星云棋牌官网下载

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                        宪法对“家庭”的基本定位和立场

                        时间:2018-11-26 来源:河南大学学报(社会科学版) 作者:王丹 本文字数:10246字

                          摘    要: 星云棋牌官网下载立足历史与现实,“家庭”是我国国家制度构建中一个不容忽视的宪法命题。中国哲学中的“家哲学”,塑造了“家国同构”的历史宪制模式,为考察现代家庭的宪法内涵提供了逻辑起点和法理基础。回顾新中国历部宪法,“家庭”的民族意蕴、经济属性、政治功能、人伦价值得到较为全面的彰显。宪法对“家庭”的基本立场,经历了从默认传统“家庭”概念到纳入宪法调整范围,再到获得独立宪法地位的过程。只有明确“家庭”独立宪法范畴的地位,充分发挥宪法规范的引领作用,才能真正为中国社会现实提供宪法关照。

                          关键词: 星云棋牌官网下载“家庭”; 宪法文本; 宪法解释; 规范内涵;

                          Abstract:星云棋牌官网下载 Based on history and reality, the family is a constitutional proposition that cannot be ignored in the construction of China's national system. The “family philosophy”in Chinese philosophy shapes the historical constitutional model of “family and country isomorphism”, and provides a logical starting point and legal basis for investigating the constitutional connotation of modern family. Reviewing the constitution of the People's Republic of China, the ethnic connotation, economic attribute, political function and value of human relations of the family have been comprehensively highlighted. The basic position of the constitution on “family”has gone through a process from acquiescing in the traditional family concept to incorporating into the adjustment scope of the constitution, and then to obtaining the independent constitutional status. Only by defining the status of the independent constitutional category of “family”and giving full play to the guiding role of constitutional norms can we truly provide constitutional care for China's social reality.

                          Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 family; constitutional text; constitutional interpretation; normal connotation;

                          引 言

                          “JIATING”SHIGERENCHENGZHANG、SHENGHUODEZUIPUBIANCHANGSUO,YESHISHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIADEJIBENZUCHENGDANYUAN,HAISHISHIXIANZHIXUANDINGHEWENMINGCHUANCHENGDEZHONGYAOZAITI。YIFANGMIAN,DANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOBA“JIATING”SHIZUOJIANXINGSHEHUIZHUYIHEXINJIAZHIGUANHEJIANSHESHENGTAIWENMINGDEZHONGYAOYIWUZHUTI,1LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIMINFADIANHUNYINJIATINGBIANXIUDINGGUOCHENGZHONG,XUEJIEPUBIANHUYUQUELI“JIATING”DEMINSHIZHUTIDIWEI。2YOUCIKEJIAN,“JIATING”BUJINSHIYIGESIFAFANCHOU,HAIBEIZUOWEIFALVYIWUZHUTICANYUDAOGUOJIAFAZHIJINCHENGZHIZHONG,CHENGWEIGONGFALINGYUSUODIAOZHENGDETESHUDUIXIANG。HUIGULISHI,“JIATING”SHIZHONGSHIZHONGGUOXIANZHIGUANZHAODEJIBENMINGTI,WOGUOXIANFAJIAOWEIQUANMIANDIGUIDINGLEGUOJIABAOHUJIATINGDEGUIFANNEIRONG。BANSUIJIATINGBIANGEHESHIDAIFAZHAN,XIANFAXUEZHEJIEHEFAZHIYUSHEHUIDEHUDONG,SHITUDUIGUANSHEJIATINGDEZHENGYIZUOCHUHUIYING,YIZHANGXIANXIANFAWEIHUJIATINGWENGUFAZHANDEJINGSHEN;3BINGWEIRAOXIANXINGXIANFADUIJIATINGDENEIHAN、JIATINGYUHUNYINDEGUANXI、JIATINGDEXIANFABAOZHANG4DENGNEIRONGJINXINGJIEDUHEFANSI。RANER,DANGQIANXIANFAXUEGUANYUJIATINGDEYANJIU,JIYIHUSHIZHONGGUOSHEHUICHUANTONGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,DUIXIANFAWENBENZHONGDE“JIATING”QUEFAXITONGXINGCHANSHI,YIZHIYUDUIXIANDAIJIATINGWENTIDECHULIQUEFAXIANFAYUANLICHANSHIHEWENHUAYUANLIUZHICHENG。

                          有鉴于此,本文试图立足于作为“权源”和“法源”5的宪法,从宪法文本中“家庭”的整体价值、历史变迁和法理逻辑出发,重点解读新中国成立70年来“家庭”的规范内涵,揭示宪法对“家庭”的基本定位和立场,为发挥“家庭”的宪法功能和回应社会现实提供规范依据。
                         

                        宪法对“家庭”的基本定位和立场
                         

                          一、“家庭”语义的规范考量

                          YIJUXIANFAZHIXUDESHIXIANYUANLI,“JIATING”XIANFAWENBENDESHENGCHENGGUOCHENG,CONGXIANSHIXIANFAFADUAN,JINGYOUGUANNIANXIANFACHOUXIANGERXINGCHENG,BINGBUDUANDONGTAIXUNHUANWANGFU。6YINER,KAOLIANG“JIATING”DEXIANFAYUYI,KEYICONGKEGUANJINGYANSHANGDE“JIATINGXIANSHI”、ZHUGUANGUANNIANSHANGDE“JIATINGGUANNIAN”HEXIANFAGUIFANSHANGDE“JIATINGWENBEN”SANGEFANGMIANZHANKAIFENXI。

                          ZAIKEGUANJINGYANSHANG,“JIATING”SHIGULAODERENLEIZUZHI,DUIRENLEISHEHUIJUYOUDUTEDEYINGXIANG。7ZAIXIFANGYUJINGZHONG,“JIATING”KEYIBIAODAWEIfamily、fireside、hearthside、household、menageDENGCIHUI。8FamilyJINGLILEGULUOMADEfamilia(NULI),ZHONGSHIJIDEhousehold(ZHUHU),ZAIDAOJINDAIYIHUNYINHEXUEYUANWEIJICHUDEJIATINGGAINIANDEYANBIAN。9HANYUZHONG,“JIA”“TING”JUNYOUJUZHUYIJITONGJUZHUXIANGGUANZHIYI,RUCHUSUO、TINGYUAN。10“JIATING”YICIHEBINGSHIYONGSHI,BUJINZHIJUZHUDECHUSUO,HAIBAOHANYINGONGTONGJUZHUERXINGCHENGQINSHUHECAICHANGUANXI,JI“RENCAIWU”DEJIHE。11 KEJIAN,“JIATING”SHOUXIANSHIGUJINZHONGWAIDEYIGEKEGUANCUNZAI,HUNYINXUEYUANHETONGJUGONGCAISHIZHONGXIFANGDUI“JIATING”GONGYOUDEJIBENRENZHI。

