星云棋牌官网下载

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                      地方立法权限现状与完善措施

                      时间:2018-08-01 来源:哈尔滨师范大学社会科学学报 作者:肖冲 本文字数:8412字

                      星云棋牌官网下载   DIFANGLIFAQUANXIANWENTIYANJIU

                        摘要:党的十八届三中全会后, 中央明确提出要推进国家治理体系与治理能力现代化的重大战略目标。纵观现代国家在完善自身治理体系与治理能力时无不依靠法治的力量, 因此推进国家治理体系与治理能力的现代化的内在逻辑就是法治的现代化, 要运用法治思维与法治方式治理国家, 让法治发挥最基础的支撑作用, 即依法治国。其在立法领域的核心内容就是中央与地方的立法事权的划分, 具体来讲就是《立法法》出台后如何界定地方立法权限问题, 基于中国央地立法体制构建的实践经验, 在中央法制统一的前提下能动发挥地方的治理能力, 扩容立法主体与立法权限, 完善地方立法权限的事后监督制度, 促进中央与地方在各自治理范围充分做到治理体系与治理能力的现代化、法治化。

                        GUANJIANCI:DIFANGLIFAQUAN; FAZHITONGYI; ZHILINENGLI;

                        ZUOZHEJIANJIE: XIAOCHONG, ZHENGZHOUDAXUEFAXUEYUANSHUOSHIYANJIUSHENG, YANJIUFANGXIANG:FALIXUE。

                        2015NIAN《LIFAFA》XIUGAIHOUKUOCHONGLELIFAZHUTI, JIANGSHEQUDESHIHUARULIFAZHUTIFANWEI, LINGWAIGUIDINGLEYANG、DILIANGJIDELIFAQUANXIAN, MINGQUELEYINGYOUFALVZHIDINGDE“BAOLIUSHIXIANG”, BINGQIEJIANGSHEQUDESHIDELIFAFANWEIGUIDINGZAI“CHENGXIANGJIANSHEYUGUANLI、HUANJINGBAOHU、LISHIWENHUABAOHUDENGFANGMIANDESHIXIANG”, QIGOUJIANMUDESHITONGGUOSHIXIANDELIFAQUANXIANHUAFENYILIQINGZHONGYANGHEDIFANGLIFAQUANPEIZHIWENTI, WEIHUGUOJIADEFAZHITONGYI。LIFAZHUTIJIXUXIANGXIAYANSHENSHIZHIDEKENDINGDE, DANSHIBENCI《LIFAFA》XIUGAIRENGYOUBUZUZHICHU, DUIYUDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANRENGBIAOXIANCHUYIZHONG“SUIFANGYOUSHOU”DEBAOSHOUTAIDU。SUOYOUFALVSIXIANGDOULITUXIEDIAOWENDINGBIYAOXINGYUBIANHUABIYAOXINGZHEILIANGZHONGBICICHONGTUDEYAOQIU[1] (P2) 。YOUCI, RUHEZAIZHONGYANGFAZHITONGYIYUANZEXIAFAHUIDIFANGZHILINENGDONGXING, YOUXIAODIXIANJIEYANG、DILIANGJILIFA, MANZUDIFANGLIFAXUQIUCHENGWEILIFATIZHIGAIGEZHONGDEZHONGYAOYIHUAN。HELIHUAFENZHONGYANGHEDIFANGDELIFAQUANXIAN, ZUODAO“ZHONGDAGAIGEYUFAYOUJU”, FUYUDIFANG“XIANXINGXIANSHI”DEHEFAXINGYUHELIXING, POJIEDIFANGYOUYITANSUOSHI“LIANGXINGWEIXIAN”DEJIONGPOJUMIAN。

                        一、地方立法权限的历史沿革与现实价值

                      星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOLIFATIZHIYOUYUBUTONGDELISHIYUANYINZAIZHONGYANGYUDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANSHANGJINGLI“FANG—SHOU—FANG”DELIFASHIQUANPEIZHIMOSHI。

