星云棋牌官网下载

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                        片面共犯符合共同犯罪的要件论述

                        时间:2019-02-13 来源:法制博览 作者:齐岩 本文字数:3950字

                          摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 对于“片面共犯”争论的焦点主要在于“片面共犯”的单向意思联络是否符合共同犯罪之共同故意。本文从共同犯罪的传统理论与现代理论入手,深入研究片面共犯理论依据,明确共同犯罪故意的真正含义,进而说明“片面共犯”虽是单向意思联络,但其符合共同犯罪的主观要件。

                          关键词: 共同故意; 意思联络; 片面共犯; 片面合意;

                          一、片面共犯理论

                        星云棋牌官网下载   PIANMIANGONGFANSHIZHICANYUFANZUIDERENZHONGYIFANGYOUTONGTARENSHISHIFANZUIDEYISI,ANZHONGPEIHETARENSHIXINGFANZUIHUOXIELIYUTARENDEFANZUIXINGWEI,ERLINGYIFANGQUEBUZHIDAOYOURENPEIHEHUOXIELIYUZIJISHISHIFANZUI,YINERQUEFAGONGTONGFANZUISHUANGXIANGYISILIANLUODEQINGXING。MUQIANZAIXINGFALILUNJIECUNZAIZHELIANGZHONGJIERANXIANGFANDEXUESHUO——KENDINGSHUOHEFOUDINGSHUO。XIAMIANBIZHEJIUZHEILIANGZHONGXUESHUOJINXINGJIESHI:

                          (一)肯定说

                          KENDINGSHUOCHENGRENPIANMIANGONGFANCHENGLIGONGTONGFANZUI,RENWEIPIANMIANGONGFANZUOWEIGONGTONGFANZUIDETESHUXINGSHIERCUNZAI,KENDINGSHUOZAIDATISHANGRENDINGLEPIANMIANGONGFANSHUYUGONGTONGFANZUIDEFANCHOU,ZHIBUGUOJUTINEIRONGCUNZAIFENQI,DANQIHAISHIZHIDEJIEJIANDE。

                          (二)否定说

                          FOUDINGSHUORENDINGPIANMIANGONGFANBUCHENGLIGONGTONGFANZUI。ERDUIYUPIANMIANGONGFANZHISHIDANFANGMIANDEYISILIANLUO,BUFUHEGONGTONGFANZUIDEZHUGUANTIAOJIANJIGONGTONGGUYI,YUGONGTONGFANZUIDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN、LIFAZHIDUXIANGBEI。SHIJISHANGYUGONGTONGFANZUIZHONGDEFANZUIGONGTONGSHUOLILUNHENXIANGSI。

                          (三)论者观点

                          笔者赞同肯定说,认为片面共犯是客观存在,成立共同犯罪。片面共犯具有一定的社会危险性,应当受到刑事处罚。传统理论认定共同犯罪的犯罪构成要求共同犯罪人具有共同的犯罪行为和共同的故意,由于片面共犯中加功者与被加功者之间并不存在着传统理论所要求的共同行为和共同的故意,这使得传统理论不能将片面共犯认定为共同犯罪,在传统理论上解决片面共犯问题有两种争议:一是认定为单独犯罪;二是认定为间接正犯。这两种争议均不能真正解决片面共犯问题,在不同程度上或是不认定为犯罪,或是加重处罚,或是减轻处罚,不能做到罪责刑相适应且浪费司法资源。相对于利用传统理论认定片面共犯来说,肯定片面共犯的优势在于:对片面共犯的惩处不再停留于单独犯罪或认定为间接正犯的定罪量刑的层面上,片面共犯是单方具有共同犯罪故意的犯罪,暗中实施了犯罪行为,具有比单独犯罪更大的社会危害性;加功者不存在操纵、控制被加工者的行为和故意,又不符合间接正犯的内容。承认片面共犯可以依据共同犯罪的规定在实质上解决了片面共犯的定罪量刑问题,解决了司法实务中疑难案件的处理,依据共同犯罪的规定区分主、从犯,按照其在共同犯罪中所起的作用进行处罚,既符合罪刑法定原则和罪责刑相适应原则,又做到不枉不纵。
                         