                          ZAIZHUGUANGUANNIANSHANG,ZHONGXIFANG“JIATING”DELILUNQIDIANQUECUNZAIBENZHIBUTONG。ZAIGUDAIXIFANG, “CAICHAN”“QIYUE”SHI“JIA”DEQIDIAN。YALISHIDUODEYI“CAICHAN”QIERU,RENKE“JIA”ZAICHENGBANGZHONGDEXIANGDUIDULIDIWEIHELUNLIJIAZHI;XIANGFAN,HUOBUSIZELIZUGETI,DUI“JIATING”JINXINGLEQIYUEHUADEGOUJIAN。12DAOJINDAIXIFANG,“JIA”DECHUANTONGLUNLIJIAZHIYUQIYUEJINGSHENGEGEBURU,“WUJIA”“RUOJIA”DETEZHENGMINGXIAN,JINYOUSHAOSHUZHEXUEJIAYIRANZHONGSHI“JIA”DESHENSHENGJIAZHI。HAIDEGEERTONGGUO“JIAZHAI”“JIAYUAN”“LUZAO”DENGBA“JIA”DINGWEIWEIYIGE“SHENGCUNDANYUAN”。13LIEWEINASIZEBA“JIA”CONG“XIANGSHOU”“LAODONG”“JIAJU”DENGGAINIANZHONGFUYOUCENGCIGANDILASHEN,TUOZHANLE“JIA”DESHIKONGXING。14MAKESIHEENGESIZHANZAIZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEDELICHANG,RENWEI“JIATING”SHIDONGTAIFAZHANDESHEHUIGUANXI,SHIRENLEILISHIFAZHANDAOTEDINGJIEDUANDECHANWU。15ZAIGUDAIZHONGGUO,RUJIACHUANTONGXUESHUODELUOJIQIDIANSHI“JIA”,16RENXING、LUNLIHEDEXINGDESHENGCHENGZAI“JIA”,CONG“QINQIN”XUEYUANZHIAIDAO“ZUNZUN”“XIANXIAN”DECHAOYUEXUEYUANZHIAIDEYANSHENGCHUYEZAI“JIA”。17NONGGENGSHEHUIDE“QIJIA”SHILISHIZHONGGUOZHIDUXINGCHENGDEYIGEZHONGYAOWEIDU。18JIAYUGUOBINGBUSHIQUANRANJIEFENDELIANGGEGAINIAN,XIAOJIASHIDAGUODESUOYING,GUOZHENGSHIJIAZHENGDEKUODAHUA,JIAYUGUOBUWANQUANHUNTONGYOUWUYANGEJIEFEN,ERSHIYOUGUIZEDIGONGTONGHUDONG。19YINER,ZHONGGUOGUDAIXIANZHIDEJIBENMOSHISHI“JIAGUOTONGGOU”,JIASHIGUODEGENBEN,GUOJIAZHIXUDEWEIXIYIJIAWEIYUANXIN。DAOJINDAIZHONGGUO,CHUANTONGJIAZUZHUYIHEJIAGUOMOSHIDEXIANZHIZHIXUNANYIWEIJI,DANPUTONGZHONGGUORENHEZHONGGUOSHEHUIDE“JIATINGGUANNIAN”HE“JIAGUOQINGHUAI”YIRANNONGHOU。XIJINPINGZONGSHUJICENGDUOCITANDAO:“MEIYOUQIANQIANWANWANJIATINGXINGFUMEIMAN,JIUMEIYOUGUOJIAFANRONGFAZHAN。”20XINSHIDAIDEJIATINGGUAN,LIZUGUOJIACHANGSHENG、MINZUFUXINGHEZHIZHENGDANGJIANSHEDEHONGGUANSHIYE,ZHANXIANCHUYIZHONG“XIUQIZHIPING”DEZHONGGUODUTEZHENGZHITUJING,“JIATING”YIJIUSHIZHONGHUAWENMINGQUBIEYUXIFANGWENMINGDEYIGEXIANZHEBIAOZHI。

                          ZAIGUIFANYIYISHANG,YILAIYUZHONGGUO“JIAZHEXUE”DENEIZAILUOJI,“JIATING”ZAIZHONGGUOXIANFAZHONGJUYOUTESHUDIWEI。DUIBIZHONGXIFANGJIATING,XIFANG“JIELIMOSHI”YUZHONGGUO“FANBUMOSHI”CUNZAIBENZHIBUTONG。21ZAIBOCHICHUANTONGJIATINGGUANNIANZHONGDEJIAZUBENWEIZHUYIHEGERENZIYOUZHUYILIANGZHONGQINGXIANGXIA,YOUXUEZHEZHUZHANGFUYU“JIATING”FALVYIYISHANGDEDIWEI22YIHUO“ZHUNZHUTI”DIWEI,23HAIYOUXUEZHEZHUZHANGZHONGSHICHUANTONGJIATINGLUNLIZAISIFAHUOFALVSHIJIANZHONGDESHIYONG。24ZAIXIANFAXUESHIJIAOXIA,GUANYU“JIATING”DESHUXING,CHUANTONGSHANGJIANGQIGUISHUWEIWOGUOGONGMINDEJIBENQUANLI,25JINERRENWEIJIATINGQUANSHIGONGMINSHEHUI、JINGJI、WENHUAQUANLIDEYIZHONG,26YEYOUXUEZHEJIANYIXIAOFANGDEGUOXIANFAJIANGQINARUZHIDUXINGBAOZHANGDENEIRONG。27WOGUOTAIWANXUEZHELIZHENSHANZERENWEIXIANFASHANGDEJIATINGQUANBAOKUO“JIATING”ZHICHENGLI、WEIXI、BAOYOUCHENGYUANDENGQUANLI。28GUANYUGUOJIABAOHUJIATINGXIANFAYUANZEDESHIXIAN,YIFANGMIANTONGGUOHUNYINFASHIQIDEDAOSHIJISHIXING,29LINGYIFANGMIANTONGGUOJIATINGQUANLINEIRONGDEFENGFU,JIANLIXITONGWANZHENGDEJIATINGFALVTIXI。30

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YINCI,“JIATING”DEZHONGYAOYIYIWUKEBIANBO,BULUNJIANG“JIATING”GUISHUYUZHIDUXINGBAOZHANGHAISHIJIBENQUANLI,“JIATING”ZHIYUZHONGGUODEDUTEJIAZHI,DOUSHIZHONGGUOXIANFABUDEBUGUANZHAOTADEXIANSHIHEGUIFANYUANYOU。DANXIANGJIAOYUXIANFAXUEJIEDUI“GEREN”“GONGMIN”“SHEHUI”“GUOJIA”DENGJIBENFANCHOUDEGUANGFANTANTAO,“JIATING”ZHENYUSHANGDAIYANJIUZHONGSHI。