                        DIYIJIEDUANSHI1949NIANDAO1954NIAN, ZHEIYIDUANSHIQIZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGANGGANGCHENGLI, JINGJIDIAOLING, BAIFEIDAIJU, ZAIZHEIYISHIQIDIFANGGEJIZHENGQUANJIGUANDOUXIANGYOUYUQIZISHENSHIWUXIANGGUANDELIFAQUAN, XINGCHENGDUOYUANDELIFAZHUTIYUZUIDAHUADELIFAQUANXIAN。GENJU《ZHONGGUORENMINZHENGZHIXIESHANGHUIYIGONGTONGGANGLING》DEGUIDING, WOGUOLIFATIZHICAIQUZHONGYANGLIFAHEDIFANGLIFAERYUANJIEHEMOSHI。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   DIERJIEDUANSHICONG1954NIANXIANFABANXINGZHI1979NIAN, GAIJIEDUANSHILIFAQUANXIANGZHONGYANGGAODUJIZHONGDELISHISHIQI, JIZHONGYANGGAODUJIZHONGLIFAMOSHI。1954NIANXIANFADIERSHIERTIAOMINGQUEGUIDING, QUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUISHIXINGSHIGUOJIALIFAQUANDEWEIYIJIGUAN。SUIZHESHEHUIZHUYIGAIZAOSHIYEDEJINZHAN, GUOJIAJIXUZHIDINGGEXIANGFALV, YISHIYINGGUOJIAJIANSHEHEGUOJIAGONGZUODEYAOQIU。1955NIANDIYIJIEQUANGUORENDADIERCIHUIYITONGGUOJUEDING:QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIZAIQUANGUORENDABIHUIQIJIANSHOUQUANCHANGWUWEIYUANHUIYIZHAOXIANFADEJINGSHEN、GENJUSHIJIDEXUYAO, SHISHIDIZHIDINGBUFENXINGZHIDEFALV, JIDANXINGFAGUI。ZONGTILAIKAN, JIHUAJINGJITIZHIXIAZHONGYANGTONGGUANYIQIE, DIFANGBUNENGYOUXIAODIFAHUIDUIYUZISHENGUANLISHIWUDEJIJIXING、NENGDONGXING。ZAIGUOTUGUANGMAO、QINGKUANGGEYIDEZHONGGUO, YIYUANLIFATIZHIBUKEBIMIANDIXIANRUJIANGHUAZHILIDEJIEJU。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   DISANJIEDUANSHIGAIGEKAIFANGZHIJIN, 1978NIANQIANHOUJIYU30NIANDELIFAQUANSHOUFANGDEXUNHUANTANSUOJINGYAN, YANGDIGUANXIKAISHIZHUJIANYOUZHONGYANGJIQUANXIANGDIFANGFENQUANZHUANXING。1979NIAN, 《DIFANGGEJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHEDIFANGGEJIRENMINZHENGFUZUZHIFA》GUIDING, SHENG、ZIZHIQU、ZHIXIASHIDERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIYIJICHANGWUWEIYUANHUI, ZAI“BUDICHU”DEQIANTIXIA, GENJUBENXINGZHENGQUYUDEJUTIQINGKUANGHESHIJIXUYAO, KEYIZHIDINGHEBANBUDIFANGXINGFAGUI, BINGBAOQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIHEGUOWUYUANBEIAN。1982NIAN, 《DIFANGGEJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHEDIFANGGEJIRENMINZHENGFUZUZHIFA》FUYUJINGGUOWUYUANPIZHUNDEJIAODADESHIDERENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIKEYINIDINGBENSHIXUYAODEDIFANGXINGFAGUICAOANDEQUANLI, BINGTONGGUO1982NIANXIANFAYUYIQUEREN。1986NIANLIUJIEQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDI18CIHUIYIJIANGSHENG、ZIZHIQUDERENMINZHENGFUSUOZAIDIDESHIHEJINGGUOWUYUANPIZHUNDEJIAODADESHIDECHANGWUWEIYUANHUIDEFALVCAOANNIDINGQUANXIUGAIWEI“KEYIZHIDINGHEBANBUDIFANGXINGFAGUI”。CONG1979NIANDAO1986NIANDEYIXILIELIFATIZHIGAIGEBIAOZHIWOGUOYANGDILIFAQUANXIANZAIXIANG“ZUNXUNZHONGYANGDETONGYILINGDAO, FAHUIDIFANGDEZHUDONG、JIJIXING”DEXIANFAYUANZEXIUZHENGYUHUIGUI。ZAISUIHOUDEJINIANZHONG, WEILEXIANGYINGSHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIGAIGE, ZAI“MOZHESHITOUGUOHE”DEYUANZEZHIDAOXIAXIANHOUSHOUYUSHENZHEN、SHAMEN、ZHUHAI、SHANTOUDENGJINGJITEQUSUOZAIDIDESHIDERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIJIQICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIZHIDINGJINGJITEQUFAGUIDEQUANLI, LIFAQUANZHONGXINCONGZHONGYANGJIZHONGLIFAXIANGDIFANGNENGDONGLIFA、YOUYITANSUOZHUANYI。2000NIANTONGGUOZHIDING《LIFAFA》GUDINGLEYANGDILIFAQUANPEIZHIGEJU, BIAOZHIZHELIFAQUANXIAFANGYIJINGCHENGWEILIFALINGYUGAIGEDEJIBENQUSHI。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   YOUWOGUOYANGDILIFAQUANXIANBIANQIANDELISHIYANJINKAN, 2015NIANDUIYU《LIFAFA》DEDISANCIXIUZHENGSHIZAIFAZHIZHONGGUOJIANSHEBEIJINGXIA, JIYUZHONGGUOYANGDIGUANXIDESHIJIANHEGUOQING, TUIJINGUOJIAZHILITIXIYUZHILINENGLIDEXIANDAIHUADEZHONGDAGAIGECUOSHI。DANGDESHIBADAYILAI, WOGUOGAIGEJINRUSHENSHUIQU, CONGYIWANG“MOZHESHITOUGUOHE”DEJINGYANXINGSIWEIZHUANBIANWEI“MOZHESHITOUGUOHEYUDINGCENGSHEJI”XIANGJIEHE, 《LIFAFA》BENCIXIUGAIDEMUDESHIJIANGLIFAZHUTIXIANGXIAYANSHEN、KUOQINGYANGDILIFAQUANXIAN, ZUODAOZHONGDAGAIGEXIANXINGXIANSHI, DIFANGTANSUOYUFAYOUJU, ZHENGSHILIFAZHENGYIZAIYANGDILIFAQUANXIANPEIZHISHANGDELUOJIYANJIN。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOCHUYU“LIANGGEYIBAINIAN”ZHANLVEGONGJIANQI, YOUZHONGYANGJINYIBUXIANGDIFANGXIAFANGLIFAQUANSHIDUIDIFANGFAZHANJINGYANYUZHILIMOSHIDEKENDING。JIHUAJINGJITIZHIXIAZHONGYANGYIZHILING、MINGLINGXINGSHITONGCHOUGUIHUAQUANGUOSHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEDESIWEIXIANRANBUSHIYONGYUSHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIJIANSHEZHONGGEDIYIZHIHUAZHUJIANJIADADEXIANSHIQINGKUANG。WOGUOSHIYONGYOU960DUOWANPINGFANGGONGLIDEGUANGMAODIYUHE13YIDUORENKOUDEDAGUO, JINJINYIKAOZHONGYANGDUIYUQUANGUOGEDIDETESHUXUYAO、DUTEDELISHIBEIJINGZUOCHUFUHELIXINGYUJINGYANDEFAZHANGUIHUASHIBUQIEHESHIJIDE, QILIFACHENGBENYUCHANCHUXIAOYIBUCHENGBILI。SUIZHEWOGUOJINGJIFAZHANXIAXINGYALIDEJIADA, YOUDIFANGZHENDUIZISHENTESHUQINGKUANGTONGGUOLIFACHENGXUBAOZHANGDIQUFAZHANJUYOUHELIXINGYUZHENGDANGXING, ZHONGYANGYUDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANDEXIEDIAOPEIZHI、XIAWEIFADUISHANGWEIFADEYOUXIAOXIANJIESHIBIRANDE。ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJIANSHEDELISHIJINGYANYUSHIJIANJIEJINGBUZHIYICIDIBIAOMINGLEZHONGYANGWANGWANGDEYIYUDIFANGDEYOUYITANSUOYUZHIDUCHUANGXIN。