                        片面共犯符合共同犯罪的要件论述
                         

                          二、片面共犯成立共同犯罪

                          (一)片面共犯成立共同犯罪的理由

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YIJUDALUFAXITICHUDEKENDINGSHUO,PIANMIANGONGFANSHUYUGONGTONGFANZUIDEYIZHONGTESHUXINGSHI,XINGWEIGONGTONGSHUOWEIQITIGONGLEZUYISHIQILIZUYUXINGFALILUNJIEDEJICHUHELILUNLAIYUAN,BIZHEJIEHEZHANGMINGKAIJIAOSHOUTICHUDEGONGTONGFANZUIXIANDAILILUN,LIZUYUWOGUODANGQIANGONGTONGFANZUIDELIFA,LUNSHUYIXIAPIANMIANGONGFANCHENGLIGONGTONGFANZUIDELIYOU:

                          1.片面共犯成立共同犯罪符合罪刑法定原则

                          ZUIXINGFADINGSHIWOGUO《XINGFA》DEJIBENYUANZE,“FAWUMINGWENGUIDINGBUWEIZUI,FAWUMINGWENGUIDINGBUCHUFA”。SUOWEI“MINGWENGUIDING”,YINGDANGSHIZHIFALVDEMINGWENGUIDING,JIXINGFAGUIFANDEGUIDING,ERFEIQITAYUXINGFAWUGUANDEGUIDING。XINGFAGUIFANWANGWANGJUYOUDANGEZICIHANYIWAIDEYIYI,JIUSHISUOWEIDEXINGFAJIESHI。WOGUO《XINGFA》DI25TIAOGUIDING,GONGTONGFANZUISHIZHIERRENYISHANGGONGTONGGUYIFANZUI,WOMENKEYIJIANGGONGTONGGUYIJIESHIWEIERRENYISHANGGONGTONGQUGUYIFANZUI,HUOZHECAIQUBIZHEGUANDIANJIANGGONGTONGGUYIQUFENWEIGUANGYIHEXIAYIGONGTONGGUYI。FOUDINGLUNZHERENWEIGONGTONGGUYIYINGSHISHUANGXIANG、QUANMIANDEHEYI,JUCIRENWEIPIANMIANGONGFANDANXIANG、PIANMIANDEHEYIBUSHUYUGONGTONGFANZUIFANCHOUDESHUOFAGUOYUQIANQIANG。TONGGUOYISHANGFENXIKEZHI,PIANMIANGONGFANSHIJUYOUDANXIANGYISILIANLUODEGONGTONGGUYIFANZUI,PIANMIANHEYISHUYUGONGTONGFANZUIGUYIDEYIZHONGTESHUXINGSHI,JUCIKEYIDECHUPIANMIANGONGFANZHONGDEJIAGONGZHEJIYUPIANMIANHEYIHEBEIJIAGONGZHEGONGTONGSHISHIFANZUIWANQUANFUHE《XINGFA》GUIDINGDEGONGTONGFANZUIGAINIANFANCHOU。

                          2.片面共犯符合共同犯罪的现代理论的内容

                          BIZHERENWEI,FANZUIDESHITISHIWEIFAYUZEREN,JIWEIFAXINGHEYOUZEXING。GONGTONGFANZUIJIRANSHIYIZHONGWEIFAXINGTAI,NEIMEPIANMIANGONGFANBIRANSHIQIANGDIAOKEGUANWEIFASHISHI,YESHIYIZHONGWEIFAXINGTAI,ZHIBUGUOZAIZERENFANGMIANYAOYIJUYUXINGWEIRENDETEXINGYUYIRENDING,QIWANQUANFUHEGONGTONGFANZUIDEXINGZHI。JIAGONGZHEDEXINGWEIYAOYIZHENGFAN(BEIJIAGONGZHE)WEIZHONGXIN,YIJIAGONGZHEYUBEIJIAGONGZHEDEBUFAXINGWEIWEIZHONGXIN,YIJIAGONGZHEDEXINGWEIHEBEIJIAGONGZHEXINGWEISUOCHANSHENGDEWEIHAIJIEGUOZHIJIANCUNZAIDEYINGUOXINGWEIHEXIN。CONGZHUGUANSHANGSHUO,PIANMIANGONGFANDEJIAGONGZHEMINGZHISHIZAIHEBEIJIAGONGZHEGONGTONGSHISHIFANZUI,BINGXIWANGHUOZHEFANGRENXINGWEIWEIHAIJIEGUODEFASHENG,BINGWEITUOLIGONGTONGFANZUIDESHIZHI;CONGKEGUANSHANGJIANG,PIANMIANGONGFANJIAGONGZHEYOUGONGTONGFANZUIXINGWEI,QIEJIAGONGZHEDEXINGWEISHIJIYUZHEIZHONGPIANMIANGONGTONGGUYIERFEIZIJIDULIXINGCHENGLEYIYUBEIJIAGONGZHEDEGUYI。