                          二、新中国宪法文本中“家庭”的规范内涵

                        星云棋牌官网下载   XIANFAWENBENSHIXIANFAJIAZHI、LISHIWENHUAHESHEHUIXIANSHIDEZAITI,YESHIFENXI“JIATING”XIANFANEIHANDEZHAODUAN。JIANYUJIUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGJIAZUZHUYIMOSHIXIADEFENGJIANZHIJIATINGYUXINZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYIJIATINGCUNZAIXIANZHEBUTONG,GUBENWENDUI“JIATING”GUIFANNEIHANBIANQIANDEYANJIU,YIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIZHIHOUDELIBUXIANFAXINGWENJIANWEIYIJU,TOUGUOLISHIDEJINRAN,ZHANGXIANXIANFAWENBENZHONG“JIATING”DEMINZUYIYUN、JINGJISHUXING、ZHENGZHIGONGNENG、RENLUNJIAZHI。

                          (一)民族关系中的“家庭”

                          ZAIXINZHONGGUOXIANFAWENBENZHONG,“JIATING”GAINIANZUICHUYINHANZAI“DAJIATING”YICILI,TIXIANCHUXIANFADUICHUANTONGJIATINGGUANNIANDEJIBENJIESHOU。《GONGTONGGANGLING》WEIDANDUSHIYONG“JIATING”YICI,ERSHIZAIDILIUZHANG“MINZUZHENGCE”DI50TIAOCHUXIAN1CI“DAJIATING”,BA“DAJIATING”ZUOWEIYIGEJITIGAINIAN,YUCHENGYOUGONGTONGMUBIAO、GEMINZUTUANJIEYOUAIDEXINZHONGGUO。“WUSIXIANFA”YANYONGHEKUOZHANLE“DAJIATING”DEBIAOSHU,QIANGDIAOZAIGEMINZUTUANJIEGUANXIYIJINGXINGCHENGDEJICHUSHANG,CHENGYUANZHIJIANXIANGYOUFAZHANZIYOUHEDIWEIPINGDENG。ZHEIBIAOMINGZAIXIANSHIZHONGKEGUANCUNZAIZHE“JIATING”GAINIAN,XIANFADUITARENKEBINGJIAYIJIEYONG,YIZAIZENGJINGEMINZUXIONGDIBANDEGUANXIYIJIDUIXINZHONGGUODEGUOJIARENTONG。ZHIHOU,SUIRAN“DAJIATING”YICIWEIZAICHUXIAN,DANQIYUNYUDE“TONGYIDEDUOMINZUGUOJIA”SUOJUYOUDE“JIATING”JINGSHENBEIZHIHOULIBUXIANFACHUANCHENG,ZHIGUOYIRUCHIJIA,MINZUGUOJIADE“JIAGUOQINGHUAI”YOUCITIXIAN。

                          (二)经济制度中的“家庭”

                        星云棋牌官网下载   “JIATING”JINGJIZHUTIDIWEIDEQUELIBUSHIYICUERJIU,ERSHIZHUBUHUODEXIANFARENKEHEZHICHIDE。DIYI,“QIWUXIANFA”ZHONG“JIATINGFUYE”DECHUXIAN,SHOUCIMINGQUE“JIATING”JUYOUYIDINGDEJINGJIGONGNENG。“QIWUXIANFA”DIYIZHANG“ZONGGANG”DI7TIAODISANKUANBA“JIATINGFUYE”ZUOWEIJITISUOYOUZHIJINGJIDEFUSHU,YUNXUQI“SHAOLIANGDE”CUNZAI。31“QIBAXIANFA”YANYONGLE“JIATINGFUYE”DEGAINIAN,JIAOWEIYIHANDISHIQIRENGRANBAOLIU“SHAOLIANGDE”XIANZHILICHANG。“BAERXIANFA”ZEKUODALEJIATINGSHENGCHANDEZIYOUDU,MINGQUELE“JIATING”ZUOWEINONGCUNGETIJINGJIZHUTIDEXIANFADIWEI,BINGZAIZHIHOUDELICIXIUDINGZHONGDEYIYANXU。“JIATINGFUYE”ZUOWEIGETIJINGJIDEBIAOXIANXINGTAI,32FUYULE“JIATING”CONGSHENGCHAN、JINGYINGDAOXIAOFEIDEWANZHENGQUANLI,SHI“JIATING”DEJINGJIZHUTIDIWEICHUBUZHANGXIAN。DIER,“JIATINGCHENGBAOJINGYING”DEQUELI,SHI“JIATING”DEJITIJINGJIZHUTIDIWEIDEYIGONGGUHEKUODA。1993NIANXIANFAXIUZHENGANGUIDING:“NONGCUNZHONGDEJIATINGLIANCHANCHENGBAOWEIZHUDEZERENZHI……SHISHEHUIZHUYILAODONGQUNZHONGJITISUOYOUZHIJINGJI。”JIANGJITISUOYOUZHIJINGJIZHONGDEZERENZHUTIYOU“NONGCUNRENMINGONGSHE、NONGYESHENGCHANHEZUOSHE”BIANGENGWEI“JIATING”。1999NIANXIUZHENGWEI“NONGCUNJITIJINGJIZUZHISHIXINGJIATINGCHENGBAOJINGYINGWEIJICHU、TONGFENJIEHEDESHUANGCENGJINGYINGTIZHI”。JIXUFUYU“JIATING”ZAINONGCUNTUDICHENGBAOZHONGDEZIZHUQUAN,ZENGQIANGLENONGCUNJITIJINGJIZUZHIDETONGYIXIEDIAOFUWUGONGNENG,BIAOZHIZHE“JIATING”DEJINGJIZHUTIDIWEIZUIZHONGDEDAOXIANFAQUEREN。DISAN,“JIATING”JINGYINGDEGETIGONGSHANGHUCHENGWEIGETIJINGJIDEZHONGYAOXINGSHI。XIANFADUIGETIJINGJITIGONGGUOJIABAOHU,33《MINFAZONGZE》GUIDINGGETIGONGSHANGHUKEYIYOUZIRANRENHUOZHEJIATINGJINGYING,YOUJIATINGJINGYINGDEGETIGONGSHANGHUJUYOUDULICAICHAN,XIANGYOUDULIDEMINSHIQUANLINENGLIHEMINSHIXINGWEINENGLI,34TONGYANGSHI“JIATING”ZAIFALVCENGMIANSHANGHUODEDULIJINGJIZHUTIDIWEIDETIXIAN。

