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                    学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 行政法论文

                    行政执法和解的模式探讨

                    时间:2018-11-23 来源:未知 作者:乐枫 本文字数:20847字

                    行政执法论文精选范文10篇之第六篇:行政执法和解的模式探讨

                      摘要:执法和解作为一种执法方法,能够发挥提高执法效率、节约行政成本、化解执法纠纷等重要功能。丰富多样的执法活动和执法场景决定了执法和解的运用不能局限于某一固定模式,而需要有多样化的安排。和解的适用前提不应限于事实或法律状态不确定且不能查明,在事实或法律状态易查或已经查清的情形下也可以进行和解。和解的意愿表达无需拘泥于双方协商谈判的形式,公示回应同样能够发挥作用。和解的实现并非只能通过签订行政契约,单方行政决定亦能实现和解。这些不同的适用前提、表意形式和实现方法经过组合变化,能够形成八种不同的执法和解模式,不同模式适用于不同的执法情境,执法主体应根据执法实践的需要灵活运用。

                      关键词:行政执法; 执法和解; 行政裁量; 执法效率;

                      Abstract:

                      Administrative law enforcement reconciliation, as a law enforcement method, has such important functions as improving law enforcement efficiency, saving administrative costs, and resolving law enforcement disputes. Diversified law enforcement activities and scenarios in practice require diversified arrangements for law enforcement reconciliation. The application of such reconciliation should not be limited to cases where facts and/or legal status cannot be ascertained. It can also be applied in cases in which relevant facts or legal status is easy to ascertain or already clear. Negotiation between the involved parties is not the only way to express the will of reconciliation. Also, if the administrative counterparty responses to the public reconciliation rules made by subjects of law enforcement, the same effect can be achieved as well. When it comes to its outcome, reconciliation can be realized not only by the signing of administrative contracts between involved parties, but also by unilateral administrative decisions. These different combinations of preconditions, forms of expression and methods of realization can form eight different modes of reconciliation of administrative law enforcement, each of them is suitable for a corresponding situation of law enforcement. Subjects of law enforcement should apply different means of reconciliation flexibly in accordance with the needs of law enforcement practice.

                    星云棋牌官网下载   Keyword:

                      administrative law enforcement; law enforcement reconciliation; administrative discretion; law enforcement efficiency;

                    行政执法

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                      一、行政执法和解的两种界定

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                    星云棋牌官网下载   (ER)"KUANSONGTIAOJIANHEJIE"FANGSHIFANGFADEDANYIXING

                      "XIANDINGTIAOJIANHEJIE"YU"KUANSONGTIAOJIANHEJIE"DOUYIZHIZHUZHANG,SHUANGFANGBIAODAHEJIEYIYUANDEFANGSHISHIJINXINGPINGDENGXIESHANG,SHIXIANHEJIEDEFANGFASHIDIJIEHEJIEXIEYI。ZHEIXIANRANSHIYIZHONGDANYI、JIANGHUADERENSHI。

                      SHOUXIAN,ZAIHEJIESHIJIANZHONG,XIESHANGTANPANSHIBIAODAHEJIEYIYUANDECHANGJIANXINGSHI,DANZHEIBINGBUYIWEIXIESHANGTANPANJIUSHIWEIYIDEXINGSHI。BINGQIE,WANQUANJUNIYUZHEIZHONGXINGSHIYEBINGBUKEQU。QIYI,MIANDUIMIANJINXINGXIESHANGTANPANJIAOWEIHAOSHIFEILI,TONGCHANGXUZAIDUOLUNBOYIZHIHOUCAINENGZAISHUANGFANGZHIJIANXINGCHENGYIZHIYIYUAN,GUOCHENGJIAOZHANG。DUIYUNEIXIEZHENGCEDANXINGKONGJIANSHOUXIAN、YAOQIUSHIFENJUTI、SHANGTANYUDIXIAODEHEJIELAIJIANG,ZHIFAJIGUANFANFUSHANGTANSUOXUFUCHUDECHENGBENXIANRANJIAOGAO。QIER,XIESHANGTANPANZHEIZHONGXINGSHIZHIYIZHENDUIDANGE、TEDINGQIEMINGQUEDEXIANGDUIREN。ZHENDUIRENSHUZHONGDUOQIEQINGJIELEISIDEXIANGDUIRENQUNTI,YOUZHIFAJIGUANYUQUNTICHENGYUANZHUYIKAIZHANXIESHANGTANPANYEXUYAOFUCHUJIAOGAOCHENGBEN,ZAIZHIFARENLIBUZU、WULIZIYUANDUANQUEDEQINGKUANGXIAGENGSHINANYICAOZUO。ZHENDUIGUANGFANCUNZAIQIEBUTEDINGDEXIANGDUIREN,XIESHANGTANPANXIANRANBUYISHIYONG,YINWEIJUTIDEZHIFAXIANGDUIRENSHANGQIEBUNENGQUEDING,XIESHANGYEJIUWUCONGTANQI。ZAIHEJIESHIJIANZHONG,CHUXIESHANGTANPANZHIWAI,HAIYOULINGYIZHONGSHUANGFANGBIAOYIXINGSHI,JI"YIFANGZUOCHUGONGSHI,LINGYIFANGJIYUHUIYING"DE"GONGSHIHUIYING"XINGSHI,TATONGCHANGSHIYOUZHIFAJIGUANGONGSHIZAIYOUHEJIESHIXIANGHEJUTIYAOQIUDEZHIFAZHENGCE,YOUHEJIEYIYUANDEXIANGDUIRENKETONGGUOYINGYUNXIANGGUANYAOQIUBIAODAHEJIEYIYUAN。YUXIESHANGTANPANXIANGBI,GONGSHIHUIYINGJIANHUALEHEJIEGUOCHENG,BINGKEZHENDUITONGLEIQINGKUANGDEXIANGDUIRENQUNTIHEBUTEDINGDEDUIXIANGJIAYIYUNYONG,YINERGENGJIAFUYOUXIAOLV。

