星云棋牌官网下载

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                    如何创建适合中国的合宪性审查制度

                    时间:2018-11-26 来源:新西部 作者:郭如瑾,詹明 本文字数:3911字

                      摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 党的十九大报告中首次提出合宪性审查的概念,并进而设立了宪法和法律委员会,表明今后将大力推进合宪性审查工作、维护宪法权威。文章对如何健全合宪性审查制度提出几点思考意见:推进合宪性审查工作必须强调坚持党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国的有机统一,应在人民大会制度的框架内运行;合宪性审查的主体是宪法和法律委员会;构建合宪性审查与现行备案审查制度的衔接机制,要以合宪性审查引领合法性审查;有关合宪性审查的启动、审查范围、审查方式仍缺乏法律规定,应尽快开展保障宪法实施的立法工作,健全合宪性审查工作的程序。

                      关键词: 合宪性审查; 人民代表大会制度; 宪法和法律委员会; 程序;

                      DANGDESHIBAJIESIZHONGQUANHUITICHU“JIANQUANXIANFAJIESHICHENGXUJIZHI”HOU,DANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOMINGQUEZHICHU:“JIAQIANGXIANFASHISHIHEJIANDU,TUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUO,WEIHUXIANFAQUANWEI。”ZHEISHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGZAIQUANGUODAIBIAODAHUIBAOGAOZHONGSHOUCITICHU“HEXIANXINGSHENCHA”DEGAINIAN,ZHEIBIAOMINGTUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODEZHENGZHIJUEDUANYIJINGXINGCHENG。XIANFAWEIJUFALVTIXIDEHEXIN,YUXIANFAXIANGGUANDEZHIDUZHIJIEGUANXIGUOJIAHESHEHUIDEWENDING,KEWEIQIANYIFAERDONGQUANSHEN。WOGUODEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUJISHIQINGXIANG“HEXIANTUIDING”,ZAIPANDUANSHENCHASHIXIANGSHIFOUHEXIANDEJUTIGONGZUOZHONG,YEBUKEBIMIANDEHUIYINFAGEZHONGZHENGYIHEGUANZHU。YINCI,RUHERANGHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUHEHUZHONGGUOYUJING,ZHENZHENGRONGRUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHITIXIZHONG,SHINENGFOUTUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODEGUANJIAN。

                      一、构建合宪性审查制度必须坚持的基本原则

                      HEXIANXINGSHENCHAYINGZAIWOGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUDEKUANGJIANEIYUNXING,ZHEISHIWOGUOGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDUBIRANYAOQIU。ZONGGUANSHIJIEGEGUO,JUEDADUOSHUXIANDAIFAZHIGUOJIADOUQUELILEXIANFAJIANDUDEXIANGGUANZHIDU。YOUYUBUTONGDELISHICHUANTONGHEJUTIGUOQING,ZAIXIANFAJIANDUZHUTISHANG,DATIYOULIFAJIGUANDEXIANFAJIANDU、SIFAJIGUANDEXIANFAJIANDUHEZHUANMENJIGUANDEXIANFAJIANDUZHIHUAFEN。JUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDEFENBIEWEIYINGGUOSHIYIHUISHENCHA、MEIGUOSHIDESIFASHENCHA、DEFASHIDEZHUANMENJIGUAN(XIANFAFAYUANHUOXIANFAWEIYUANHUI)SHENCHA。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOSHIRENMINMINZHUZHUANZHENGDESHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA,GUOJIAXINGZHI、ZHENGQUANYUNZUOMOSHIJUNBUTONGYUXIFANGGUOJIA。ZAIWOGUO,QUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUISHIQUANQUANXINGDEJIGUAN,SHIZUIGAOQUANLIJIGUAN。XIANFADI3TIAOGUIDINGLEWOGUOGUOJIAJIGOUSHIXINGMINZHUJIZHONGZHIDEYUANZE,QIYAOYISHIGUOJIAXINGZHENGJIGUAN、JIANCHAJIGUAN、SHENPANJIGUAN、JIANCHAJIGUANDOUCHANSHENGYURENMINDAIBIAODAHUI,BINGDUITAFUZEHESHOUTAJIANDU。ZUOWEIWOGUODEGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDURENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDU,YAOQIUWOMENJINXINGRENHEZHIDUDESHEJI,DOUBUNENGBEILIZHEIYIGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDU。ZAIWOGUO,FAYUANZUOWEISIFAJIGUANXINGSHISHENPANQUAN,DANBINGWUDUIFALVDESIFASHENCHAQUAN。CONGWOGUOGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDUCENGMIANLAISHUO,BUNENGJIEJIANMEIGUOSHIDESIFASHENCHA。TONGSHI,RENMINDAIBIAODAHUISHIWEIYIDEQUANLIJIGUAN,QIDAIBIAORENMINXINGSHIGUOJIAQUANLI,ZAIWOGUO,BUKENENGCUNZAIYOULIYURENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUZHIWAIDEGUOJIAJIGUAN,LEISIXIFANGGUOJIAZHEIZHONGZHUANMENJIGUANDESHENCHAZHUTISHIDUIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUDETUPO,HEXIANXINGSHENCHADEJIEGUOSHIPANDUANFALVHUOXINGWEIDEHEXIANXING,BINGJUCIDECHU“YUXIANFAXIANGDICHUDEBUFENWUXIAO”DEJIELUN,TASHIYIXIANGZHONGYAODEQUANLI,RUGUOSHENCHAJIGUANYOULIYURENDAZHIDUZHIWAI,WUYIYOUHAIYUZHENGZHIZHIXUDEWENDING。

