZAIYUANYOUDEXIANFAJINGJIGUAN、ZHENGZHIGUAN、WENHUAGUAN、SHEHUIGUANZHIWAI, HAIXINGCHENGLETEDINGDESHENGTAIGUAN。ZHONGGUOXIANFADESHENGTAIGUANJIANGYUHUANJINGBAOHUYOUGUANDEHUANJINGGUAN、FAZHANGUAN、QUANLIYIWUGUANDENGDEZHENGHE, JIANGULEHUANJINGYAOSUYUHUANJINGBAOHU, JIANGURENDEQUANLISUQIUYUSHENGTAIDEFAZHANGUILV, SHUYUSHANGSHUJIXIANGSUOSHENEIRONGDEZUIGAOCENGCI。SHENGTAIGUANSHIDUIYUANYOUDEZHONGGUOXIANFAZHONGDEJINGJIGUAN、ZHENGZHIGUAN、WENHUAGUAN、SHEHUIGUANDEBUCHONGYUWANSHAN。

                                2.生态观完善了宪法关系的主体

                              星云棋牌官网下载   CHUANTONGDEXIANFAGUANXIZHUTI, YIFANGSHIGUOJIA, LINGYIFANGSHIGONGMINHUOZHERENMIN。ERSHENGTAIGUANZEQIANGDIAOLEDUIZIRANDEZUNZHONG, ZHUZHANGZIRANYEYINGGAICANYUDAOXIANFAGUANXIZHONG。BEIYUWEISHENGTAILUNLIXUEZHIFUDEAOERDUO·LIEAOBAODECENGTICHU“DADIDELUNLI” (land ethic) , DUIRENYUZIRANGUANXIDEDIAOZHENGJIANGCHENGWEIRENLEIDEDISANDAILUNLI, TURANG、SHUITI、ZHIWU、DONGWUHUOZHETAMENDEJIHETIDELUNLIGUIFANJIANGBEIBAOHANDAORENYUSHEHUIDEGUANXIZHONGDESHEHUIDEGAINIANZHIZHONG。[17]ZHENGRUSHIJIUDABAOGAOZHONGSUOZHICHUDE, YAOCHONGFENRENSHIRENYUZIRANJUNSHUSHENGMINGGONGTONGTI。ZIRANBUZAIZHISHIBEIZHIPEIDEDUIXIANG, JIANGZIRANNARUJUTIDEXIANFAGUANXIZHONG, YIWEIZHE“ZIRAN”YINGBEIDEDAOZUGOUDEZUNZHONGHEBAOHU, RUCIDUIYUGUOJIAYURENMINZELIANGLI, FANZHIZELIANGSUN。

                                3.生态观丰富了宪法关系的内容

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIGUOJIA、ZIRANYURENSANZHEGOUCHENGDEXIANFAGUANXIZHONG, SANZHEQUANLIYIWUDENEIRONGJUNFASHENGLESHENKEBIANHUA。SHENZHIYOUXUEZHEZHUZHANG, ZIRANQUANLIYINGBEIRENWEISHUYUXIANFAXUEDUYOUDEJISHIFANCHOU。[18]GUOJIAMIANXIANGZIRAN, XUANZEZUNZHONGZIRAN, YIWEIZHEBUZAIJINJINZHISHISHENGTAIQUANLIHEZHIZE, ZIRANJIANGHUIBAOGUOJIAYIKEYONGXUFAZHANDELIYI;GONGMINMIANXIANGZIRAN, DANGRANYINGGAIXUANZEZUNZHONGZIRAN, ZHEIYIWEIZHEGONGMINBUJINJINZHISHIZHUZHANGZIJIDEQUANLI, HAIXULVXINGDUIGUOJIAHEGONGGONGLIYIDEYIWU。 (JIANXIATU)

                              生态文明的宪法规范体系与保障

                                4.生态观将推动宪法和法律的革新与实施

                                XIANFASHENGTAIGUANDEQUELI, HUIDUIXIANFAZHIDUBIRUSHENGTAIZHIDUDEXITONGHUADENGCHANSHENGNEIZAIXUQIU, JIBIANZAIXIANFABUZAIJINYIBUXIUGAIDEBEIJINGXIA, YEKETONGGUOXIANFAJIESHIDUIXIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIWENMINGTIAOKUANYUQITAZHIDUTIAOKUANZHIJIANDELUOJIGUANXIJINYIBUSHULI, YIGOUCHENGYIGEGENGJUYOULUOJIZIQIAXINGHEGUIFANZIZUXINGDEXIANFAWENBEN。TONGSHI, SHENGTAIWENMINGYUSHENGTAIGUAN, DUIYUXIANFASHISHIDEFANGSHIYUNEIRONGBIJIANGCHANSHENGJIJIDETUIDONGZUOYONG。ZAISHIZHENGFADEZHIXUZHONG, XIANFADEGENBENFADIWEIWURONGZHIYI。XIANFASHANGDESHENGTAIGUANJIANGXINGSUBUMENFASHANGDEJIBENGAINIAN, LIRUSHENZHIKENENGHUIZHENGHEHUANJINGZIYUANFAXUEDEHEXINGAINIANFANCHOU, YINGXIANGMINFADIANZHONGFENZEBUFENHUANJINGTIAOKUANDEZUIZHONGBIAODADENGDENG。