                          (二)片面共犯的认定方法

                          SHOUXIAN,BIZHEZAICIJIANG“GONGTONGGUYI”ZUOGUANGYIDEGONGTONGGUYIHEXIAYIDEGONGTONGGUYIZHIFEN,HUOZHEJIEYONGWANGYIXUEZHEDEGAINIANJIANGGONGTONGDEFANZUIGUYIFENWEILIANGZHONG:YISHIXINGWEIRENJIANJUYOUXIANGHURENSHIDEQUANMIANGONGTONGGUYI;ERSHIXINGWEIRENJIANJUYOUDANFANGMIANRENSHIDEPIANMIANGONGTONGGUYI。GUANGYIDEGONGTONGGUYISHIZHIXINGWEIRENZHIJIANYOUGONGTONGDEGUYISHISHIFANZUIDEYISI,GONGTONGDEXIWANGHEFANGRENWEIHAIJIEGUODEFASHENG,BUYAOQIUGUYINEIRONGXIANGTONG,BUYAOQIUCUNZAIZHEXIANGHUJIANDEYISILIANLUO;XIAYIDEGONGTONGGUYISHIZHIXINGWEIRENZHIJIANYOUGONGTONGDEFANZUIGUYI,QIEXIANGHUJIANCUNZAIZHEYISILIANLUO,DANBUYAOQIUGUYINEIRONGXIANGTONG。XINGWEIRENZHIJIANYOUWUYISILIANLUOSHIDUIQUANMIANGONGFANDEYAOQIU,PIANMIANGONGFANDETESHUXINGBINGBUYAOQIUXINGWEIRENZHIJIANYOUSHUANGXIANGYISILIANLUO。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,ANZHAOGONGTONGFANZUIXIANDAILILUNJINXINGRENDING:YIJIAGONGZHEYUBEIJIAGONGZHEDEBUFAXINGWEIWEIZHONGXIN,JIZHIQINGYIFANGYUBUZHIQINGYIFANGSUOWEIDEXINGWEIJUNWEIFANZUIXINGWEI,RUYOUYIFANGXINGWEIBUWEIFANZUIXINGWEI,ZEBUCHENGLIPIANMIANGONGFAN;JIAGONGZHEDEXINGWEIYAOYIZHENGFAN(BEIJIAGONGZHE)WEIZHONGXIN,BIXUYOUBUZHIQINGYIFANGDESHIXINGXINGWEI,FOUZENANYICHENGLIGONGTONGFANZUI,BEIJIAGONGZHEXIANGDUIYUJIAGONGZHEWEIZHENGFAN,JIAGONGZHEWEIGONGFAN;YIJIAGONGZHEYUBEIJIAGONGZHEXINGWEISUOCHANSHENGDEWEIHAIJIEGUOZHIJIANCUNZAIDEYINGUOGUANXIWEIHEXIN,RUGUOZHIQINGYIFANGYUWEIHAIJIEGUOZHIJIANBUCUNZAIYINGUOGUANXI,ZEYOUKENENGWEIWEISUIFANZUI。ZUIHOU,PIANMIANGONGFANRENSHIFOUCHENGDANZERENYUDANDUFANZUIDEXINGSHIZERENCHENGDANYIWUQUBIE,WANQUANQUJUEYUPIANMIANGONGFANRENDEXINGSHIZERENNIANLINGHEXINGSHIZERENNENGLI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YOUCI,BIZHERENWEIBUNENGJIANGPIANMIANGONGFANYIDANDUFANZUILUNCHU,HENDUOQINGKUANGXIAJIAGONGZHEDEXINGWEIWUFATUOLIBEIJIAGONGZHE,YIDANTUOLI,KENENGDAOZHIFANGZONGFANZUI;YEBUNENGZHIJIEGUILEIDAOJIANJIEZHENGFANZHONG,DUIYUPIANMIANGONGFAN,TAHEJIANJIEZHENGFANCUNZAIZHEQUBIE,PIANMIANGONGFANSHIZHENGFANHEGONGFANDEGONGTONGFANZUIZHENGTI,ERJIANJIEZHENGFANZHISHIZHENGFAN,QIBUSHUYUGONGTONGFANZUI,JIANJIEZHENGFANLIYONGTARENSHISHIFANZUI,PIANMIANGONGFANYILAIYUSHIXINGFANDEXINGWEICAIKEYIDADAOQIFANZUIYITU。JIANJIEZHENGFANLIYONGXINGWEIJIUJUYOUSHIXINGXING,TADEWEIHAIJIEGUOYUXINGWEIRENZHIJIESHISHIFANZUIDEWEIHAIJIEGUOHAOWUQUBIE;DANGRAN,YEBUKEZAIXINGFAFENZEZHONGDANDUSHEDINGZUIMING,JIANGPIANMIANGONGFANSUOYOUDEXINGWEIYILVRENDINGWEIYIGEZUIMING,YINWEIHENYOUKENENGCHUFABUDANG。