                          (三)政治身份中的“家庭”

                          “JIATING”ZUOWEIGONGMINZHENGZHISHENFENDEPINGPANBIAOZHUNTIXIANZAI“JIATINGCHUSHEN”ZHONG。“JIATINGCHUSHEN”YOU“SHEHUICHUSHEN”YANBIANERLAI,YUGONGMINZHENGZHIQUANLIZHONGDEXUANJUQUANHEBEIXUANJUQUANXIANGBANERXING。“WUSIXIANFA”DI86TIAOSHIYONG“SHEHUICHUSHEN”DEGAINIAN,RENWEINIANMAN18ZHOUSUIDEGONGMINBUFEN“SHEHUICHUSHEN”DENGTIAOJIAN,DOUYOUXUANJUQUANHEBEIXUANJUQUAN。“BAERXIANFA”SHOUCITICHU“JIATINGCHUSHEN”DEGAINIAN,ZAIDI34TIAOGUIDINGNIANMAN18ZHOUSUIDEGONGMINBUFEN“JIATINGCHUSHEN”DENGTIAOJIAN,DOUYOUXUANJUQUANHEBEIXUANJUQUAN,“JIATINGCHUSHEN”CHENGWEIGONGMINXUANJUQUANYUBEIXUANJUQUANDEFEIXIANZHIXINGTIAOJIAN。JIATINGCHUSHEN,TONGCHANGZHIGERENZAIQUDEDULIJINGJIDIWEIYIQIANJIATINGDESHEHUICHENGFEN。35ZAIJIHUAJINGJISHIQI,JIYUFENQING“RENMIN”HE“DIREN”DEZHENGZHILICHANG,“JIATING”BEIANZHAOYIDINGDEBIAOZHUNCHOUXIANGDIHUAFENWEIBUTONGLEIXINGDEJIECENG36。ZAI1984NIANHAICHUTAILE《JIATINGCHUSHENDAIMA》GUOJIABIAOZHUN,BEIPUBIANYUNYONGZAIZUZHIRENSHIGUANLIGONGZUOZHONG,2002NIANZHEIYIBIAOZHUNBUZAIBEIPUBIANSHIYONG。37ZAI“JIATINGCHUSHEN”BEIHOUYUNHANZHEJIATINGGUIFANDESHENFENFATEZHENG,GETITONGGUOZIRANHUONIZHIDEFANGSHIJINRUJIATING,SUIJIHUODEJIATINGCHENGYUANDESHENFEN,ZHIHOUCAICHENGDANXIANGYINGDEQUANLIYIWU,TASHOUXIANSHIZHENGZHIXUEGAINIAN,WOMENYINGDANGMINGXI“JIATING”DEFAXUESHUXING,YUNYONGLIFAJISHU,XIUZHENGYUDANGQIANXIANSHIQINGKUANGBUFUDEXIANZHIXINGGUIDING。

                          (四)人伦价值中的“家庭”

                          “JIATING”DELUNLIGONGNENGJIZHONGTIXIANZAIXIANFAWENBENDEYANBIANGUOCHENGZHONG,XIANFAGUIFANDEYANBIANSHIMINZUXINGYUSHIDAIXINGXIANGHUYINGXIANGDEJIEGUO,TAYUANYUANYUZHONGGUOJIQIANNIANDEJIATINGCHUANTONG,YOUZHIGENYUDANGJINSHEHUIJINGJIDESHIJIZHUANGKUANG。QIYI,ZHONGGUOXIANFAJICHENGLECHUANTONGZHONGGUORENPUBIANRENKEDEFUCIZIXIAO、ZUNLAOAIYOUDENGZUIJIBENDEJIATINGDAODEGUANNIAN,QUERENLEFUMUDUIWEICHENGNIANZINVDEJIAOYUFUYANGYIWUHECHENGNIANZINVDUIFUMUDESHANYANGFUZHUYIWU,YIJIGUOJIADUILAORENHEERTONGDETEBIEBAOHUDENGNEIRONG。QIER,XIANFADUIZHONGGUOFENGJIANJIATINGLUNLIDEBUMINZHUHEBUPINGDENGSIXIANGJINXINGLEXIUZHENGYUGEXIN。CONG《GONGTONGGANGLING》SHI,“FUMUZHIMING,MEISHUOZHIYAN”DECHUANTONGHUNYINFANGSHIBEIBINGQI,XIANFAJIANG“HUNYINZIYOU”QUEDINGWEIXINZHONGGUOJIATINGDEZUJIANFANGSHI;“QIBAXIANFA”QIANGDIAO“NANNVHUNYINZIZHU”;“BAERXIANFA”GENGJINYIBUBIANSHOUQUANXINGGUIFANWEIJINZHIXINGGUIFAN,JINZHIBUTEDINGZHUTIDUIHUNYINZIYOUDEPOHUAI。LEISIQINGKUANGYETIXIANZAIXIANFADUIFUNVDETEBIEBAOHUSHANG,ZHEIYIWEIZHECONGGENBENFACENGMIANDUICHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONGNVXINGBUPINGDENGDIWEIDEPOCHU。QISAN,“JIATING”YUGUOJIADEGUANXIZHUYAOTIXIANZAIGUOJIADUI“JIATING”DEBAOHUHEDUISHENGYUGONGNENGDEDIAOKONGLIANGGEFANGMIAN。YIFANGMIAN,XIANFAQIANGDIAOLEGUOJIADUI“JIATING”DEBAOHUZEREN;LINGYIFANGMIAN,JIHUASHENGYURUXIANYIWEIZHE“JIATING”DESHENGYUGONGNENGSHOUDAOGUOJIADEDIAOKONGHEGUANLI。

                          ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,“JIATING”ZAIXIANSHI、GUANNIANHEGUIFANZHONGDEDUTEDIWEI,JUEDINGLE“JIATING”CHENGWEIXIANFAZHONGDULILINGYUDEBIYAO。XIANFAGUIFANZHONGDE“GUOJIA”ZAIXINGSHISHANGJIANG“JIA”YU“GUO”BINGLIE,SIHUZIXIANGMAODUN,DANSHIZHISHANGFANYINGDESHIZHONGGUORENDE“JIAGUOGUANNIAN”,QIBEIHOUSHIZHONGGUOSHEHUIJIONGYIYUXIFANGDELISHIWENHUAXIANSHI。