                                四、生态制度的宪法安排

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHESHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIAN, XIANFASHANGDEGUOJIAJIBENZHIDUYECONGJINGJIZHIDU、ZHENGZHIZHIDU、WENHUAZHIDU、SHEHUIZHIDUTUOZHANDAOSHENGTAIZHIDU。SUOWEISHENGTAIZHIDU, SHIZHIXIANFAQUERENHEDIAOZHENGDE, BAOHUHEGAISHANSHENGTAIHUANJING, TISHENGGUOJIADEHUANJINGJINGZHENGLIYIJIRENMINDEHUANJINGZHISHUDEYIXILIEZHIDUDEZONGHE。QIZHIJIEMUDESHIXIEDIAOREN、GUOJIAYUHUANJINGDEGUANXI, BAOHUHEGAISHANHUANJING;JIANJIEMUDEWEIMANZURENMINDEMEIHAOHUANJINGSUQIU, SHIXIANGUOJIADEJINGJISHEHUIKECHIXUFAZHAN。YIZHAOQINEIZAILUOJILIANXI, ZHUYAOBAOKUOSHENGTAIJIAOYU, SHENGTAIZHILIYIJISHENGTAIJIANGUANZHIDU。

                                (一) 生态教育

                              星云棋牌官网下载   TONGGUOSHENGTAIJIAOYU, KEYIRANGGUOMINYANGCHENGZHENGQUEDESHENGTAIGUAN, SHENGTAIGUANSHIYOUXIAOJINXINGHUANJINGZHILIDEQIANTI。YOUYANJIUBIAOMING, HUANJINGYISHIDETIGAOYOULAIYUSHENGTAIJIAOYU。[19]SUOWEISHENGTAIJIAOYU, SHIZHIGUANYUBAOHUZIRANHEHUANJINGDEJIAOYU。XIANZAI, XUDUOGUOJIAYIJINGBASHENGTAIJIAOYUZUOWEIQUANMINJIAOYU。QIANGDIAOLIYONGGEZHONGXINGSHIHECHUANBOSHOUDUANJINXINGJIAOYU, SHIGONGMINHUODEDUIRENYUHUANJINGGUANXIDEJIBENRENZHI, ZHIXIRENZAIZIRANJIEDEWEIZHI, LEJIEREN、HUANJINGHESHEHUIDEXIANGHUZUOYONG, YIJIRUHEBAOHUHEGAISHANHUANJING, RUHEFANGZHIHUANJINGWURANHESHENGTAIPOHUAIDENGFANGMIANDEZHISHI, YIZUIZHONGSHIXIANSHEHUIYUZIRANDEHEXIEFAZHAN。[20]WEILECUJINSHENGTAIJIAOYU, TIGAOGONGMINSHENGTAIYISHI, SHIJIEDUOGUORUMEIGUO、RIBEN、HANGUO、BAXIDENGJUNZHIDINGLEYOUGUANSHENGTAIYUHUANJINGJIAOYUDEFALV。MEIGUOYU1970NIANZHIDINGDE《HUANJINGJIAOYUFA》JIANGHUANJINGJIAOYUDINGYIWEIYIZHONGJIAOYUGUOCHENG, QIZHONGDIANZAIYUYIRENLEISUOCHUDEZIRANHUANJING、RENWEIHUANJINGYURENLEIDEGUANXIWEIJICHU, DUIBAOKUORENKOU、WURAN、ZIYUANDENGWENTIYUHUANJINGDEGUANXIJIXIANGHUYINGXIANGJINXINGQUANMINJIAOYU。[21]