                        ZHONGYANGJIANGLIFAQUANCENGCENGXIAFANG, WANSHANYIYUANDUOJILIFATIZHI, SHIZHENGZHIJINCHENGMINZHUHUADETIXIAN。RENMINDAIBIAODAHUISHISHIXIANRENMINDANGJIAZUOZHUDEZUIGENBENDEZHIDUANPAI, YESHIXINGSHIGUOJIALIFAQUANDEWEIYIJIGUAN。ZAI1954NIANDAO1978NIANZHONGYANGGAODUJIZHONGLIFAMOSHISHIJIANJINGYANKAN, FALVBINGMEIYOUFAHUIQIGONGNENGYOUSHI, ZHANGQIYILAI“WENJIANZHIGUO”“ZHENGCEZHIGUO”“JIANGHUAZHIGUO”DEJIHUAZHILINGSHISIWEISHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUZAISHIJIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANLEYUZHIDUSHEJIXIANGZUODEXIANXIANG。ZAIYOUZHILIXUYAOYULIFAXUQIUDEDIFANGYOUYUQUEFALIFAQUAN, ZHIJIERAOGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUDAIZHIYIXINGZHENGSECAINONGZHONGDEHONGTOUWENJIANJINXINGDIFANGZHILI。RUCIYILAI, RENMINDEYIZHIJIUBUNENGTONGGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDEZHIDUJIANGOUWANQUANTIXIANZAIGUOJIAZHILIGUOCHENGZHONG, RENMENDUIYULIFADERENKEDUBUGAO, RENWEIFAJIUSHIGUANZIJI, ZHEIBULIYUZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGZHIZHENGHEFAXINGZHUANXIANGFALIXINGTONGZHIDEZHILIMOSHI。ZAISHIJIEJIEGOUZHONGDEZHONGGUOSHIZHIBUZAIYUGEXINGHUOYUXIFANGGUOJIADEBUTONG, ERZAIYUZHUTIXING, QIHEXINZAIYUXINGCHENGYIZHONGGENJUZHONGGUODEZHONGGUOGUANHESHIJIEGUAN, BINGGENJUZHEIZHONGZHONGGUOGUANYIYIZHONGZHUDONGDEZITAICANYUSHIJIEJIEGOUDEZHONGGOUJINCHENG[2] (P31) 。GENJUWOGUODEGUOJIAJIEGOUXINGSHIHEJUTIGUOQING, YAOXIANGTONGSHIFAHUIZHONGYANGHEDIFANGDEJIJIXING, BIXUCAIQUYIZHONGYANGJIQUANWEIZHU、DIFANGSHIDUXIANGYOULIFAQUANDEYUANZEHEZHIDU, ZHEIYANGYEYOUZHUYUBIMIANFALVHELIFATIZHIDEJIANGHUA[3]。YINCI《LIFAFA》GUIDINGDEFALVBAOLIUSHIXIANGYIJIJINYIBUKUORONGLIFAZHUTIBUJINSHIYICILIFATIZHIDEZHONGDAGAIBIAN, HAISHIYICISHENCENGCIDEMINZHUXUNLIAN, PEIZHIRENMINDANGJIAZUOZHUDEYISHI, SHIXIANZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLINGDAO、RENMINDANGJIAZUOZHU、CUJINQUANMIANYIFAZHIGUODETONGYI。

                        二、地方立法权限现状考察

                        JIYUZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHENGLIYILAIYANGDILIFAQUANXIANDEBIANQIAN, LIQINGWOGUODIFANGLIFAQUANDEFAZHANTAISHI, ZAIXINSHIDAIYINGHELIKAOLVDIFANGZHILIDEXUQIU, ZAIFAZHITONGYIDEYIYUANGEJUXIA, JIJIFAHUIDIFANGDEZHUDONGXING、JIJIXINGYIWANSHANDUOCENGDELIFATIZHI。ZAILIFAQUANXIAFANGDEGUOCHENGZHONGRUHEYOUXIAODIXIANJIESHANGWEIFAYUXIAWEIFA、FANGZHIDIFANGLANYONGLIFAQUANYIJILANGFEILIFAZIYUANRENGSHIYIGEJIXUJIEJUEDEXIANSHIWENTI。