                          YINCI,DUIYUJIAGONGZHEYUBEIJIAGONGZHEDECHUFAYUANZEYAOQUBIEDUIDAI:DUIYUBEIJIAGONGZHE,YINGDANGGENJUQIFANZUIDESHISHI、FANZUIDEXINGZHI、QINGJIEHEDUISHEHUIDEWEIHAICHENGDU,RENZHENZUNXUNZUIXINGFADING、ZUIZEXINGXIANGSHIYINGYUANZE,YIDANDUFANZUICHUFA;DUIYUJIAGONGZHEFUHEPIANMIANGONGTONGFANZUI,ANZHAOGONGTONGFANZUILILUNCHUFA,PIANMIANBANGZHUFANDECHUFACAIYONGBIJIANZHI,GENJUWOGUO《XINGFA》DI27TIAODIERKUANDEGUIDING“DUIYUCONGFAN,YINGDANGCONGQING、JIANQINGHUOZHEMIANCHUCHUFA。”DUIYUPIANMIANJIAOSUOFAN,ANZHAOJIAOSUOFANZAIGONGTONGFANZUIZHONGSUOQIDEZUOYONGERDING,KENENGSHIZHUFAN,YEKENENGSHICONGFAN,BUKEYIGAIANZHAOZHUFANLUNDING。