                                KAIZHANYOUXIAODESHENGTAIJIAOYUZAIWOGUODANGXIAGENGJUYOUPOQIEXING, ERQIEJUYOUTEDINGDENEIHAN。DIYI, RENYUZIRANSHISHENGMINGGONGTONGTI。RENSHIZIRAN、HUANJING、SHENGTAIDEYIBUFEN。RENLEIXUYAOYIDUIDAISHENGMINGDETAIDUDUIDAISHENGTAIHUANJING, ZUNZHONGZIRAN、SHUNYINGZIRAN、BAOHUZIRAN。DIER, JIANSHESHENGTAIWENMINGSHIZHONGHUAMINZUYONGXUFAZHANDEGENBENDAJI。ZAIRENLEIWENMINGZHANGHEZHONG, WEIHEZHONGHUAWENMINGDEYIZHANGCUN?CONGSHENGTAIYIYISHANGJIANG, YINWEIWOGUOTEYOUDEDIXINGDIMAO, WEIZHONGHUAWENMINGDEYANXUFAZHANTIGONGLEZUGOUDETUDIYUHUANJINGZIYUAN。[22]YINCI, SHIJIEGEGUOJIGEGEWENMINGDEJINGZHENG, SHIJISHANGSHIHUANJINGDEJINGZHENG, YAOXIANGSHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUDEYONGXUFAZHAN, BIXUJIANSHESHENGTAIWENMING。DISAN, LVSHUIQINGSHANJIUSHIJINSHANYINSHAN。SHENGTAIHUANJINGSHIKECHIXUFAZHANDEQIANTI, HUANJINGJIUSHISHENGCHANLI, HUANJINGJIUSHIJINGZHENGLI。DISI, HUANJINGSHIRENMINMEIHAOSHENGHUODEZHONGYAONEIRONG。MEIHAOSHENGHUOSHIDANGXIADUIRENQUANZHUIQIUYUBAOZHANGZUIQUANMIANZUIDIANXINGDEGAIKUO。ERHUANJINGWUYISHIDANGXIASHIXIANMEIHAOSHENGHUODEBIBEITIAOJIANZHIYI。DIWU, XIANDAIHUABAOKUORENYUZIRANHEXIEGONGSHENGDEXIANDAIHUA。YOUXUEZHEZHICHU, HUANJINGZHILISHIGUOJIAZHILIXIANDAIHUADEZHONGYAONEIRONGZHIYI。[23]HUANJINGZHILIXIANDAIHUAYAOQIUHUANJINGZHILIFAZHIHUA。HUANJINGZHILIFAZHIHUAXUYAOXIANFAWEIGENBENYIJUJILILUNZHICHENG, XIANFAKEYIDUIGUOJIAQUANLIDEHUANJINGZHILIGONGNENGJINXINGHELIFENJIEBINGYOUXIAOZHENGHE, WEIGONGMINHUANJINGQUANDESUQIUTIGONGGENBENDELILUNYUGUIFANYIJU, YOUJITONGHEHEXIEDIAOGEBUMENFA, YOUXIAOGUIFANZHENGCEZIYUAN。DILIU, JIJICANYUQUANQIUHUANJINGZHILI, BAOZHANGQUANQIUSHENGTAIANQUAN。BUGUANSHIJIYUJIEJUEHUANJINGWENTIDEGUOJIHEZUO, HAISHIGOUJIANRENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTIDEGUOJIDANDANG, WOGUOJUNYINGJIJIYOUXIAOCANYUQUANQIUHUANJINGZHILI。

                                (二) 生态治理

                                SUOWEISHENGTAIZHILI, SHIYISHENGTAI、GUOJIAYUGONGMINDEHEXIEGONGCUNGONGSHENGWEIJIBENYAOQIUHEMUBIAO, YOUGUOJIAZHUDAO, GONGMINJIJICANYU, BAOKUOCONGLILUN、GUIFANDAOSHIJIANDEGEXIANGSHENGTAIZHIDUDEZONGHE。YIJUXIANFAGUIDING, ZHUYAOBAOKUOYIXIASANFANGMIANNEIRONG。

                                1. 自然资源的合理利用。

                                ZIRANZIYUANDESHIYONG, BIXULIZUZHANGYUAN, ZUODAOZIYUANDEKAIFAYUBAOHUXIANGJIEHE, SHIZHIJIANYOUJINGJI、HUANJINGHESHEHUISANDAXIAOYI。SUOWEIHELILIYONG, SHIZHIYIHESHIDEFANGSHIHECHENGDUSHISHIWUFAHUIXIAONENG。XIANFADI9TIAOGUANYU“BAOZHANGZIRANZIYUANDEHELILIYONG”DEGUIDINGYAOQIUSHIDANGSHIYONGZIRANZIYUAN, ZUNZHONGZIRENZIYUANDETEZHENG, ZAISHIDUSHIYONGDEQIANTIXIAFAHUIZIRANZIYUANDUIYUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDEGONGNENG。YOUXUEZHEZHICHU:“HELIDEZIYUANLIYONGJIANGZUIDACHENGDUDICUJINSHEHUIJINGJIDEFAZHANYUZUIDAXIANDUDIJIANSHAODUISHENGTAIHUANJINGDEBULIYINGXIANGXIANGJIEHE, ZUIZHONGYOULIYUSHIXIANKECHIXUFAZHAN。ZIYUANZHONGWULUNSHIKEZAISHENGDEHAISHIFEIKEZAISHENGDE, QIHELIDELIYONGDOUYINGGAIZAIZIYUANDEDAIJIAXINGSUNSHIFANWEINEI, YEJIUSHIZHIYAONENGBAOZHENGZIYUANDELIYONGSHIDAIJIAXINGSUNSHI, RENMENJIUBUBIYAOQUDANYOUZIYUANDEXIQUEJIQIDUIWEILAIJINGJIFAZHANDEYUESHU。”[24]