                      QICI,DUIYUZHIFAJIGUANHEXIANGDUIRENSHIBUSHIBIXUTONGGUOQIANDINGHEJIEXIEYIDEFANGFALAISHIXIANHEJIE,YOUXUEZHEYITONGGUOSHIJIANGUANCHATICHULEBUTONGKANFA,ZHICHUGEGUOXINGZHENGSHIJIANZHONGPUBIANCUNZAIZHEIYANGYIXIEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,SUIRANZAIXINGSHISHANGBIAOXIANWEIXINGZHENGZHUTIDEDANFANGXINGWEI,DANBENZHISHANGYESHUYUHEJIEQIYUE。"YINWEIXINGZHENGZHUTIZAIZUOCHUZHEIXIEXINGZHENGXINGWEIZHIQIAN,YIYUXINGZHENGLIHAIGUANXIRENJINXINGLECHONGFENDEXIESHANGHEGOUTONG,BINGJIUXINGZHENGXINGWEIDESHIZHINEIRONGDACHENGLEGONGSHI。" 24 ZHEIJIUSHISHUO,ZHIFAJIGUANRUOSHIXIANYITONGXIANGDUIRENJINXINGGOUTONGBINGDACHENGGONGSHI,HUOZHEXIANGDUIRENYIJINGTONGGUOSHIJIXINGDONGMANZULEZHIFAJIGUANDEJUTIYAOQIU,CISHIYIDANFANGXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEFANGFACHENGZAIJUYOUHEJIENEIRONGDEJIEGUO,WEICHANGBUKE。FANGUOLAIJIANG,ZAITONGGUODANFANGXINGZHENGXINGWEIZUYISHIXIANHEJIEDECHANGHE,GUSHOUDIJIEXINGZHENGQIYUE,FANDAOSHIFANGFASHANGJIANGHUA、SIBANDEBIAOXIAN。