                        1. ZHONGYANGFAZHITONGYIYUDIFANGZHILIXUQIU

                        WOGUOZUOWEITONGYIDEDANYIZHIGUOJIA, ZAIYANGDILIFAZHIDUSHEJIZHONGQUELILEYIYUANDUOCENGDELIFATIZHI。SHOUXIAN, XIANGDUIYUZHONGYANGCENGMIANDELIFA, DIFANGLIFACHUYUCONGSHUDIWEI, ZHONGYANGLIFASHISHANGWEIFADIFANGLIFASHIXIAWEIFA, YIBANLAISHUODIFANGLIFABUDEYUZHONGYANGLIFAXIANGDICHU。QICI, ZAIYIYUANDUOCENGDELIFATIZHIXIA, YAOYOUXIAODIFAHUIDIFANGLIFADENENGDONGXING。SUOYOUSHOUFALVHEXISUDIAOZHENGDEMINZHONGGONGTONGTIDOUYIFANGMIANSHIYONGZIJIDEFA, YIFANGMIANSHIYONGYIQIERENSUOGONGYOUDEFA[4] (P2) 。MAOZEDONGZAI1956NIANFABIAODE《LUNSHIDAGUANXI》ZHONGZHEZHONGQIANGDIAO:“ZUNXUNZHONGYANGDETONGYILINGDAO, FAHUIDIFANGDEZHUDONG、JIJIXING。”ZAICHUANTONGLIFAGUANNIANZHONG, YIYUANDUOCENGDELIFAANHANRENMINZHUQUANDESIXIANG, JIANGLIFAQUANDENGTONGYUZHUQUAN, RENMINXINGSHIGUOJIAQUANLIZUIZHUYAODETIXIANJIUSHIDUIYULIFAQUANDEXINGSHI。LUSUOZAI《SHEHUIQIYUELUN》ZHONGTICHU“ZHIYOUJINGGUORENMINPIZHUNDEFALVCAISHIYOUXIAODE, FOUZEJIUBUNENGSHIQIWEIFALV”[5] (P92) 。WOGUODELIFAJIGUANSHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUI, YOURENMINDAIBIAODAHUIJINXINGLIFASHIRENMINZHUQUANDEXIANGZHENG。YOUYUWOGUOFUYUANLIAOKUO, QUYUKUADUGUANG, SHIBUNENGSHIXIANXIAOGUOGUAMINSHIDERENMINZHIJIELIFATIZHIGOUXIANG, YINCIZAIZHONGYANGTONGYILINGDAOXIA, YOUGEGEDIFANGGENJUDIFANGTESE, ZAIBUYUFAZHITONGYIQIANTIXIANGWEIBEIXIASHIXINGBENDIQULIFAHUODONGSHIDAGUOZHANGQILISHIZHILIZHONGTANSUOCHUDEJUYOULUOJIZIQIAXINGYUSHIJIANJINGYANXINGDEFENQUANMOSHI。

                        RUHEZAI“BUDICHU”YUANZEXIA“YOUTESE”CHENGWEIYANG、DILIANGJILIFAYIJIXIAWEIFATONGSHANGWEIFAXIANGXIANJIEDEXIANSHIKUNJING。《LIFAFA》XIUGAIHOUJIANGLIFAZHUTIJIAODADESHIKUOCHONGDAOSHEQUDESHI, YOULIYUDIFANGFAHUIZHUDONGXINGYUJIJIXING, YESHISHUNYINGGAIGEKAIFANGHOUSHEHUISHIJIANYURENMINXUQIUDEJIJUBIANHUADEQUSHIERTISHENGDIFANGZHILINENGLIDELIFATIZHIGAIGE。DUIYU《LIFAFA》XIUGAIHOUGUANYULIFAZHUTIDEKUOCHONGYOULIANGZHONGKANFA:YISHIJIANGSHEQUDESHINARUDAOLIFAZHUTIZHONGNENGFOUMANZUDIFANGZHILIXUQIUDEDUOYANGXING, GAIGEKAIFANGHOUYOUXUDUODIQUYIJUNTUQI, JINGJIQIANGXIANDENGCENGCHUBUQIONG, YI“JIAODADESHI”“SHEQUDESHI”WEIHUAFENBIAOZHUNRENGRANSHIYIXINGZHENGJIBIEWEILIFAZIYUANFENPEIDEBIAOZHUN, SUIZHEQUANGUOGEGEDIQUJIANTONGZHIXINGRIYIJIANRUOERYIZHIXINGZHUJIANZENGQIANG, DANCHUNDIYIKAOXINGZHENGJIBIEJINXINGHUAFENZHEIYANGJIHUAJINGJISHIDAIZHILINGSIWEIDECHANWUSHIFOUNENGZHENZHENGMANZUDIFANGCHENGSHIZHILIDEXUQIUSHIZHIDESHANGQUEDE, ZAIMEIYOULIFAQUANERYOUJUYOUJIAOGAOLIFAXUQIUDEDIQUJIUHUIYIRANYANYONGHONGTOUWENJIANDEFANGSHIQUDAILIFADEFANGSHI, ZHEIYANGDEJIEGUOBUJINHUIDAOZHIGAIDIQUSUOCAIYONGDEZHILIGUIZEWENLUANERQUEFAZHENGCEDEWENDINGXINGYUYANXUXING, CHAOLINGXIGAI, HAIHUIRAOGUOGAIDIQUDERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIJIEJINXINGJUECEERDAOZHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDEZHIDUGONGNENGQUEWEIYUSHINENG, LINGWAIZHEIYEZAOCHENGJUYOULIANGHAOXIAOGUODE“LIANGXINGWEIXIAN”CHENGWEIDIFANGZHILIDEWUNAIZHIJU。ERSHILIFAZHUTIDEDUOYUANHUA、FENSANHUASHIFOUHUICHONGJIZHONGYANGFAZHIDETONGYI, DIFANGLIFAQUANXIANDELANYONGSHILIFAZHONGXINXIAYIGUOCHENGZHONGBUKEBIMIANDEZHENGJIE, FACHUDUOMENYIJILIFASHANGCUZHILANZAOJIANGSHIBIDAOZHIFALVCHONGJIWOGUOFAZHITONGYIDEXIANZHUANGGEJU。RUGUOLANYONGLIFAQUAN, ZAIQUEFAYOUXIAODEJIANDUJIZHIXIAGEDIYIFANGMIANHUITONGGUOLIFAPOHUAIGAIGEKAIFANGYILAIWOGUOJIANLIDEQUANGUOTONGYIDESHICHANGJINGJI, XINGCHENGDIFANGBAOHUZHUYI, ZHEIBULIYUWENGUWOGUOJINGJIGAIGEQUDEDECHENGGUO;LINGYIFANGMIAN, GEDIZHENGXIANGLIFAZHENGDUOSHEHUIZIYUAN, SHIBIHUIZAOCHENGZHONGFULIFA、CUCAOLIFAYIJIDUISHANGWEIFAJIANDANDEXIHUA, LANGFEILIFAZIYUAN, BUNENGTIGONGLIANGHAODESHEHUIZHILIFUWU, YU《LIFAFA》XIUGAIDEFAHUIDIFANGJIJIXING、NENGDONGXINGDECHUZHONGBUFU, LIFALINGYUDEWENLUANYINGSHEDAOSIFALINGYUJIUDAOZHIFALVSHIYONGDEBUTONGYI, FANGAISIFAGONGZHENGXINGYIJIKEYUQIXINGDESHIXIAN, YIZHIYUSHIFALVQUESHIDINGFENZHIZHENGDEGONGNENG。