                      从宪法第62条第2项、第67条第1项分别规定来说,全国人民代表大会有监督宪法实施的职权,全国人民代表大会常务委员会有解释宪法和监督宪法实施的职权。全国人大及其常务委员会在我国不仅是立法机关,并作为最高权力机关行使宪法监督权,而不是由在其之下的国家机关审查最高国家权力机关制定的法律的合宪性,也不可能另设与其平行甚至在其之上的机构去审查最高国家权力机关的法律。因此,在人民代表大会制度的框架内构建我国的合宪性审查制度,是我国根本政治制度的必然要求,也是必须坚持的基本原则。
                     

                    如何创建适合中国的合宪性审查制度
                     

                      二、充分发挥“宪法和法律委员会”的合宪性审查职能,以合宪性审查引领合法性审查

                      ZI1982NIANXIUXIANYILAI,CONGJINKENENGCUNZAIDELEIXINGERYAN,XUEZHEMENCENGTICHUWUZHONGGUANYUHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHUTIDEFANGAN。WEIRAOZHEIXIEFANGAN,XUESHUJIEJIANRENJIANZHI,XIANCEJIANYAN,CENGYOUGUORELIEDEZHENGLUNHETANTAO。

                      2018NIAN6YUE19RI,QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUISHENYILE《QUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIGUANYUQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIXIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUIZHIZEWENTIDEJUEDING(CAOAN)》,CHANGWEIHUIZUCHENGRENYUANPUBIANRENWEI,SHISANJIEQUANGUORENDAYICIHUIYIGENJU《SHENHUADANGHEGUOJIAJIGOUGAIGEFANGAN》HEXIANFAXIUZHENGANJUEDINGSHELIXIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUI,DUIYUJIAQIANGHETUIDONGXIANFASHISHIHEJIANDUGONGZUO,JUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI,CONGERJUEDINGSHELI“QUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIXIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUI”,QIZHIZEWEI“ZAIJIXUCHENGDANTONGYISHENYIFALVCAOANDENGGONGZUODEJICHUSHANG,ZENGJIATUIDONGXIANFASHISHI、KAIZHANXIANFAJIESHI、TUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHA、JIAQIANGXIANFAJIANDU、PEIHEXIANFAXUANCHUANDENGGONGZUOZHIZE”。ZHICI,YOUGUANHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHUTISHEZHIZHIBIANKEWEICHENAILUODING。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHIJISHANG,ZAOZAI《LIFAFA》ZHIDINGSHI,YOUQUANLIJIGUANZHUDAOHEXIANXINGSHENCHATIZHIJIUYICHUJUDUANNI。DANYOUYUHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUDEZONGTIBUWANBEI,HEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOBINGWEIZHENZHENGZHANKAI。YOUGUANXIANFAJIANDUFANGMIANDEGONGZUO,YIGEJIAOWEIXIANZHEDEJICHUSHI《LIFAFA》QUELIDEBEIANSHENCHAZHIDU。2004NIAN,QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUISHELIFAGUIBEIANSHENCHASHI,QILISHUYUFAZHIGONGZUOWEIYUANHUI。FAGUIBEIANSHENCHASHIZHIZESHISHENCHAYANJIUXINGZHENGFAGUI、DIFANGXINGFAGUI、ZIZHITIAOLI、DANXINGTIAOLIHESIFAJIESHI,DUIQIZHONGCUNZAIDEWEIXIANWEIFAWENTIYUYIJIUZHENG。SHIYUNIANLAI,BEIANSHENCHASHITONGGUOYUXIANGGUANBUMENGOUTONGXIESHANG、DUCUJIUZHENGDEFAGUIHESIFAJIESHIYOUYIBAIDUOJIAN。DANGDESHIBADAZHIHOU,BEIANSHENCHADEJIANDUGONGNENGRIYIZHANGXIAN,BEIANSHENCHACHENGWEIXIANFAJIANDUZHIDUDEZHONGYAOZHELIDIAN。