                                2. 生态环境和生活环境的保护与改善。

                                RENHEZIRANSHIXIANFAZHONGHUANJINGGAINIANDELIANGDAZUCHENGBUFEN。YIRENDEYAOSUDUIYINGSHENGHUOHUANJING, YIZIRANWEIYAOSUDUIYINGSHENGTAIHUANJING。BAOHUXIANDAIXIANFADEHEXINJIAZHIBIXUWEIHURENZUNYAN, JINERBIXUWEICHIWEIZUNYANDESHENGHUOTIGONGWUZHITIAOJIANDEZIRANHUANJING。ZHENGSUOWEI“YIRENWEIBEN, YIZIRANWEIGEN, YIRENYUZIRANDEHEXIEWEIHUN”。[25]XIANFADI9TIAOHEDI26TIAOZHONGDE“BAOHU”QIANGDIAOLEHUANJINGBAOHUDEDIYICENGCIMUBIAO, JIWEICHIJIAOSHIYIDEHUANJING。YOUXUEZHEZHICHU, DUIQIRENMINJIQIHUANJINGCUNZAIYIDINGDEBAOHUYIWUSHIGUOJIAZAIHUANJINGLINGYUCUNZAIDEMUDE。[26]ZHEIZHONGWEICHIXINGDEBAOHUBAOKUOSANGEFANGMIAN: (1) PAICHUYIYOUHUANJINGSUNHAI; (2) PAICHUHUOJIANQINGQIANZAIDEHUANJINGWEIXIAN; (3) CAIQUYUFANGCUOSHIFANGZHIWEILAIHUANJINGWEIHAI。[27]XIANFADI26TIAOZHONG“GUOJIAGAISHANSHENGHUOHUANJINGHESHENGTAIHUANJING”YIZAIQIANGDIAOZAIWEICHIXIANYOUHUANJINGTIAOJIANDEQIANTIXIA, JINYIBUTIGAOHUANJINGZHILIANG。GAISHANQIANGDIAOLEHUANJINGBAOHUDEDIERCENGCIMUBIAO, JIZHUIQIUGENGLIANGHAODEHUANJING。ZHONGJIANRENYUZIRANHEXIEYUXIEDIAOGUANXISHIRENMENDUIHUANJINGBAOHUNEIRONGMUBIAORENSHITISHENGDEBIAOXIAN, ZHEIYUSHANGSHIJI60NIANDAIQIANDANCHUNQIANGDIAODUIWURANDEKONGZHIXINGCHENGXIANMINGDUIBI。LIRU, WEILEYINGDUIGONGHAIWENTI, RIBENZAOQICENGTONGGUOZHIDING《GONGHAIDUICEFA》DEFANGSHIYIBAOQUANSHENGHUOHUANJING, ER1993NIAN《HUANJINGJIBENFA》DEZHIDINGZEZAILINIANSHANGSHIXIANLECONGGONGHAIDUICEDAOHUANJINGZHILIDEZHUANBIAN, JIANGGOUZHUKECHIXUFAZHANDESHEHUIZUOWEIJIBENMUDE。[28]

                                3. 推进绿色发展。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   FAZHANSHIDIYIYAOWU。HUANJINGZHILIZUIZHONGYEHAISHIWEILEFAZHAN, JIBUNENGWEILEJINGJIFAZHANERXISHENGHUANJING, DANYEBUYIWEIZHEHUANJINGBAOHUHEZHILIJIUYAOYINGXIANGFAZHAN。BIZHEYIZHIZHUZHANG, HUANJINGBAOHUHEJINGJIFAZHANSHIKEYIDIAOHEDE。[29]LVSEFAZHAN, ZHENGSHIZAIDUIHUANJINGBAOHUHEJINGJIFAZHANJINXINGSHIZHILINIANRONGHEDEJICHUSHANGSUOTICHUDEXINDEFAZHANMOSHI。CONGWENBENSHANGKAN, WOGUOXIANFADI14TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGDE“FAZHANSHEHUISHENGCHANLI”YULVSEFAZHANDELINIANSHIXIANGQIHEDE。XIANFADI14TIAODI2KUANGUIDINGDE“LIXINGJIEYUE, FANDUILANGFEI”SUOQUANSHIDELINIANYUDANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOTICHUDE“CHANGDAOJIANYUESHIDU、LVSEDITANDESHENGHUOFANGSHI”ZAIBENZHISHANGSHIYIZHIDE, JISHIDUXIAOFEI, BUGUODUSHIYONGSHENGCHANSUODAILAIDEZIYUANHELIYI;XIANFADI14TIAODI3KUANGUIDING:“GUOJIAHELIANPAIJILEIHEXIAOFEI, JIANGUGUOJIA、JITIHEGERENDELIYI, ZAIFAZHANSHENGCHANDEJICHUSHANG, ZHUBUGAISHANRENMINDEWUZHISHENGHUOHEWENHUASHENGHUO。”ZHEIYIWEIZHEXIANFADUISHENGCHAN、FAZHANYUXIAOFEI、WUZHIWENHUASHENGHUODEGUANXIDEHELIZHIDUANPAI, JIZUIZHONGYAOTISHENGRENMINDESHENGHUOSHUIPING, DANYINGGAIJIANCHIZHENGQUEDEFAZHANLINIANHEFANGSHI。

                                (三) 生态监管

                                SHENGTAIJIANGUANSHIYOUXIAOTUIJINSHENGTAIZHIDUSHISHIJIGAIGEDEZHONGYAOHUANJIE。QIHEXINSHIZENGQIANGSHENGTAIJIANGUANJIGOUDEQUANXIAN, BINGYOUXIAOLUOSHIHUANJINGZEREN。