                        2. YANG、DILIANGJILIFAQUANXIANDEJIEDING

                        ZAILIANBANGZHIGUOJIA, ZHONGYANGYUDIFANGLIFAQUANDEERYUANHUAFENYUDANYIZHIGUOJIADECHAYIZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAI:DIFANGDEZAIMEIGUOGUANYUDIFANGLIFAQUANDELILUNJICHUSHIYIGOUJIAN“YOUXIANXINGZHENGFU”YOUDIFANGJIANGZIYOUDEQUANLIRANGYULIANBANG。MEIGUOGEGEZHOUJIYUQIYUELILUNJIANLILEMEIGUOLIANBANGZHENGFU, BINGWEILEBAOCHIMEIGUOLIANBANGDEYANXUCHANSHENGDIYIBUCHENGWENXIANFA, QIGOUJIANLUOJIBIAOMINGMEIGUOGEGEZHOUZAILIANBANGJIANLIQIANJIUYIJINGCUNZAI, MEIGUOLIANBANGZHENGFUDEQUANLISHIGEGEZHOUZAIYIYOUQUANLIDEJICHUSHANGJIYUQIYUERANGDUJILIANBANGZHENGFU, BINGQIEZAIXIANFAZHONGGUIDINGMEIGUOLIANBANGZHENGFUBUDESUIYIXIUGAI、XIANZHIGEGEZHOUDEQUANLI。GENJUMEIGUOZIXIAERSHANGDEZHENGQUANGOUJIANDELISHIYUJING, QIYANGDILIFASHIQUANBIAOZHENGWEIGEZHOUYIJILIANBANGYOUQIZHUANSHUDELIFAQUANXIAN, BINGZAIGEZIDELIFASHIQUANFANWEINEIBUDEHUXIANGGANSHE, GEZHOUXIANGYOUDULIDELIFAQUAN。ZAIDANYIZHIGUOJIA, ZHONGYANGZAILIFALINGYUQIDAOZHUDAOZUOYONG, ZAISHIJIANYULILUNSHANGXINGCHENGZISHANGERXIADELIFASHIQUANZONGXIANGFENPEIGEJU。ZAIYANGDIGUANXISHANG, ZHONGYANGRUTONGYIGEDAJIAZHANGZHIDAO、GUIHUAZHEDIFANGLIFALINGYUDEGEGEFANGMIAN, BINGQIEBUTONGYULIANBANGZHIGUOJIAYANGDIDULIDELIFAQUAN, YIGUOJIAZHENGTIZHUYIFAZHIGUANWEIYINLING, ZHONGYANGKEYIYIDANFANGMIANDEYIZHIKUODAHUOZHESUOXIAODIFANGDELIFAQUAN。

                        ZAIWOGUOYANGDIZHIJIANLIFAQUANDEHUAFENSHIZONGXIANGZHENGZHIQUANLIPEIZHIDEZHONGYAONEIRONG, YESHIZAIYUANZEXINGXIAFAHUIDIFANGZHILILINGHUOXING, TUXIANDIFANGZHILITESE, WEIHUZHONGYANGFAZHIQUANWEIYUTONGYIDEZHONGYAOGAIGEJUCUO。GENJUYUQIBOSHIDUIYUBEIJING、TIANJINDENGCHENGSHIDEDIFANGLIFADIAOCHA“CONGZHENGTISHANGKAN, SHIRONGHUANWEILINGYUSHEDINGCHUFADETIAOKUANYUSHANGWEIFAZHIJIANDEPINGJUNZHONGFULVWEI21.66%, ANQUANSHENGCHANLINGYUDEPINGJUNZHONGFULVWEI16.03%, ZAIGUIFANZHENGTISHANGSUOZHANJUDEDIWEIBINGBUMINGXIAN”, “WOGUODIFANGLIFAZAIZHONGFUZHONGYANGLIFAFANGMIANWENTIBINGBUTUCHU, ZHIJIEJINXINGTIAOWENFUZHIDEBILIGENGDI, BUNENGRENWEIWOGUODEDIFANGLIFAJIGUANZHUYAOZAICHAOXISHANGWEIFADEGUIDING”[6]。YOUCIKEJIAN, JISHISHIZAIFALVTIXIZHUBUDEBEIJINGXIA, DIFANGLIFABUJINSHIZAIDANCHUNZHONGFUSHANGWEIFADEGUIDING, ZUOWEIZHONGYANGLIFADEYANSHENRENGYOUCHUANGZHIYUSHIYANDEKONGJIAN。《LIFAFA》CICIXIUGAIBUDANJIANGSHIYIJIDELIFAQUANYOUYUANLAIDE49GESHIKUOCHONGDAO282GESHEQUDESHI, ERQIEZAIYANGDILIFAQUANXIANFENPEIZHISHANGJIANGSHEQUDESHIDELIFAQUANXIANXIANDINGZAI“CHENGXIANGJIANSHEYUGUANLI、HUANJINGBAOHU、LISHIWENHUABAOHUDENGFANGMIAN”, DUIYUSHENGYIJIDELIFAZHUTIQUANXIANFANWEI, GUIDING“ZAIBUTONGXIANFA、FALV、XINGZHENGFAGUIXIANGDICHUDEQIANTIXIA, KEYIZHIDINGDIFANGXINGFAGUI”, BINGJIANGSHEQUDESHIDEZHIDINGDEFAGUIDEHEFAXINGSHENCHAQUANFUYUSHENGYIJILIFAZHUTI。LINGWAI, ZAI《LIFAFA》ZHONGGUIDINGLESHIYIXIANGFALVBAOLIUSHIXIANG。SHOUXIAN, JIANGLIFAQUANCENGJIXIAFANG, KUODALIFAZHUTIFANWEISHIPINGDENGYUANZEYANSHENDAOLIFALINGYUDEBIAOXIAN, LIFAQUANZUOWEIZIYUANCHUCIFENPEIDEZHONGYAOQUANLI, LIFAQUANFENPEIDEBUPINGDENGSHIYUANTOUDEBUPINGDENG, QIYIXINGZHENGDENGJIZUOWEILIFAQUANXIANFENPEIDEBIAOGANZHIHUISHIFADADEDIQULIYONGLIFAQUANWEIBENDIQUDEJINGJIFAZHANBAOJIAHUHANG, XINGCHENGDAXING、TEDAXINGDEZHENGZHIJINGJIZHONGXIN, SHIQIANFADADIQUZAIBENJIURUOSHIDEJICHUSHANGGENGMEIYOUPINGDENGJINGZHENGDENENGLI, YUWOGUOGONGTONGFUYU、XIANFUDAIHOUFUDEZHENGCEBEIFAN, BENCIKUODALIFAZHUTIFANWEIJIUSHIXIANGLIFAQUANNENGPINGDENGFENPEIDEJIAOZHENGYUHUIGUI。QICI, ZAIDI8TIAOFALVBAOLIUSHIXIANGWAIZAIJIANGSHEQUDESHIDELIFAQUANXIANDINGZAI“CHENGXIANGJIANSHEYUGUANLI、HUANJINGBAOHU、LISHIWENHUABAOHUDENGFANGMIAN”, DUIYUYISHANGSANGEFANGMIANDEYUYINEIHANYIJILUOJIWAIYANDOUMEIYOUZUOCHUQINGXIDEJIEDING。LINGWAIZAIFALVBAOLIUSHIXIANGZHONGDUIYUSHENMESHI“JIBEN”DENGCIYUYEQUESHAOJUYOUCAOZUOXINGDEGUIDING。DAERTONGZHIDEJIEDINGBINGBULIYUDIFANGNENGDONGDIXINGSHILIFAQUAN, DIFANGLIFAHUOZHETUPOSHANGWEIFADEXIANZHIBEIFAN“BUDICHU”YUANZE, HUOZHEBEIDONGDIDENGDAI、YIFUYUZHONGYANGBANBUXIANGGUANDEFALVWENJIAN, JINJINJIANGDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANYONGYUZHONGFU、XIHUASHANGWEIFA, QUANXIANJIEDINGBUMINGQUERANGSHEHUIZHILIHUAXIANGDIFANGBAOHUZHUYIXINGLIFA, ZAIYOULIKETUDESHIXIANGSHANGZHENGXIANGLIFA、DUOYOULIFAZAOCHENGTONGWEIFAZHIJIANDECHONGTUMAODUNBUDUAN, ZAIQUEFALIYIQUDONGDESHIXIANGSHANGGUIBIZEREN、XIAOJIXINGSHIZHIQUAN, RENGRANTIAOBUCHU“YIFANGJIULUAN”DEGUAIQUAN, BULIYUWOGUOFAZHIDETONGYIYUZHILITIXIZHILINENGLIDEWANSHAN。