                      DANZAISHIJIANZHONG,YOUYUJIGOUSHEZHIBENSHENDEJUXIAN,YIJIHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEMINGANXING,HEFAXINGSHENCHAZHIDUSHENZHIJUYOUXINASHENZHIDIXIAOHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEGONGNENG。ZHEIZHONGXIANZHUANGBUJINSHIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAWUFAZHENZHENGFAHUIZUOYONG,YEBULIYUFALVZHIXUDETONGYI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   DANGQIAN,QUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIXIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUISHIDISHISANJIEQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDIYICIHUIYISHELIDE,ZUOWEIZHUANYESHENCHAJIGUANJUYOUGUIGEGAOQUANWEIDADETESHUDIWEI,NENGGOUJIXIWANGQICHONGFENFAHUIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIZHINENG,KERENWEIYIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAYINLINGHEFAXINGSHENCHADETIAOJIANYIJINGJUBEI。

                      三、明确合宪性审查的范围

                    星云棋牌官网下载   BEIANSHENCHADEGUIDINGZAI《LIFAFA》ZHONGZHUYAOSHIYONGYUQUANGUORENDAZHIDINGDEFALVYIXIADEQITAFALVXINGWENJIAN,ERHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEFANWEIBAOHANNAXIE,MUQIANSHANGWEIMINGQUE。YIXIANFADI5TIAODEGUIDINGLAIKAN,HEXIANYAOQIUHANGAISUOYOUFALV、XINGZHENGFAGUIHEDIFANGXINGFAGUI,ZUIDIXIANDUSHIBUDEYUXIANFAXIANGDICHU。SUOYOUGUOJIAJIGUANHEWUZHUANGLILIANG、GEGEZHENGDANGHEGEZHONGSHEHUITUANTI、GEZHONGQIYESHIYEZUZHIYEDOUBIXUZUNSHOUXIANFAYUFALV。JUCI,BIZHERENWEI,HEXIANXINGSHENCHAFANWEIBAOKUOYIXIAFANGMIAN:1、FALV、FALVJIESHI。HEXIANXINGSHENCHADEZHONGYAOZHINENGSHOUXIANYINGDANGSHISHENCHAFALVDEHEXIANXING。LIFAFADI97TIAOJIGUIDINGLEQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDUIQICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIZHIDINGDEBUSHIDANGDEFALVKEXINGSHIGAIBIANQUANHUOZHECHEXIAOQUAN,ZHIBUGUOJIWANGYOUYUSHENCHAZHUTIQUESHI,GAIXIANGSHENCHANANYISHIXIAN。RUJIN,XIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUIDESHELI,SHIDEGAIXIANGSHENCHAMEIYOULEZHANGAI。2、XINGZHENGFAGUI、DIFANGXINGFAGUI、ZIZHITIAOLIHEDANXINGTIAOLI、GUIZHANGDENGFALVXINGWENJIANJISIFAJIESHI。DUIZHEIXIEFALVXINGWENJIAN,SHELIBEIANSHENCHAZHIDUDEMUDESHITONGGUOHEFAXINGSHENCHA,SHIXIANFAZHITONGYI;YUMOUXIETEDINGQIANTIXIA,ZHEIXIEQITAFALVXINGWENJIANYEHUICHENGWEIHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEZHENDUINEIRONG。3、GUOJIAJIGUANDEZHIWUXINGWEIJIQUANXIANZHENGYI。GUOJIAJIGUANLVXINGZHIZEDEXINGWEI,YOUQISHIQUANXIANZHENGYI,ZHIJIEGUANXIGUOJIAJIGUANDUIZHIZEDEZHENGQUELVXING,SHIXIANFASHISHIZHONGDEZHONGDAWENTI,JISHIDUIGUOJIAJIGUANDEZHIWUXINGWEIZUOCHUHEXIANXINGPANDUAN,YIBAOZHANGXIANFASHISHI,WEIHUFAZHIDETONGYIHEZUNYAN。