                          三、新中国宪法文本中“家庭”规范的基本立场

                          (一)家庭定位:从默认传统到获得独立地位

                        星云棋牌官网下载   “JIATING”ZAIXINZHONGGUOXIANFAXINGWENJIANZHONGDEBIAOSHU,JINGLILE《GONGTONGGANGLING》HE“WUSIXIANFA”ZHONGDE“DAJIATING”DAOZHIHOULIBUXIANFAZHONG“JIATING”DEZHUANBIAN。“JIATING”DEXIANFADINGWEI,JINGLILECONGMORENCHUANTONGJIATINGGAINIANDAONARUGUOJIAXIANFADIAOZHENGFANWEI,ZAIDAOHUODEDULIXIANFADIWEIDEGUOCHENG,GUOJIADUI“JIATING”DIWEIHEJIAZHIDERENZHIBUDUANSHENRU。

                          “JIATING”ZUOWEIDULILINGYUSHOUXIANFADIAOZHENGKEZHUISUZHI“WUSIXIANFA”。“WUSIXIANFA”DI96TIAODIYIKUANGUIDINGFUNVZAI“JIATING”XIANGYOUTONGNANZIPINGDENGQUANLI,“JIATING”CONG“SHENGHUOGEFANGMIAN”ZHONGBEIDANLIECHULAI,YU“ZHENGZHI、JINGJI、WENHUA、SHEHUI”BINGLIE。GAITIAOKUANBEI“QIBAXIANFA”HE“BAERXIANFA”YANXUHEJICHENG,SHICONGBAOHUFUNVPINGDENGQUANLIDEJIAODU,TUCHU“JIATING”DEDULIXING。“JIATING”ZUOWEISHEHUIXIBAOBUJINZAISHENGHUOZHONGDULICUNZAI,YEBEIXIANFATIAOKUANMINGWENJIAYIQUEREN。GAITIAODIERKUANGUIDING:“HUNYIN、JIATING、MUQINHEERTONGSHOUGUOJIADEBAOHU。”ZHEIQUELILEGUOJIADUI“JIATING”YUYITEBIEBAOHUDEZHIDUZONGJIDIAO,HOUBEILIBUXIANFAYANYONG。“WUSIXIANFA”SHI“JIATING”SHOUCIYIDULIZITAICHUXIANZAIXINZHONGGUOXIANFAWENBENZHONG,YUSHIZHEGUOJIACONGDIAOZHENG“JIATING”ZHEIYITESHUSHEHUIGUANXICHUFA,SHITUFAHUI“JIATING”WEIHUGUOJIAZHENGQUANDEZHENGZHIGONGNENGHEANDINGSHEHUIZHIXUDESHEHUIGONGNENG。XINZHONGGUOXINZHIXUDEGOUJIAN,ZUICHUCONG“JIATING”ZHEIYIJIBENSHEHUIDANYUANKAISHI,1950NIAN《HUNYINFA》CHENGWEIXINZHONGGUOBANBUDEDIYIBUFALVJIUSHILIZHENG。ZHIHOU,XINDESHEHUIZHUYIJIATINGGUANZHUBUDAITIJIUDEFENGJIANZHUYIJIATINGGUANERCHENGWEISHEHUISHENGHUODEZHULIU,JIATINGJIEGOUGUANXIDEZHUANBIANQIANDONGSHEHUIQITASHENGHUOGEFANGMIANDEBIANGE。SHENYANZHI,“JIATING”ZUOWEIYIGEDULIZHUTI,SHIYUFAREN、QISHIYEDANWEI、HEHUORENDENGSHEHUIZUZHILEISIDEFALVGAINIAN。YIZE“JIATING”WUFAGUISHUYUSHANGSHURENYIYILEIZHIZHONG。ERZE“JIATING”SHIYIGEDULIDEJINGJIZHUTI,XIANGYOUDULIDECAICHAN,BEIFUYUDULIDEQUANLIYIWUNEIRONG。LIRUJIATINGCHENGBAODETUDIZAISUOYOUQUANXINGZHISHANGSUISHUJITISUOYOU,DANZAISHENGCHAN、JINGYINGHEXIAOFEIGUOCHENGZHONG,“JIATING”JUYOUDULIDEZIZHUQUAN,NONGCUNTUDIQUANLIDEXIANGYOUYUHUODEYI“JIATING”WEIDANWEI。SANZEXIANFAWENBENZAIFUYU“JIATING”SHOUGUOJIABAOHUQUANLIDETONGSHI,YEBA“JIATING”SHIWEICHENGDANJIHUASHENGYU、FUYANGJIAOYU、SHANYANGFUZHUDENGYIWUDEZHUTI。

                          (二)家庭内容:从抽象宣示到具体规范

                        星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOXIANFAWENBENZHONGJIATINGTIAOKUANDESHULIANG,JINGLILECONGWUDAOYOU,CONGSHAODAODUODEBIANHUA。《GONGTONGGANGLING》WEIDANDUSHIYONG“JIATING”YICI,JINCHUXIAN1CI“DAJIATING”,BINGBEI“WUSIXIANFA”YANYONG。ZAI“WUSIXIANFA”“QIWUXIANFA”“QIBAXIANFA”“BAERXIANFA”ZHONG,“JIATING”YICIFENBIECHUXIAN2CI、2CI、3CI、4CI。YI“BAERXIANFA”WEIJICHU、JINGLIWUCIXIUZHENGDEXIANXINGXIANFA,“JIATING”YICIGONGCHUXIAN5CI,FENBUZAI“ZONGGANG”HE“GONGMINDEJIBENQUANLIHEYIWU”ZHONG。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIJIATINGNEIRONGSHANG,XIANFAWENBENJINGLILEYOUCHOUXIANGXUANSHIDAOXINGCHENGJUTIGUIFANNEIHANTIXIDEBIANHUA。“JIATING”CONGJINJUYOUXUANSHIYIYIDESHOUGUOJIABAOHUDEZHUTI,YANBIANWEIBAOHANCHUANTONGPUBIANGUANNIANTEZHENGDE“JIATING”、BEIFANGZHIZAIGUOJIAZHILIDEDABEIJINGXIAJINXINGZONGHEANPAIHESHEDINGDE“JIATING”YIJIXISHOULECHUANTONGWENHUARENLUNJIAZHIDE“JIATING”。WOGUOXIANXINGXIANFAFENGFULEJIATINGCHENGYUANJIANDEQUANLIYIWU。“JIATING”ZUOWEIDULIZHUTIDEQUANLIYIWUYUJIATINGCHENGYUANJIANDEQUANLIYIWUYOUSUOBUTONG,“JIATING”ZUOWEIDULIZHUTIXIANGYOUDEQUANLIJUYOUZONGHEXING,LIRUZUJIANJIATINGDEHUNYINZIYOUQUAN,WEICHIJIATINGCUNXUDESHENGCHANJINGYINGQUAN、SHENGYUQUANHEHUODEGUOJIABAOHUQUAN,CUJINJIATINGHEXIEFAZHANDEJIAZHANGQUAN、FUQIDIWEIPINGDENGQUANHECAICHANGONGYOUQUANDENG。JIATINGDEYIWUZHUYAOBAOKUOJIYUSHEHUIGONGGONGMUDEKONGZHIRENKOUGUIMODEJIHUASHENGYU,BAOZHANGJIATINGCHENGYUANSHENXINJIANKANGFAZHAN、WEIXIJIATINGHEXIEWENDINGDESHEHUIYIWUDENG。YINCI,WOGUOXIANFAZHONG“JIATING”GUIFANNEIHANFENGFUERCENGCIDUOYANG,YIJIBENXINGCHENGYIGEXIANGDUIWANBEIDETIXI。