                        三、地方立法权限的完善措施

                        1. JIAQIANGDIFANGLIFADESHIHOUJIANDU

                      星云棋牌官网下载   YOU《LIFAFA》XIUGAIHOUDUIYUYANGDILIFAQUANXIANDESHEJISILUKAN, ZHUYAOYANYONGSHIQIANYANGEJIEDINGFANWEIDEFANGFA, DANSHIRENDERENZHINENGLIDEYOUXIANXINGYUCUOZONGFUZA、BIANHUADUODUANDESHEHUISHENGHUOZHUANGKUANGXIANGBI, SHITUTONGGUOSHIXIANHUADINGLIFAQUANXIANFANWEIZAILILUNYUSHIJIANSHANGRENGKUNNANZHONGZHONG。QUEFATIXIWANSHAN、XIEDIAOTONGYIDESHIHOULIFAJIANDUJIZHI, ZHINENGRANGFALVQUESHIQIANZHANXINGERSUIZHESHEHUISHENGHUODEBIANHUAYIBUYIQU。YITUOLUOJIYANMINGDELIFAJIANDUJIZHITIGAODIFANGLIFAZHILIANG, ZUODAOQUANZETONGYI, KEXUELIFA, YIFALIFA, XIEDIAOXIAWEIFATONGSHANGWEIFADEYOUXIAOXIANJIE, JIAQIANGDIFANGLIFADEZHENGTIXING、TIXIXINGYIZHIDIFANGLIFABAOHUZHUYI, JIANRUOTONGWEIFAZHIJIANDEMAODUNYUCHONGTU, WEIHUGUOJIAFAZHITONGYI。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIAN, WOGUO《LIFAFA》ZHONGGUIDINGDELIFATIZHIDELIFASHENCHAZHUYAOFENWEIZHUDONGSHENCHA、BEIANSHENCHA、YAOQIUSHENCHA、JIANYISHENCHA[7]。QIZHONG, ZHUDONGSHENCHAGUIDINGZAI《LIFAFA》XINXIUDINGDE98TIAODAO102TIAO。DUIYUZHEISIZHONGSHENCHAFANGSHI, SUIRANWOGUO《LIFAFA》GUIDINGGUIFANXINGFALVWENJIANZAITONGXIANFAFALVDICHUDEQINGKUANGXIAKEYIYUYI“GAIBIANHUOCHEXIAO”, DANSHIZAISHIJIYUNXINGZHONGXIANGGUANJIGOUDESHIHOUSHENCHAQUANRENGRANCHUYUXIUMIANJIEDUAN, ZHEIYANGJIUBUKEBIMIANDIJIANGLUOJITUIYANGUOCHENGZHONGJUYOUMINGZEGONGNENGDE“FALVHOUGUO”PAICHUZAISHIJICAOZUOZHIWAI。CONGGOUJIANLUOJIYIJILIXINGFENXIDECHUWOGUODELIFASHENCHAJIZHIWENTIZHUYAOZAIYUFALVHOUGUODEZAIZHIDUYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGDEQUESHI。YIGEFALVGUIZEWANZHENGDELUOJIJIANGOUJIEGOUYINGBAOHANFALVHOUGUOYAOSU, YIXIEQUEFAFALVHOUGUODEFALVBEIXUEZHECHENGWEIXUANSHIXINGFALV, DANSHIDUIYULIFAJIANDUJUEDUIBUNENGJINJINTINGLIUZAIWUYIYIDEKONGQIZHENDONGSHANG。YINCIWOMENYAOWANSHANLIFAJIANDUDEKECAOZUOXING, YISHIYAOJIAQIANGMINZHUJIANDU, JIANHUAJIANYISHENCHADEQIANZHIXINGCHENGXU, GONGMINZAIJUTIDESHENGHUOZHONGDUIYUFALVHESHEHUICHANSHENGDEFANYINGZUIWEIZHIJIE、QIANGLIE, YAOTONGGUOBAOZHANGGONGMINDECANYUQUAN, ZHIQINGQUANSHIGONGZHONGGUANGFANDICANYUDAODIFANGLIFAZHONG, YUFANGDIFANGLANYONGLIFAQUANDELIUBI, TOUMINGHUAJIANYISHENCHADESHENCHACHENGXU, ZUOHAOSHENCHADEJIEGUOGONGSHI。ERSHIYAOJIANGSHENCHAJIEGUOYU“GAIBIANHUOCHEXIAO”DEFALVHOUGUOXIANGDUIJIE。ZAIYIYUANDUOCENGDELIFATIZHIXIAYAOXINGCHENGYIGELUOJIJIEGOUWANZHENGDEFALVGUIZE, XIAWEIFAYAOZAI“YIYUAN”TONGHEXIAXIEDIAOHAOXIAWEIFAYUSHANGWEIFADEXIANJIEWENTI。ZUOWEIXIAWEIFADE《LIFAFA》YAOHELILIYONGLIFAZIYUANZHEZHONGXIHUAXIANFAZHONGDEXUANSHIXINGTIAOKUAN, ZENGQIANGXIANFAYUANZEZAISHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGDESHENGMINGLI。ZHIYOUJIANG“GAIBIANHUOCHEXIAO”DEZERENHOUGUOBIANWEIXIANSHISHI, SHIHOUDELIFAJIANDUCAINENGZHENZHENGFAHUIQIGONGNENGYUDINGWEI, SHIYINGXINGSHIDEBIANQIANSHENSHIDUSHIDIZUOCHUQUANHENG, MIBUSHIQIANHUAFENLIFAQUANXIANZAISHIJIYUNZUOGUOCHENGZHONGDEQUEXIANYULOUDONG。