                      二、行政执法和解的多样模式及其构造

                    星云棋牌官网下载   GOUJIANZHIFAHEJIEDEDUOYANGMOSHIZHIZAISHIYINGFENFANFUZADEZHIFAQINGXING。GELEIZHIFAJIGUANZAIZHIFALINGYU、ZHIFARENWU、ZHIFASHIXIANG、ZIYUANPEIZHI、ZHIFAJINGYANYIJIZHIFADUIXIANGDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIJUTICHAYI,BUTONGZHIFAJIGUANHUOBUTONGZHIFALINGYUSHIYICAIYONGDEHEJIEFANGFABUKENENGZHENGQIHUAYI。ZAIXINXINGZHIFALINGYUZHONG,ZHIFAJIGUANMIANDUIXINDEWEIFAXIANXIANG,XUYAOYINGDUIDESHIYINZHENGCEBUCHENGSHU、GUIZHISHOUDUANYOUXIAN、JINGYANQIANQUEDENGDAOZHIDEZHIFAKUNNAN。CISHI,ZHIFAJIGUANYINGDANGSHENYONGHEJIE。ERZAIGUIZHITIXIHEJINGYANXIANGDUICHENGSHUDEZHIFALINGYU,ZHIFAJIGUANMIANLINDEZHIFAKUNNANKENENGSHIYOUQITAYUANYINDAOZHIDE。LIRU,YOUDEQINGWEIWEIFAXIANXIANGSUIRANYIYUDIAOCHA,QUEKENENGPUBIANCUNZAI,CISHIXUYAOFANGKUANTIAOJIANSHIYONGHEJIE,YIBIANYINDAOWEIFADUIXIANGZIXINGJIUZHENGWEIFA,BIMIANFASHENGDAGUIMOZHIFAJIUFEN,GAOXIAOLVDIDACHENGZHIFAMUDE。ZHIFAJIGUANYUTEDING、MINGQUEDEGETIYIXIESHANGTANPANDEXINGSHIKAIZHANHEJIEDANGRANKEXING,DANRUOXIANGDUIRENRENSHUZHONGDUO,ZEYIGONGSHIHUIYINGDEFANGSHIXINGCHENGHEYIJIAOWEISHIYI。CONGZHIFAHEJIEXIANGDUIRENDEXINGWEILAIKAN,YOUDEWEIFAXIANGDUIRENNENGGOUJISHIDUIWEIFAXINGWEIJINXINGJIUZHENG,BINGJIJIBUJIUWEIFASUNHAIHOUGUO,YOUDEWEIFAXIANGDUIRENYIYOUGAIZHENGYIYUAN,DANGAIZHENGXINGWEISHANGWEISHIJIFASHENG,BUJIUXIAOGUOYIWEIXIANXIAN。DUIYUQIANZHE,KEYOUZHIFAJIGUANYIDANFANGJUEDINGDEFANGFAZUOCHUHEJIECHULI;DUIYUHOUZHE,XUTONGGUODIJIEXIEYILAIMINGQUEXIANGDUIRENSUOXULVXINGDEYIWUNEIRONG。ZONGZHI,XIANSHIZHONGDEZHIFAQINGJINGFENGFUDUOYANG,JUEDINGLEZHIFAHEJIEDEMOSHIYEYINGDANGSHIDUOYANGHUADE。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZHIFAHEJIEDEBUTONGMOSHIKEYIGENJUQIZHIDUGOUZAODEJIBENYAOSULAIJINXINGHUAFEN,BUTONGNEIRONGDEJIBENYAOSUJIQIZUHENENGGOUSHENGCHENGBUTONGDEHEJIELEIXING。"MEIYIXIANGSHEHUIZHIDU,DOUYOUYIDINGSHULIANGDEGOUCHENGYAOSUZUCHENG,QIJIEGOUYEJIUSHIZHEIXIEGOUCHENGYAOSU(JIQIDANYUAN)DEXIANGDUIWENDINGDEMOSHIGUANXIDEZUHE。" 25 YIGEJIAOWANZHENGDEZHIFAHEJIEMOSHI,ZHISHAOBAOKUOHEJIEDESHIYONGQIANTI、HEJIEDEBIAOYIXINGSHI、HEJIEDESHIXIANFANGFAZHEISANXIANGJIBENYAOSU。YIDEGUOFAZHONGDEHEJIEZHIDUWEILI,RUODUIQIZHONGDEZHIDUYAOSUJINXINGJIEGOU,KEYICHENGXIANCHU"HEJIEQIANTI(QINGKUANGNANCHA)-HEJIEBIAOYI(SHUANGFANGXIESHANG)-HEJIESHIXIAN(DIJIEQIYUE)"DEJIBENZHIDUJIAGOU。ZAIZHEIGE"HEJIEQIANTI-HEJIEBIAOYI-HEJIESHIXIAN"DEFENXIKUANGJIAZHONG,GEGEZHIDUYAOSUSUODUIYINGDEJUTINEIRONG,KEYINSHIJIANXUQIUBUTONGERYOUSUOCHABIE。JUTILAISHUO,HEJIEDESHIYONGQIANTIKENENGSHISHISHIHUOFALVZHUANGTAIBUQUEDINGQIENANYICHAMING(JIANCHENG"QINGKUANGNANCHA"),YEKENENGSHISHISHIHUOFALVZHUANGTAIJIANDAN、YIYUCHAMINGHUOYIJINGCHAMING(JIANCHENG"QINGKUANGCHAMING")。HEJIEDEBIAOYIXINGSHIKENENGSHIZHIFAJIGUANYUXIANGDUIRENJINXINGXIESHANGTANPAN,YEKENENGSHIZHIFAJIGUANYUXIANGDUIRENJINXINGGONGSHIHUIYINGDEHUDONG。HEJIEDESHIXIANFANGFAKENENGSHIDINGLIXINGZHENGQIYUE,YEKENENGSHIZHIFAJIGUANZUOCHUDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDING。DANGRAN,ZHIFAJIGUANZUOCHUXINGZHENGJUEDINGKEYISHIMINGSHIDE,RUYISHUMIANXINGSHIZUOCHUBUYUCHUFA、CONGQINGCHUFA、JIANQINGCHUFADENGJUEDINGHUOTONGZHI;YEKEYISHIMOSHIDE,RUZAISHISHISHANGZHONGZHIDIAOCHACHENGXUHUOCHULIJINCHENGDENG。RUOJIANGSHANGSHUFENXIKUANGJIAZHONGDEGEGEBUFENSHIWEIBIANLIANG,ZAIJIANGBUTONGBIANLIANGJINXINGPAILIEZUHE,LILUNSHANGNENGGOUXINGCHENGBAZHONGLEIXINGDEHEJIEMOSHI(JIANXIABIAO)。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   XINGZHENGZHIFAHEJIEDEDUOYANGMOSHI