                      四、规范合宪性审查的启动主体

                      ZAIBEIANSHENCHAZHIDUZHONG,GUANYUQIDONGBEIANSHENCHADEZHUTI,《LIFAFA》DI99TIAOJIHUHANGAISUOYOUZHUTICONGQITAGUOJIAJIGUANHESHEHUITUANTIDAOQIYESHIYEZUZHIYIJIGONGMIN。XIANGGUANGUOJIAJIGUANQIDONGSHENCHACHENGXUYINGWUYIYI。DUIYURENHEGONGMINHEZUZHIDOUKEYITIQIHEXIANXINGSHENCHA,YOUXUEZHERENWEIZHEISHIGONGMINXINGSHIXIANFAJIANDUQUANDEBIAOXIAN,DANRUGUODUIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHUTIBUJIAYIXIANZHI,SHIZHISHANGJIANGDAOZHIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAWUFAKAIZHAN。GUYOUXUEZHETICHUKEYIJIEJIANXINGZHENGSUSONGYOUGUANZHIJIELIHAIGUANXIRENDEGUIDING,YIWEIFANXIANFADEFALVJIFALVWENJIANZHIJIEQINFANDANGSHIRENDELIYIWEISHENCHABIAOZHUN,YICIQUEDINGTIQIFALVJIFALVWENJIANDEHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEZHUTI,YIFANGZHIGONGMINHUOZHEZUZHIJINPINGGERENDELIJIE,EYIKAIQIHEXIANXINGSHENCHA。DUICI,BIZHEWANQUANZANTONG。TONGSHI,YOUYUWOGUOJUTIGUOQING,BIZHERENWEI,DUIYUSHENCHAGUOJIAJIGUANXINGWEIHEXIANXINGDEQIDONGZHUTI,ZAICHUQIYEYIJIANCHIZHEIYIBIAOZHUNWEIYI。

                      五、进一步完善备案审查制度,构建备案审查与合宪性审查衔接机制

                    星云棋牌官网下载   BEIANSHENCHAGONGZUOKAIZHANLE14NIAN,XIANGXINYIJINGJILEILEJIAOWEIFENGFUDEJINGYAN。YIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAXINABINGYINLINGHEFAXINGSHENCHA,JUEFEIFOUDINGBEIANSHENCHAZHIDU。XIANGFAN,BEIANSHENCHASHIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODEJICHU,ERZHECUNZAIZHEMIQIEDENEIZAILIANXI,DOUSHIDUILIFAGONGZUODEJIANDU。CONG《LIFAFA》DEGUIDINGKAN,QUANGUORENDAJICHANGWEIHUI、DIFANGGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIYOUDUIFALVFAGUIDESHENCHAQUAN,GUOWUYUANJISHENGJIZHENGFUDUIGUIZHANGYOUSHENCHAQUAN,BEIANSHENCHAZHUYAOSHIHEFAXINGSHENCHA,DANWEIXIANBIRANWEIFA、WEIFAYEHUORANWEIXIAN。ZAIYIJIAOCHENGXU、SHENCHABIAOZHUN、CHUZHIDENGFANGMIANXIANGHUXIANJIE,GOUJIANBEIANSHENCHAYUHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEXIANJIEJIZHI,SHITUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOBUKEHUIBIDERENWU。

                      六、尽快开展保障宪法实施的立法工作,规范合宪性审查程序

                      HEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOZUIZHONGYAOLUOSHIDAOYIZHENGTAOCHENGXUJIZHISHANG,DANMUQIAN,YOUGUANHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEQIDONG、SHENCHADEFANGSHI、WEIXIANZERENDENGJUNWUMINGQUEFALVGUIDING。JIANYUHEXIANXINGSHENCHABUJINSHIDUIFALVJIFALVXINGWENJIANDESHENCHA,HAISHEJIDUIGUOJIAJIGUANXINGWEIDESHENCHA,YINCI,JINXIUZHENG《LIFAFA》BINGBUNENGJIEJUEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODECHENGXUWENTI。TONGSHI,HEXIANXINGSHENCHASHIJIAQIANGXIANFASHISHIHEJIANDUDEZHONGYAOFANGSHI,ERQITADEBAOZHANGXIANFASHISHIFANGSHIRUXIANFAJIESHICHENGXUJIZHIYEJIHUCHUYUKONGBAIZHUANGTAI,YINCI,BIZHEJIANYIJIUBAOZHANGXIANFASHISHIJINKUAIKAIZHANLIFAGONGZUO,ZHIDINGZHUANMENDE《XIANFABAOZHANGFA》HUO《XIANFAJIANDUFA》,QUANMIANBAOZHANGXIANFADESHISHI。

                      参考文献

                      [1]林来梵.中国的“违宪审查”:特色及生成实态—从三个有关用语的变化策略来看[J].浙江社会科学.2010.5.15.
                      [2]秦前红.合宪性审查的意义、原则及推进[J].比较法研究.2018.2.
                      [3]韩大元.关于推进合宪性审查工作的几点思考[J].法律科学,2018.2.
                      [4]祝捷.论合宪性审查的政治决断和制度推进——基于党的十九大报告的解读[J].法学杂志2017.12.
                      [5]李少文.合宪性审查的法理基础、制度模式与中国路径[J].比较法研究.2018.2.
                      [6]王书成.合宪性推定与“合宪性审查”的概念认知——从方法论的视角[J].浙江社会科学,2011.1.
                      [7]胡锦光.违宪审查与相关概念辨析[J].法学杂志.2006.4.
                      [8]王勇主编:宪法学原理与适用[M].法律出版社.2017.

                      郭如瑾,詹明.对建立健全合宪性审查制度的几点思考[J].新西部,2019(30):81-82.
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