                                1. 改革生态环境监管体制。

                                DALITUIDONGSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE, YIWEIZHEXIANGGUANGUOJIAJIGOUDEGAIGEXINGCHENGLENEIZAIXUQIU, YINGDUIGUOJIASHENGTAIHEHUANJINGBAOHUBUMENTIDANGSHENGJI。YIZE, QIANGHUAGUOJIAHUANJINGBAOHUDEZHIQUAN, TISHENGQIZAIGUOJIAQUANLITIXIZHONGDEDIWEI;ERZE, JIBIANZAIGUOJIAQUANLITIXIBUZUOZHONGDADIAOZHENGDEBEIJINGXIA, YEYINGGAIJINLIANGTISHENGGUOJIASHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUBUMENDEDIWEI, ZAIGUOJIAXINGZHENGJIGUANTIXIZHONGDAZAO“DAHUANBAOBU”, 2018NIANDEJIGOUGAIGEJITIXIANLECISILU。

                                2. 严格环境责任。

                                SHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUHEZHILISHIHANGAILEGONGMINJIBENQUANYIJISHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANDEGENBENXINGMINGTI, HANGAIFANWEIDEGUANGFANXINGJUEDINGLEZHIYOUGUOJIAQUANLICAINENGJINXINGLIANGHAODEGUIZHI, WEICI, XUYAOJIANGHUANJINGZERENSHANGSHENGDAOXIANFAZEREN, GUIFANHUANJINGBAOHUHEZHILIZHONGDEGUOJIAQUANLI, DIAOKONGGUOJIAQUANLIYUGONGMINQUANLIZHIJIANDEGUANXI, BAOZHANGGUOJIAFAZHAN。SUOWEIYANGEHUANJINGZERENXUYAOYANGEZHUIJIUHUANJINGBAOHUBULISHENZHIPOHUAIHUANJINGDEXINGWEIDEZEREN。XIANFAHUANJINGTIAOKUANWEIBAOZHANGGUOMINJINGJIDEFAZHAN, CAIQUZUIWEIYANGEDEBAOZHANGFANGSHI, SHELIGUOJIAZERENZAIYUQUELIJUYOUZERENXINGDE“GUIZHIGUOJIA”ERFEI“QUANQUANGUOJIA”, ZHENGFUCHUFENZIRANZIYUANDEXINGWEIYEYINGFUHEXIANFADEGUIZHI。[30]ZIRANZIYUANDEQUANSHUJUEDINGLEGUOJIAHUANJINGZERENZHUYAOZHUTIDEDIWEI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YIJUXIANFAGUIDING, XIANGGUANZUZHIHEGONGMINYESHIHUANJINGZERENDEDUIYINGZHUTI。JUTIFENWEILIANGZHONGQINGXING: (1) JINZHIPOHUAI。XIANXINGXIANFADI9TIAOGUIDING:“JINZHIRENHEZUZHIHUOZHEGERENPOHUAIZIRANZIYUAN。”GAICHUCONGLIFAQUAN、SIFAQUAN、XINGZHENGQUANDEJIAODUDUIZUZHIHEGERENZUOCHULEJINZHIXINGDEGUIFAN。 (2) JINZHIQINZHAN。SUOWEI“QINZHAN”, SHIZHIFEIFAZHANYOUBIERENDECAICHAN。QINZHANDEFALVGAINIANKECANKAOXINGFAGUIFAN, CONGFEIFAZHANYOUMUDE、ZHANYOUXINGWEIDENGFANGMIANLIJIE。RENHEZUZHIHEGERENDUIZIRANZIYUANDEQINZHANDOUBEIJINZHI。

                                五、生态权利的宪法保障

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIBIZHEKANLAI, DUIYUSHENGTAIQUANLIDERENZHI, YINGDANGCONGSHENGTAIGAINIANBENSHENCHUFA。SHENGTAIDENEIHANZAIYUSHENGWUBENSHENDESHENGCUNZHUANGTAI, TEBIESHISHENGWUZHIJIANHESHENGWUYUHUANJINGZHIJIANDEGUANXI。ZAIZHONGGUOWENHUACHUANTONGZHONG, “SHENGTAI”YICIWANGWANGZHIYIQIEMEIHAOSHIWU。[31]SHENGTAIJUYOUZHENGTIXING、XITONGXINGHENENGDONGXING。SHENGTAIXITONGSHIYIGEXIANGHUGUANLIANHEBICIYINGXIANGDEZHENGTI, ZIRAN、REN、GUOJIAJUNZAISHENGTAIXITONGZHIZHONG, ZIRANHUANJINGDUIYURENDELIYIYUGUOJIADEFAZHANJUNCHANSHENGNENGDONGZUOYONG。ENGESICENGJINGGAOJIE:“WOMENBIXUSHISHIJIZHU, JUEBUNENGXIANGZHENGFUZHETONGZHIYIMINZUYIYANGTONGZHIZIRANJIE, JUEBUXIANGZHANZAIZIRANJIEYIWAIDERENYIYANG, XIANGFANDI, WOMENDEQUANBU, LIANTONGWOMENROU、XUEHETOUNAODOUSHUYUZIRANJIE, BINGCUNZAIYUZIRANJIEDE。”[32]YINCI, SHENGTAIQUANLIBUZAIJINJINSHIZIRANJIEDEQUANLI, RENHEGUOJIAZAISHENGTAIQUANLIZHONGYIBANYANZHEZHONGYAOJIAOSE;SHENGTAIQUANLIYEBUZAIZHISHIDANXIANGJIAZHIHEDANYINEIRONGDEQUANLI。ZAISHEHUIZHUYISHENGTAIWENMINGGUANDEQIANTIXIA, ZAIXIANFASHENGTAIZHIDUDEKUANGJIAXIA, YINGGAIDUISHENGTAIQUANLIXINGCHENGXINDERENZHI, BINGTANSUOXINDEBAOZHANGLUJING。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   1.LINIANSHANGJINGJIFAZHANYUHUANJINGBAOHUDEDIAOHE。FAZHANSHIGENGUBUBIANDEZHUTI, JINGJIFAZHANSHIHENGLIANGFAZHANDEFEICHANGZHONGYAODEZHIBIAO。DANZI1987NIANYILAI, QUANQIUDACHENGGONGSHI, KECHIXUFAZHANHUODEGUANGFANGONGSHI, BUJINBAOKUOHUANJINGBAOHU, HAIBAOHANSHENGTAIKECHIXUFAZHAN、JINGJIKECHIXUFAZHANHESHEHUIKECHIXUFAZHANDEXIEDIAOTONGYI。DANGDESHIBAJIEWUZHONGQUANHUITICHUDE“LVSEFAZHAN”, KEWEISHIKECHIXUFAZHANLINIANDEZHONGGUOHUA、SHIDAIHUATIXIAN。“LVSEFAZHAN”SIZIQIAQIAJIUSHIHUANJINGBAOHUYUJINGJIFAZHANDESHIZHIRONGHE。