                          (三)国家态度:从管理对象到家庭主体

                        星云棋牌官网下载   HUIGUXINZHONGGUOLIBUXIANFA,GUOJIADUI“JIATING”DETAIDUJINGLILECONGSHIWEIGUANLIDUIXIANGDAOFAHUI“JIATING”ZHUTIZUOYONGDEZHUANBIAN。JIHUAJINGJISHIQI,“JIATING”BEIRENWEISHICHANSHENGZICHANJIEJIDEYUANTOUZHIYI,GUOJIADUI“JIATING”CHIFANGFANTAIDU,CAIQUGUANLIHEKONGZHIDESHOUDUANYUESHUJIATINGJINGJIFAZHAN。SUIZHEGAIGEKAIFANGHEGUOJIAZHILIFANGSHIZHUANBIAN,GUOJIADUI“JIATING”DERENSHIGENGJIAKEGUAN,“JIATING”DESHENGCHANFANGSHIGENGJIADUOYANG,RUYUNXUJIATINGCHENGBAOJINGYING、JIATINGFUYEDECUNZAI,“JIATING”SHOUXIANFABAOHUDEQUANLINEIRONGGENGJIACHONGSHI,JIATINGCHENGYUANJIANDEQUANLIYIWUGUANXIYEDEDAOXIANFAMINGQUE。

                          ZONGSHANG,WOGUO“JIATING”JUYOUDULIDEXIANFADIWEI,BINGYIYIZHONGZHUTIDEZITAIZAISIFAHEGONGFALINGYUFAHUIZHEZHONGYAOGONGNENG。ZUOWEISIFAZHUTI,“JIATING”SHIWEIXINEIBUCHENGYUANQUANLIYIWUGUANXIDERENLUNQIDIANHEGUISU;ZUOWEIGONGFAZHUTI,“JIATING”BUJINSHIGUOJIAJINGJIZHIDUZHONGDEYIGEJIBENDANYUAN,HAISHIGUOJIARENKOUDIAOKONGDEJUTIYIWUCHENGDANZHE,GENGSHIWEIHUZHENGZHISHEHUIZHIXUANDINGDEJISHI。JIUDANGQIANSHEHUIXIANZHUANGERYAN,“JIATING”MIANLINDEJINGJI、YANGLAO、YUER、JIUYEDENGKUNNANWENTI,YIBUJINJINSHEJIJIATINGCHENGYUANNEIBUDEQUANLIYIWUFENPEI,GENGSHEJIGUOJIA、SHEHUIHEJIATINGZHIJIANQUANLIYIWUGUANXIDEZAIPINGHENG。ZHEIXIEBUSHIBUMENFASUONENGJIEJUEDEWENTI,ERSHIYIGEGUANSHEGUOJIAZHIDUGOUJIANDEXIANFAMINGTI。

                          四、新中国宪法文本中“家庭”规范的引领作用

                          XIANFAZUOWEIXINGWEIGUIFAN,DUIXIANFAZHUTIDEYIZHIHEXINGWEIJUYOUYINLINGZUOYONG。FENXIXIANFAGUIFANDEMUDE,ZHONGZAIMINGXIZUOWEIXIANFAZHUTIDEGUOJIADUI“JIATING”DEBAOHUZHIZE。JUTIERYAN,DAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIGONGQUANLIDEGUOJIAJIGUANYINGZUNZHONGJIATINGZHUTIDIWEIBINGCHENGDANXIANFAJIFUYIWU。YIFANGMIANGUOJIAZUNZHONG“JIATING”DEZIZHILINGYU,LINGYIFANGMIAN“JIATING”XIANGYOUHUODEGUOJIAWUZHIBANGZHUDESHOUYIQUANLI。CONGGUOJIAYIWUJIAODUCHUFA,GUOJIAJIGUANDUI“JIATING”JUYOUXIAOJIBAOHUYIWUHEJIJIBAOHUYIWU,38XIAOJIBAOHUZHIGUOJIAZUNZHONG“JIATING”ZIZHILINGYUDEBUZUOWEIYIWU,JIJIBAOHUJIGUOJIAWEI“JIATING”TIGONGGONGGONGFUWUBIANLITIAOJIAN、ZUIDISHENGCUNBAOZHANGHEWUZHIJIFU、JIATINGQUANLISHOUQINHAIDEJIUJIFANGSHIHETUJINGDENGZUOWEIYIWU。

                          (一)立法机关须将宪法上的家庭定位具体化

                        星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOXIANFASUIRANMINGQUEGUIDINGLEGUOJIADUI“JIATING”DEBAOHU,DANSHIRUHEBAOHU,HOUGUORUHEDOUWEIXIHUA,ZHEIJIUXUYAOTONGGUOXIANFAJIESHIHUOLIFAJIESHIJIAYIBUCHONG。LIRU,JIEJIANGUOJITONGXINGZUOFA,GUIDINGGUOJIADUI“JIATING”DEZUIDIBAOZHANGBIAOZHUNHEBAOHUYIWU,BINGCONGBAOZHANGRENQUANDEJIAODUYAOQIUGUOJIA“CAIQUSHIDANGDEBUZHOU”BAOZHENGZHEIYIQUANLIDEYOUXIAOSHIXIAN。TONGSHI,ZAI“MINFADIANHUNYINJIATINGBIAN”BIANZUANGUOCHENGZHONG,YINGZAIYIGONGBUDECAOAN“DIYIZHANGYIBANGUIDING”BUFENZHONGSHEN“GUOJIABAOHUJIATING”DEXIANFALICHANG,BINGZAIJUTITIAOWENSHEJISHANGGUIDING“JIATINGZHIDU”,MINGQUEFUYU“JIATING”MINSHIZHUTIDIWEI。CIWAI,LIFAYINGXINA“JIATING”ZUOWEISHENFENFADERENLUNDAODETEZHENG。LIRU,XINGSHIFALVZHONGJINQINSHUMIANYUCHUTINGDEGUIDING,YITUODENAISHIWOGUOCHUANTONGJIATINGFALVWENHUAZHONG“QINQINXIANGYIN”DELIFAJIAZHI。39DANXUYAOZHUYI,FALVDUIDAODEXINASHIYOUXIANDUDE,DUIJIATINGCHENGYUANDEJINGSHENFUWEITIAOKUANRU“CHANGHUIJIAKANKAN”40JIUYINQIQIANGLIEDEDAODEXING,CENGYINQIGUANGFANTAOLUN。