                          三、立法构建

                          PIANMIANGONGFANDECHUFAYIJU,ZAIYUPIANMIANGONGFANSUOJUYOUDEYANZHONGSHEHUIWEIHAIXING。PIANMIANGONGFANRENZAITARENBUZHIQINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHISHILEANZHONGCANYU、JIAGONGFANZUIDEXINGWEI。QIXINGWEIYUBUZHIQINGYIFANGDEXINGWEIXIANGHUJIEHE、XIANGHUYINGXIANG,HEHUGUILVDIYINQILEWEIHAIHOUGUODECHANSHENG。LIANGZHEDEXINGWEIDOUDUIFAYIQINHAIDEHOUGUOFUYULEYUANYINLI。1ZUOWEIPIANMIANGONGFANDESHUANGFANGDOUYAOCHENGDANXIANGYINGDEXINGSHIZEREN,ZAIMUQIANZHEIZHONGBINGWUFALVGUIDINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIUJINGRUHELIFACAINENGZUODAOFADANGQIZUINI?BIZHERENWEI,JIRANWOMENYIJINGRENDINGCHUPIANMIANGONGFANZUOWEIGONGTONGFANZUIDEYIZHONGTESHUXINGTAICUNZAI,WOMENHEBUYIGONGTONGFANZUIWEIJICHULIFA,YEJIUSHIYIXINGFADI25TIAOWEIJICHULIFA,ZENGSHE《XINGFA》25TIAODISANKUAN,GUIDINGCHUPIANMIANGONGFANDENEIRONG:“ANZHONGPEIHETARENSHIXINGFANZUI、HUOJIAOSUOTAREN、HUOXIELIYUTARENDEFANZUIXINGWEI,LINGYIFANGBUZHIQINGDE,ANZHONGSHIXINGZHE、JIAOSUOZHE、BANGZHUZHECANZHAOGONGTONGFANZUILUNCHU。”YUCITONGSHI,YINGZAIXINGFAJIESHIHUOXINGFALILUNZHONGZUOCHUGUIDING,JIANGGONGTONGGUYISHEDINGCHENGWEIGUANGYIHEXIAYILIANGZHONG,RUQIANSUOSHU,PIANMIANGONGTONGGUYIGUANGYIDEGONGTONGGUYISHIZHIXINGWEIRENZHIJIANYOUGONGTONGDEGUYISHISHIFANZUIDEYISI,GONGTONGDEXIWANGHEFANGRENWEIHAIJIEGUODEFASHENG,BUYAOQIUGUYINEIRONGXIANGTONG,BUYAOQIUCUNZAIZHEXIANGHUJIANDEYISILIANLUO;XIAYIDEGONGTONGGUYISHIZHIXINGWEIRENZHIJIANYOUGONGTONGDEFANZUIGUYI,QIEXIANGHUJIANCUNZAIZHEYISILIANLUO,DANBUYAOQIUGUYINEIRONGXIANGTONG。ZAIXINGFAJIESHIZHONGGUIDINGPIANMIANGONGFANDEHANYI,JINYIBUGUIFANQIHANYI,BIMIANSIFASHIWUZHONGCHUXIANLANYONG。YEJI,BIZHEBUFANDUIZAITIAOJIANCHENGSHUSHIDUIXINGFAZUOYICIBIYAODEXIUGAI,DUIPIANMIANGONGFANYUYIMINGQUEGUIDING。

                          四、结语

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUWOGUODUIPIANMIANGONGFANDEYANJIUQIBUJIAOWAN,PIANMIANGONGFANLILUNDEFAZHANJIAOWEIZHIHOU,DAOZHIXIANXINGXINGFAZHONGMEIYOUDUIPIANMIANGONGFANZUOCHUMINGQUEGUIDING。ZHENGQUESHIYONGGONGTONGFANZUILILUN,RENDINGPIANMIANFANZUICHENGLIDELILUNYIJU、PIANMIANGONGFANCHENGLIFANWEI、FENXIPIANMIANGONGFANDELEIXING,DUIYUHUAJIEZHEIZHONGKUNJINGYIYIZHONGDA。RENHELILUNBENSHENDOUBUSHIMUDEERSHISHOUDUAN,QIZUIZHONGMUDEDOUSHIJIEJUEXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI。PIANMIANGONGFANDEYANJIU,TONGYANGSHIWEILESIFASHIJIANZHONGZHUNQUEDINGZUILIANGXING,CONGERGENGHAODEFAHUIXINGFADEBAOHUJINENGERFUWUDE。JIANYUCI,DUIPIANMIANGONGFANZAILIFASHANGJIAYIJIEJUEDESHIJIYIJINGDAOLAI。TONGGUOZAIXINGFAZONGZEZHONGMINGQUEGUIDINGPIANMIANGONGFANNENGGENGHAODIZHIDAOSIFASHIJIAN,WEISHIJIANZHONGPIANMIANGONGFANDERENDINGHECHUFATIGONGYIJU。

                          参考文献

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                          注释

                          1LVJING.PIANMIANGONGFANYANJIU[D].ZHONGGUOZHENGFADAXUE,2009(3):3.

                          齐岩.浅析“片面共犯”是否成立共同犯罪[J].法制博览,2020(03):61-63.
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