                                2.ZHUTISHANGREN、GUOJIA、ZIRANSANZHEDERONGHE。YOURENJIDAODEKUOZHANDAOSHENGTAIDAODE, ZHEISHIRENLEIWENMINGSHISHANGDEZHONGDAZHUANZHE。RENLEISHIZIRANZHONGDESHENGWUCHENGYUAN、DAODEDAILIZHEHEGUANLIZHE, ERFEIZHENGFUZHEHEZHUZAIZHE。[33]XIAYIDESHENGTAIZHUYIZHUZHANG, RENLEIZUNZHONGZIRAN, RENLEIYESHIZIRANDEYIBUFEN。CHENGRANZHEISHIRENLEIWENMINGGUANDEJINBU, DANRUGUORENWEISHENGTAIQUANLIJINZHIZIRANJIEDEQUANLI, YIZEHUIGELIESHENGTAIBENSHENDEZHENGTIXING, HUIZAOCHENGZIRANHERENDEERYUANHUA;ERZEZIRANBENSHENDEQUANLINEIRONG、BIANJIEYIJIYUQITAZHUTIZHIJIANDEQUANLIYIWUGUANXIYESHINANYIMINGQUEDE。YINCI, QUANXINDESHENGTAIQUANLIYINGZHUZHANGZAIZHUTISHANGREN、GUOJIAYUZIRANSANZHEDERONGHE。ZIRANXIANGYOUBEIZUNZHONGDEQUANLI;RENZUNZHONGZIRAN, YECONGDUIZIRANDEZUNZHONGZHONGHUOQUZHENGDANGLIYI;GENJUXINLAILIYIBAOHUYUANZE, GUOJIAGUIZHIRENDEXINGWEI, BAOHUZIRAN, YECONGDUIZIRANDEZUNZHONGZHONGHUODEFAZHANLIYI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   3.NEIRONGSHANGQUANLIYUYIWUDEZHENGHE。YIXIANFASHANGSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDENEIHANHEYAOQIUERYAN, ZHIJIANGQUANLIHUOZHIJIANGYIWUJUNSHIYOUSHIPIANPODE。RUGUOZHIJIANGQUANLI, HUIMIANLINSHEIDEQUANLIHEDAODISHENMEQUANLIDEKUNJING;RUGUOZHIJIANGYIWU, ZEWEIBEILERENDUIMEIHAOSHENGHUOZHUIQIUDECHUZHONG, ZAIRENHESHIHOU, LIYIJUNSHIQUDONGSHEHUIYUNZHUANDEJIBENDONGLI, FALVXUYAOZUODEBUSHIFOUDINGLIYI, ERSHIZHENGQUEDEGUIFANHEBAOZHANGLIYI。SHISHISHANG, QUANLIHEYIWUBENSHENJISHINANYIFENLIDE。ZAISHANGGESHIJI80NIANDAICHUHUANJINGQUANYANJIUBEIGANGGANGGUANZHUZHISHI, JIUYOUXUEZHEZHICHU, XIANGJIAOYUQUFENQUANLIYUYIWUBINGYICICHUFATICHANGHUANJINGQUAN, CONGQUANLIYUYIWUXIANGTONGYIDERENSHICHUFAGENGWEIYOULIHEYOUXIAO。[34]YINCI, SHENGTAIQUANLISHIJISHANGSHIQUANLIYUYIWUDEFUHETI。JUTIBAOKUO: (1) ZIRANYINGBEIZUNZHONG。GUOJIAHEDANGDAIRENYINGGAIBAZIRANDANGZUOLIYIGONGTONGTIDEZHONGYAOYIYUAN, WUQUANDUIZIRANGUODUSUOQU;WUQUANWUSHIHOUDAIRENDELIYI。 (2) GUOJIADEFAZHANLIYI。GUOJIATONGGUODUIZIRANDEZUNZHONG, KEYISHIXIANKECHIXUNAIZHIYONGXUFAZHAN。 (3) GUOJIADESHENGTAIZHIQUAN。JIYUXINLAIBAOHUYUANZE, GUOJIAYOUQUANDAIBIAOZIRAN, GUIFANRENDEJINGJISHEHUIDENGXINGWEI;TONGSHIYUZHIQUANDUIYINGDESHI, GUOJIAYEYOUSHENGTAIZHIZE, YOUJIANGUANYIWU, YOUJIJIBAOHUHEGAISHANYIWUDENG。 (4) GONGMINDESHENGTAIQUANYI。RUGUOGONGMINDEJINGJISHEHUIDENGXINGWEISHIHEFADESHIDUDE, DANGRANKEYIZAIYUSHENGTAIYOUGUANDEFALVGUANXIZHONGHUODEZHENGDANGDESHENGTAIQUANYI。ERQIEZHEIZHONGQUANYISHUYUJIJISHOUYIQUAN。 (5) GONGMINDESHENGTAIYIWU。GONGMINBUDANYAOLVXINGSHENGTAIYIWU, ERQIEYAOJIJILVXING, JISHUYUJIJIYIWU。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   GEGUOXIANFAWENBENYEDADUOTIXIANLEHUANJINGDEQUANLIYIWUDEHETI。RUTUERQIXIANFAGUIDINGLEGONGMINJUYOUSHENGHUOZAIJIANKANGHEXIEHUANJINGZHONGDEQUANLI。TONGSHIGONGMINHEGUOJIAJUYOUGAISHANZIRANHUANJING、FANGZHIHUANJINGWURANDEZERENHEYIWU。XIBANYAXIANFAGUIDING:“SUOYOURENYOUQUANLIXIANGSHOUSHIYURENFAZHANDEHUANJING, BINGYOUYIWUBAOHUHUANJING。”AGENTINGXIANFAGUIDING:“SUOYOUDEJUMINJUNYOUQUANXIANGYOU, BINGYOUYIWUBAOHUYIGESHIHERENLEIFAZHANDEJIANKANGHEPINGHENGDEHUANJING。”LINGWAI, 《FAGUO2004NIANHUANJINGXIANZHANG》YU2005NIAN2YUE28RITONGGUOHOU, CHENGWEIFAGUOXIANFADEZUCHENGBUFEN, QIYU1789NIAN《RENQUANXUANYAN》HE1958NIANXIANFAXUYANDEFALVDIWEITONGDENG。GAIXIANZHANGDI1TIAOGUIDINGLERENMENZAIYIGEPINGHENGHEBUFANGAIJIANKANGDEHUANJINGLISHENGHUODEQUANLI。JINJIEZHEYOUZAIDI2TIAOGUIDING:“RENRENDOUFUYOUYIWUCANYUHUANJINGDEWEIHUHEGAISHAN。”ZHEIYEZHENGTIXIANLEHUANJINGQUANZAIQUANLIHEYIWUSHANGDESHUANGZHONGXING。