                          (二)行政机关须主动承担家庭保障职责

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGFUDEZHEIZHONGBAOZHANGZHIZEZHUYAOBAOKUODUIJINGJIKUNNAN、DUSHENGZINVHESHIDUJIATINGDENGTESHUJIATINGTIGONGWUZHIJINGJIJIFUHEXINLISHUDAOFUWU,DUIBEIQINFANJIATINGQUANLIDEJIATINGTIGONGXINGZHENGJIUJIFANGSHIHETUJINGDENG。LIRU,CAIQUSHELIJIATINGFENGXIANBAOZHANGJIJINDENGCUOSHI,WANSHAN《RENKOUYUJIHUASHENGYUFA》ZHONGSHIDUJIATINGGUOJIAXINGZHENGBUCHANGHEBANGZHUZHIDU,SHIXIANGUOJIADUI“JIATING”DEBAOZHANGZEREN。ZAIDUIDAIYIBANJIATINGFANGMIAN,XINGZHENGJIGUANYINGDANGZHUDONGZUOWEI,TIGONGGENGDUOYOUZHIGONGGONGFUWU。LIRU,ZUOWEIHUNYINDENGJIJIGUANDEMINZHENGBUMEN,TONGCHANGZAIHUNYINCHENGLIHEJIECHUXINGWEIZHONGXINGSHIXINGZHENGQUERENDEZHINENG,DANDUIHUNYINSHUANGFANGJINRUJIATING、JINGYINGJIATINGDEXINGZHENGZHIDAOQUEXIANGDUIBUZU。SHISHISHANG,MINZHENGBUMENDEZHIZEBUJINSHIDUIFUHEJIEHUNYAOJIANDEXINGWEIJINXINGQUEREN,HAIYINGCHENGDANDUIFUQISHUANGFANGJINXINGJIAOYU、ZHIDAOHEPEIXUNDEZEREN。YINWEIHUNYINCHENGLIZHIHOU,FUQISHUANGFANGZAIYUANYOUGONGMINSHENFENZHIWAI,YOUZENGJIALEZUOWEIJIATINGCHENGYUANDESHENFEN,YOUGUOJIADUIQIRUHEJINGYINGJIATINGZUOSHIDANGYINDAO,KEYIYOUXIAOYUFANGJIATINGMAODUNDECHANSHENG。CIWAI,ZHENGFUYINGDANGDALIFAZHANMINSHENG,QIESHIJIEJUEJIUYI、JIAOYU、YANGLAOHEJIUYEDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIDETUCHUWENTI,FENDANJIATINGSUOCHENGDANDEGUODUOZEREN。

                          (三)司法机关须筑牢家庭保障终端屏障

                        星云棋牌官网下载   SIFASHIWEIHUGONGPINGZHENGYIDEZUIHOUYIDAOFANGXIAN,SIFAJIGUANYINGDANGQIESHICHENGDANQIBAOZHANGJIATINGJIQICHENGYUANHEFAQUANYIDEZEREN。SIFAJIGUANZAICHULIJIATINGCHENGYUANJIUFENANJIANSHI,YINGSHIDANGKAOLVJIATINGGUANXIJUYOUJIQIANGSHENFENSHUXINGHEFEIDUIKANGXINGDETEZHENG,ZHUZHONGFAHUIDIAOJIEZUOYONG,GUANZHAOWEIHUJIATINGLUNLI,ZHENZHENGSHIXIANANJIESHILE。ZAIBAOHUTESHUQUNTIFANGMIAN,SIFAJIGUANYINGDANGCAIQUTESHUBAOHUYUANZE。LIRU,YINGDANGZUNXUNXIANFAFALVDELIFAJINGSHEN,JIEJUE《FANJIATINGBAOLIFA》GUIDINGDERENSHENANQUANBAOHULINGJUZHENGNANDUGAO、QIANFASHULIANGSHAO、QIXIANSHEDINGSUIYIDENGWENTI,SHIXIANSIFAZHENGYI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   CIWAI,BAOHUJIATINGDEZHUTIYINGDANGDUOYUAN,CHENGDANBUTONGGONGNENGDEXIANFAZHUTIDOUXULVXINGGEZIBAOHUJIATINGDEYIWUHEZEREN。YOUYUJINGJIHEFAZHANSHUIPING,ZAIXIANJIEDUANGUOJIAJIFUNENGLIYOUXIAN、JIATINGBENSHENYOUWULIZIWOJIEJUEDEQINGKUANGXIA,XUYAOSHEHUIZUZHICHENGDANBAOHUJIATINGDEBUCHONGGONGNENG,BUQIANGGUOJIAJIGUANZAIJIATINGBAOHUSHANGDEQUESHI。ERBANSUIJIATINGJIEGOUHEXINGSHIDEFAZHAN,GONGMINDUIDAI“JIATING”DETAIDUYEYINGDANGLIXINGERKUANHE,GONGTONGGOUJIANPINGDENG、HEMU、WENMINGDEJIANQUANJIATINGMOSHI。

                          结 语

                          CHENGRUXIJINPINGZONGSHUJISUOYAN,JIATINGDEGONGNENG“BUKETIDAI”。41“JIATING”ZUOWEIXIANFADIAOZHENGDEYIZHONGTESHUDUIXIANG,CHENGDANZHEWEIHUZHENGZHISHEHUIZHIXU、CHANSHENGJINGJIJIAZHIHERENLEIFANYANDENGDUOZHONGGONGNENG,ZAIZHONGGUOXIANFAZHONGJUYOUTESHUDEDULIDIWEIHEJIAZHI。ZHANWANGWEILAI“JIATING”DEFAZHAN,ZAIJIANCHIXIANFABAOHUYUANZEDEQIANTIXIA,XUCHONGFENBAOZHANG“JIATING”DEXIANFAJIAZHI,WUYI“JIATING”TAIXIAOERBUZHONGSHI,WUYI“JIATING”TAIDAERGUODUGANYU,LIZUXIANFAWENBEN,JIEHEZHONGGUOGUOQING,TUIJINYOUGUAN“JIATING”DEXIANFAJIESHI,JIQUYOUXIUJIATINGWENHUACHUANTONG,BINGCHUPIANMIUCHENJIUDEJIATINGGUANNIAN,SHUNYINGSHEHUISHIDAIBIANQIAN,ZUIZHONGGOUJIANXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOJIATINGDAODEFENGSHANGHEJIATINGGUIFANTIXI。