                        2. JIXUKUORONGLIFAZHUTIHELIFAQUANXIAN

                        LIFAQUANCONGZHONGYANGXIAFANGDAODIFANGXINGCHENGYIYUANDUOCENGDELIFATIZHI, SHILIXINGSIKAOHEXUANZEDEYANGDIGUANXIMOSHI, CUJINDIFANGZHILINENGLIDEQUANMIANTISHENGHEZHILIFANGSHIDEFAZHIZHUANXING, YESHISHIXIAN“LIANGGEYIBAINIAN”MUBIAO、DUIXIANGONGTONGFUYUCHENGNUODEGUANJIANJUCUO。MUQIAN, WOGUODUIYULIFAQUANDEPEIZHIRENGSHIYIXINGZHENGJIBIEWEIPEIZHIJICHUTIAOJIAN, ZAILIFAQUANXIAFANGGUOCHENGZHONGFUYUSHEQUDESHIDERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIJIQICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIDUIYUGUANLIDIFANGXINGSHIWUDELIFAQUAN, JIANGDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANGXIAYANSHENDEJIEXIANBUZAIXIANDINGYUJINGGUOWUYUANQUEDINGDEJIAODADESHI。JINGGUODUIJIAODADESHIHESHEQUDESHIDELIFAJINGYANDEZONGJIE, YINGDANGYOUJIHUADIJIANGLIFAQUANXIAFANGDAOXIANJIZHENGQUAN。YIBUFENXUEZHEBIAODALEDUIYUDIFANGLIFAQUANDEKUODADEYOULV, DANXINLIFAQUANXIAFANGHOUDIFANGLIFAQUANHUIBEILANYONG, LINGWAIYOUYUWOGUODEFALVTIXIYIJINGXINGCHENG, LIFASUIZHEJINGYAN、SHIJIANDEZONGJIEYUJILEIZHUJIANXIHUA, DIFANGDELIFAKONGJIANYIRANBUDA, JIANGLIFAQUANXIAFANGDAOSHIJINAIZHIJICENG, DIFANGLIFADEZHONGFULIFAXIANXIANGHUIGENGDUO, ZAOCHENGFALVWENBENDERONGZHANG, YUZHONGYANGXIAFANGLIFAQUANDEYUANYIBEIFAN。DANSHIYEYOUXUEZHERENWEIZAIDANGQIANLIFATIXIZHUBUWANSHANDEBEIJINGXIA, CICILIFAZHUTIDEKUORONGSHIYICHANGJUBUDELIFATIZHIGAIGE, BUTAIKENENGDUIFAZHITONGYIZAOCHENGYANZHONGDEBULIYINGXIANG[8]。