                                结语

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIANSHIJUYOUHUASHIDAIYIYIDEFAZHIDASHIJIAN, BIAOZHIZHEXIANFAJIANGSHENGTAIWENMINGSUOJUBEIDEGUIHUAGUOJIAFAZHANMUBIAO、SHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUYONGXUFAZHAN、WEIDAFUXINGYIJIBAOZHANGRENMINMEIHAOSHENGHUODEZHENGZHIZHENGHEGONGNENGYUYILEGENBENFASHANGDEQUEREN, BIAOZHIZHESHENGTAIWENMINGCONGZHENGZHIGUIFANZOUXIANGLEFALVGUIFAN。[35]DANGRAN, ZUOWEISHISHIXINGHEYOUXIAOXINGZHIJIANSHEHUIMEIJIEDEFALV, QIJIBENGONGNENGJIUZAIYUXIAOJIEERZHEZHIJIANDEZHANGLI。[36]YINCI, SHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIANDEYIYIBUZAIYUQIBENSHEN, ERSHIXUYAOQUANSHISHENGTAIWENMINGDEXIANFAGUIFANTIXI, ZAICIJICHUSHANGJINXINGYISHISHIWEIDAOXIANGDEFUHEZHIDUJIANGOU, JINXINGXIANFAYUBUMENFADEYOUXIAODUIJIE, GUANNIANSHANGXIANGHULIJIE, ZHIDUSHANGWUFENGDUIJIE, GONGNENGSHANGXIANGHUBUCHONG, BINGTONGGUOYANGESHISHIZHENZHENGTUIJINSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEYUSHENGTAIWENMINGTIZHIGAIGE。DANGRAN, BENWENDUICIZHISHIJINXINGLECHUBULUNZHENG。BIZHERENWEI, HAIYINGGAIJINYIBUSIKAOHELUNSHUSHENGTAIWENMINGRUXIANYIHOU, DUIGUOJIAYUSHEHUIDAILAISHENKEBIANHUADEZHUYAOLINGYU, LIRUDUIGUOJIADEFAZHANMOSHIDESHENKEBIANHUA, RUHEGENGHAOCHULISHENGTAI、FAZHANYUFAZHIDEGUANXI, YIJIDUIZIRANZIYUANDEHELILIYONGZHIDUDEZAIXINGSHEJIDENGDENG。HAIKENENGDUITEDINGBUMENFALINGYURUHUANJINGFASHANGDEHUANJINGQUANLIYIWU、HUANJINGZHILI、HUANJINGZERENDENGDEFALVGUIFANGOUZAO、ZHUTIDEXINGWEIFANGSHI、QUANLIYIWUDENEIRONGDENGCHANSHENGGEXINXINGYINGXIANG, YEKENENGDUIMINFADIANBIANZUANZHONGSHEJIHUANJINGDEBUFENZHURUQINQUANZERENDESHEDINGDENGCHANSHENGSHENYUANYINGXIANG。