                          注释

                          1 习近平:《在会见第一届全国文明家庭代表时的讲话》,《人民日报》,2016 年12月16日。
                          2习近平:《决胜全面建成小康社会夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利:在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的报告》,《人民日报》,2017年10月28日。
                          3杨立新:《对修订民法典婚姻家庭编30个问题的立法建议》,《财经法学》,2017年第6期;宁清同:《家庭的民事主体地位》,《现代法学》,2018年第6期。
                          4强世功:《司法能动下的中国家庭:从最高法院关于〈婚姻法〉的司法解释谈起》,《文化纵横》,2011年第1期。
                          5王锴:《婚姻、家庭的宪法保障:以我国宪法第49条为中心》,《法学评论》,2013年第2期;李忠夏:《同性婚姻的宪法教义学思考》,《法学评论》,2015年第6期;刘练军:《民法典应承载宪法对家庭之制度性保障》,《法制与社会发展》,2018年第2期。
                          6叶海波:《“根据宪法,制定本法”的规范内涵》,《法学家》,2013 年第5 期。
                          7刘茂林:《中国宪法导论》,北京:北京大学出版社,2009年,第51-53页。
                          8罗伯特·C.埃里克森:《家庭生活中的规范》,约翰·N.卓贝克编,杨晓楠,涂永前译:《规范与法律》,北京:北京大学出版社,2012年,第68页。
                          9王吉利主编:《英汉汉英统计大词典》,北京:中国统计出版社,2001年,第951页。
                          10蒋大椿,陈启能主编:《史学理论大辞典》,合肥:安徽教育出版社,2000年,第1032-1033页。
                          11罗国杰主编:《中国伦理学百科全书》(婚姻家庭伦理学卷),长春:吉林人民出版社,1993年,第111页;翟惠林主编:《基础汉字形音义说解》,兰州:甘肃人民出版社,2011年,第692-693页。
                          12据考证,“家庭”一词首次合并使用出现在南朝宋的《后汉书·郑均传》:“均好义笃实,养寡嫂孤儿。恩礼敦至,常称疾家庭,不应州郡辟召。”中国大百科全书总编辑委员会《民族》编辑委员会:《中国大百科全书》(民族卷),北京:中国大百科全书出社,1998年,第197页。
                          13孙向晨:《“家”在近代伦理话语中的缺失及其缘由:一个研究纲要》,吴飞主编:《神圣的家:在中西文明的比较视野下》,北京:宗教文化出版社,2014年,第32页。
                          14张祥龙:《 “家”的歧异:海德格尔“家”哲理的阐发和评析》,《同济大学学报》(社会科学版),2016年第1期。
                          15张祥龙:《列维纳斯论“家”和“家人关系”:绝对他者牵拉出的生命道德时空》,《中国现象学与哲学评论》,2017年第1期。
                          16《马克思恩格斯选集》第1卷,北京:人民出版社,2012年,第159页。
                          17张祥龙:《家与孝:从中西间视野看》,北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2017年,第18页。
                          18洪元植,林海顺:《“家的发见”与儒学中“家”的特殊性》,《中国人民大学学报》,2017年第3期。
                          19苏力:《大国宪制:历史中国的制度构成》,北京:北京大学出版社,2018年,第23页。
                          20梁治平:《家与国关于中国传统法律文化的思考之一》,《政治学研究》,1989年第2期。
                          21习近平:《在二〇一九年春节团拜会上的讲话》,《人民日报》,2019年2月4日。
                          22赵晓力:《中国家庭正在走向接力模式吗?》,《文化纵横》,2011年第6期。
                          23张龙天:《何为我们看重的生活意义:家作为法学的一个基本范畴》,《清华法学》,2016年第1期。
                          24张泽鹏,刘蓓:《伴侣家庭“拟家式”调整初论》,《社会科学战线》,2019年第5期。
                          25方乐:《法律实践如何面对“家庭”?》,《法制与社会发展》,2011年第4期。
                          26吴家麟主编:《宪法学》,北京:群众出版社,1983年,第364-386页。
                          27黎晓武,徐光兵主编:《宪法基本原理》,北京:群众出版社,2005年,第164页;胡弘弘:《我国公民基本权利的宪法表述》,《政法论坛》,2012年第6期。
                          28王锴:《婚姻、家庭的宪法保障:以我国宪法第49条为中心》,《法学评论》,2013年第2期;刘练军:《民法典应承载宪法对家庭之制度性保障》,《法制与社会发展》,2018年第2期。
                          29李震山:《宪法意义下之“家庭权”》,《中正大法学集刊》(台湾),2004年第16期。
                          30杨遂全:《论国家保护婚姻家庭的宪法原则及其施行》,《中国法学》,2001第1期。
                          31张燕玲:《家庭权及其宪法保障:以多元社会为视角》,《南京大学学报》(哲学·人文科学·社会科学),2011年第4期。
                          32蔡定剑:《宪法精解》,北京:法律出版社,2004年,第51-52页。
                          33全国人大常委会办公厅秘书二局编:《中国宪法文献通编》,北京:中国民主法制出版社,2004年,第66页。
                          34现行宪法第11条规定:“在法律规定范围内的个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济,是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。国家保护个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济的合法的权利和利益。国家鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展,并对非公有制经济依法实行监督和管理。”
                          35《民法总则》第56条规定:“个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分的,以家庭财产承担。”
                          36阮智富,郭忠新编着:《现代汉语大词典》(上册),上海:上海辞书出版社,2009年,第1684页。
                          37在改革开放之前,存在家庭成分的判定,即俗称的“红五类”和“黑五类”(“文化大革命”后成为“黑七类”)。“红五类”指革命军人、革命干部、工人、贫农、下中农;“黑五类”指地主、富农、反革命分子、坏分子、右派分子,“文化大革命”后增加资本家和黑帮成为“黑七类”。
                          38杜兴:《“家庭出身”划分始末》,《红广角》,2011年第2期。
                          39张翔:《基本权利的受益权功能与国家的给付义务:从基本权利分析框架的革新开始》,《中国法学》,2006年第1期。
                          40张翔:《“近亲属证人免于强制出庭”之合宪性限缩》,《华东政法大学学报》,2016第1期。
                        星云棋牌官网下载   41《老年人权益保障法》第18条第一、二款规定:“家庭成员应当关心老年人的精神需求,不得忽视、冷落老年人。与老年人分开居住的家庭成员,应当经常看望或者问候老年人。”

                          王丹.新中国宪法文本中“家庭”的规范分析[J].河南大学学报(社会科学版),2019,59(06):53-58.
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