                        YOUWOGUOYANGDILIFAQUANPEIZHITIZHIDELISHIYANJINKAN, ZAIJINGLIJIANGHUADEZHONGYANGGAODUJIQUANLIFATIZHIHOU, LIFAQUANDEXIAFANGYIJINGCHENGWEILIFALINGYUDEZHONGYAOQUSHI。LIFAQUANGUANXIDAODIFANGZIZHUZHILIKONGJIANDEDAXIAOHESHEHUIFALVGUANXIXINGSULIDEQIANGRUO, LIFASHIJIANYIYUYIFANGMINZHONGDEMINZHUXUNLIAN、LUNBIANLIXINGHEFAZHIXIUYANGXIUQIXIANGGUAN[9]。ZAIJINGJIGAIGEDEBEIJINGXIA, YOULIFAXUQIUDEJINGJIQIANGXIANZAIQUEFALIFAQUANSHIWANGWANGYI“SHANGYOUZHENGCE, XIAYOUDUICE”DEFANGSHILAIHUIYINGDIFANGDEZHILIXUQIU, ZHEIYANGBUGUANDIFANGLIFAQUANSHIFOUSHUNYANDAOXIANYIJIZHENGQUAN, ZAIDIFANGZHILIZONGYOU“DUICE”JIHONGTOUWENJIANDENGLAIYINGDUIDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANDEBUZU。ZHEIYANGBUJINSHIDIFANGZHILIDE“XIANXINGXIANSHI”YUFAWUJU, HAIXUHUALEDIFANGRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUDEGONGNENGJIANGOU。LINGWAI, SHEQUDESHIDELIFAQUANJINKEYIDUI“CHENGXIANGJIANSHEYUGUANLI、HUANJINGBAOHU、LISHIWENHUABAOHUDENGFANGMIANDESHIXIANG”JINXINGLIFA, YEBIAOXIANCHUZHONGYANGDUIYULIFAQUANXIANXIAFANGZAOCHENGDIFANGLIFAQUANKUODADEDANYOUYUYUFANG。DUIYUZHEISANXIANGSHIWUDEWENYILIJIEBUYINGFANGZAIGUOYUZHAIXIAODEFANWEI, “DENGFANGMIANDESHIXIANG”YEYINGZUO“DENGWAIDENG”DELIJIE。DUIZHONGYANGFAZHITONGYIDEQIANGDIAOSUIRANKEYIFANGZHIDIFANGLIFAQUANDELANYONG、LIFAZIYUANDELANGFEI, DANSHIDIFANGZHENGQUANYEHUIYINCIHUIBIWENTIDESHIZHIXINGJIEJUE, JINJINYIKAOLIXINGYULUOJIDESHIXIANSHEDINGLIFAQUANXIANFANWEIJIANGHUIZAOCHENGJINGTAIDEFALVWENBENYUDONGTAIDESHEHUISHIJIANDEJINZHANGGUANXI, DUIDIFANGLIFAQUANXIANDEXIANZHIJINKAOSHIXIANYUFANGSHIBUNENGSHIXIANGUOJIAFAZHITONGYIDELIFAMUDE, GENGYINGDANGTUIJINYUZHIXIANGPEITAODESHIHOULIFAJIANDUJIZHIZAIDONGTAIBIANHUADEJICHUSHANGBAWODIFANGLIFAQUANXIANDEFANWEI。YINCI, ZAIZONGJIEYIWANGDIFANGLIFAJINGYANDEJICHUSHANGJIANGLIFAQUANZHUBUXIAFANGDAOXIANJIZHENGQUAN, YOULIYUZHENGHEHEYOUHUADUOYUANSHEHUILIFAZIYUAN, RANGJICENGMINZHONGNENGCANYUZISHENLIYIXIANGGUANDEDIFANGJUECE, ZENGQIANGLIFADEMINZHUXINGHESHEHUIDEHUIYINGXING, SHIDIFANGZHILIWENTIYIFAZHISIWEI、FAZHIFANGSHIYUYIJIUZHENGHEJIEJUE。

                        四、结语

                        GENZHIYUWOGUODIFANGLIFANGQUANXIANPEIZHIDELISHIJINGYAN, JIANGLIFAQUANXIANYOUZHONGYANGXIAFANGDAODIFANGBUJINPOCHULELIFAQUANSHENMIDESECAI, GUANCHELEPINGDENGDEXIANFAYUANZE, HAIXINGCHENGYUWANSHANYIYUANDUOCENGDELIFATIZHI, YOULIYUZHONGYANGYUDIFANGZAIGEZIDELIFAQUANXIANFANWEINEITUIDONGZHILINENGLIYUZHILITIXIDEXIANDAIHUA。ZHONGYANGYUDIFANGDELIFAQUANPEIZHISHIYIGESUIZHESHEHUISHIJIANBIANQIANBUDUANBIANDONGDEDONGTAIGUOCHENG, SHIXIANBINGBUCUNZAIWANMEIDE、YILAOYONGYIDELIFAFANBEN, WOMENYINGJIANGLIFAZIYUANCONGCHUNCUIDESHIXIANLIFAQUANXIANHUAFENZHUANYIDAOZHENGGELIFAJIZHIDEGOUJIANSHANG, ZHIYOUJIHUODUIYUDIFANGLIFADESHIHOUJIANDUJIZHI, ZAILIFADEYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGCAINENGFAHUIDIFANGLIFADELINGHUOXING、JIJIXING、ZHUDONGXING, YUSHIJUJINDITONGGUODIFANGZHILIFAZHIHUAYOUXIAOSHIXIANRENMINDANGJIAZUOZHU, TUOZHANFAZHILUJING, SHIXIANFAZHIZHONGGUOJIANSHEDELIXIANGYUANJING。

                        CANKAOWENXIAN

                        [1][美]庞德.法律史解释[M].邓正来, 译.北京:中国法制出版社, 2002.
                        [2] 邓正来.中国法学向何处去[M].北京:商务印书馆, 2014.
                        [3]朱力宇.立法体制模式问题研究[J].中国人民大学学报, 2001 (4) .
                        [4] [古罗马]盖尤斯.法学阶梯[M].黄枫, 译.北京:中国政法大学出版社, 2008.
                        [5] [法]卢梭.社会契约论[M].何兆武, 译.北京:商务印书馆, 1997.
                        [6] 俞琪.重复、细化还是创制:中国地方立法与上位法的关系考察[J].政治与法律, 2017 (9) .
                        [7]苗连营.立法重心的转移:从权限划分到立法监督[J].学术交流, 2015 (4) .
                        [8]冯洋.论地方立法权的范围———地方分权理论与比较分析的双重视角[J].行政法学研究, 2017 (2) .
                        [9]倪洪涛.新中国地方立法权:历史、歧视及矫正———以2015年《立法法》修改为中心的论证[J].湘潭大学学报:哲学社会科学版, 2017 (6) .

                        肖冲.地方立法权限问题研究[J].哈尔滨师范大学社会科学学报,2019,10(04):43-47.
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