                                注释:

                                1参见张震:《中国宪法的环境观及其规范表达》, 《中国法学》2018年第4期, 第5页。
                                2王旭烽主编:《生态文化辞典》, 江西人民出版社2012年版, 第139-140页, 第139-140页。
                                3李累:《宪法上“人的尊严”》, 《中山大学学报》 (社会科学版) 2002年第6期, 第129页。
                                4参见张震:《宪法环境条款的规范构造与实施路径》, 《当代法学》2017年第3期, 第32页。
                                5参见[德]哈贝马斯:《在事实与规范之间》, 童世骏译, 三联书店出版社2003年版, 第62、67页。
                                6付子堂、张震:《新时代完善我国宪法实施与监督制度的新思考》, 《法学杂志》2018年第4期, 第2页。
                                7参见邓海峰:《环境法与自然资源法关系新探》, 《清华法学》2018年第5期, 第51页。
                                8在上述三个词汇中, “现代化”有必要加以特殊说明, 根据党的十八届三中、四中全会精神, “现代化”更为强调的是治理现代化和制度现代化, 全面推进依法治国是其必由之路, 依宪治国是逻辑前提。
                                9邓绶林主编:《地学辞典》, 河北教育出版社1992年版, 第1058页。
                                10江伟钰、陈方林主编:《资源环境法词典》, 中国法制出版社2005年版, 第789页。
                                11参见前引[10], 江伟钰、陈方林书, 第799页。
                                12参见[德]卡尔·拉伦茨:《法学方法论》, 陈爱娥译, 商务印书馆2003年版, 第204-208页。
                                13《马克思恩格斯选集》 (第一卷) , 人民出版社2012年版, 第55页。
                                14参见张占斌、戚克维:《论习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想中的生态文明观》, 《环境保护》2017年第22期, 第20-21页。
                                15李惠斌:《生态权利与生态正义---一个马克思主义的研究视角》, 《新视野》2008年第5期, 第69页。
                                16参见陈泉生:《环境时代宪法的权利生态化特征》, 《现代法学》2003年第2期, 第136页。
                                17[美]A·列奥鲍德:《听到野生之歌》, 新岛义昭译, 森林书店1986年版, 第310页。
                                18参见宁凯德:《自然权利:宪法学的基石范畴》, 《法学论坛》2018年第2期, 第50-57页。
                                19Scott D, Willits F K, Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors:A Pennsylvania Survey, Environment and Behavior, 1994, pp.239-260.
                                20《环境科学大辞典》, 中国环境科学出版社1991年版, 第574页。
                                21Department of Education and Science (DES) , Environmental education:a review, London:HMSOJ98l, p.178.
                                22参见[美]马立博:《中国环境史:从史前到现代》, 关永强、高丽洁译, 中国人民大学出版社2015年版, 第1-9页。
                                23王树义:《环境治理是国家治理的重要内容》, 《法制与社会发展》2014年第5期, 第52页。
                                24谭荣、曲福田:《自然资源合理利用与经济可持续发展》, 《自然资源学报》2005年第6期, 第799页。
                                25蔡守秋:《从环境权到国家环境保护义务和环境公益诉讼》, 《现代法学》2013年第6期, 第12页。
                                26参见宫文祥:《中国环境法制战略突破口的另向思考》, 《上海交通大学学报 (哲学社会科学版) 》2010年第3期, 第30页。
                                27参见陈慈阳:《环境法总论》, 中国政法大学出版社2003年版, 第31页。
                                28参见[日]原田尚彦《环境法》, 于敏译, 法律出版社1999年版, 第12-13、18-19页。
                                29参见张震:《作为基本权利的环境权研究》, 法律出版社2010年版, 第46-48页。
                                30参见王旭:《论自然资源国家所有权的宪法规制功能》, 《中国法学》2013年第6期, 第5-19页。
                                31王旭烽主编:《生态文化辞典》, 江西人民出版社2012年版, 第120-121页。
                                32《马克思恩格斯选集》 (第三卷) , 人民出版社1972年版, 第518页。
                                33参见叶平:《生态权利概念的历史考察》, 《国外社会科学》1995年第3期, 第5页。
                                34蔡守秋:《环境权初探》, 《中国社会科学》1982年第3期, 第35页。
                                35参见前引[1], 张震文, 第21页。
                                36参见前引[5], 哈贝马斯书, 第33页。

                                张震.生态文明入宪及其体系性宪法功能[J].当代法学,2018,32(06):50-59.
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