                      YISHANGBAZHONGHEJIEMOSHIZHONG,DIYIZHONGJIXIANDINGSHIYONGTIAOJIANDEDEGUOMOSHI,YESHIWOGUOZHENGJIANHUISUOCAIYONGDEMOSHI。GAIMOSHIZAIDANGQIANDEZHIFASHIJIANZHONGJIAOWEICHANGJIAN,DANQIBINGBUJIYAHUOPAICHIQITAMOSHIDEXINGCHENGKONGJIAN。XIANGFAN,"XIANDINGTIAOJIANHEJIE"DEYANGEXINGHESHIYONGFANWEIDEYOUXIANXING,XUYAOQITALEIXINGDEHEJIEMOSHIJIAYIBUCHONG。LINGWAIQIZHONGHEJIELEIXING,DOUSHI"XIANDINGTIAOJIANHEJIE"MOSHIZAIBUTONGCHENGDUSHANGDEBIANTI。RUQIANSUOSHU,ZHEIXIEBIANTIDESHENGCHENG,YOULAIYUJIANGHEJIEDEQIANTIKUOZHANDAO"QINGKUANGCHAMING"DEQINGXING、CHUANGLIGONGSHIHUIYINGDEHEJIEBIAOYIXINGSHI、CAIYONGDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGZUOWEISHIXIANHEJIEDEFANGFA。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (YI)JIANG"QINGKUANGCHAMING"ZUOWEIHEJIEQIANTIDELIJU

                      JIANGZHIFAHEJIEDEQIANTIYANGEXIANDINGWEISHISHIHUOFALVZHUANGTAIBUMING,QIFALIJICHUNAISHICHUFAFADINGYUANZE。GONGMIN、FARENHUOQITAZUZHIDERENHEXINGWEI,ZHIYOUZAIFALVFAGUIMINGQUEGUIDINGYINGYUCHUFASHI,CAINENGSHOUDAOCHUFA;QIECHUFADEFANCHOU、ZHONGLEI、FUDUYIJICHENGXU,DOUYINGYOUFALVMINGQUEGUIDINGBINGYIFASHISHI。 26 DANGANJIANSHISHIHUOFALVGUANXIWEICHAMINGSHI,XIANGDUIRENHAIZHISHISHEXIANWEIFAERBUSHIQUEDINGWEIFA,BUSHUYUFALVFAGUIMINGQUEGUIDINGYINGYUCHUFADEXINGWEI。TONGSHI,GENJU"XIANQUZHENG、HOUCAIJUE"DEFADINGCHENGXUGUIZE,ANJIANSHISHIWEICHAMINGZEBIAOMINGSHANGWUCHONGFEN、QUEZAODEZHENGJU,CISHIZHIFAJIGUANBUNENGZUOCHUCHUFAJUEDING,FOUZEJIUSHIWEIFACHUFA。DANXIANGDUIRENDESHEXIANWEIFAXINGWEIYEKENENGSHIZHENSHIDEWEIFAXINGWEI,BUYUJIUZHENGHUIFANGRENQICUNZAI。CIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,ZHIFAJIGUANTONGGUOYUXIANGDUIRENDACHENGHEJIE,YIXIANGDUIRENZIJIZHUDONGJIUZHENGXINGWEI、XIAOCHUXINGWEIDEBULIANGHOUGUO、JIAONAHEJIEJINBUCHANGSUNSHIWEITIAOJIAN,ZHONGZHIZHIFADIAOCHA、BUZUOWEIFAXINGWEIDERENDINGHECHUFA。ZHEIJIUZAIQINGKUANGNANYICHAMINGDEZHIFAKUNJINGZHONG,JIKESHOULECHUFAFADINGYUANZE,YOUDACHENGLEZHIFAMUDE。

                      ZAISHISHIHUOFALVZHUANGTAIYIJINGCHAMINGDEQINGKUANGXIASHIYONGZHIFAHEJIE,YEYOUQIZHONGYAODEFALIJICHU。YUANZESHANGJIANG,SHISHIHUOFALVZHUANGTAIYIDANCHAMING,ZHIFAJIGUANJIUYINGYIJUDIAOCHAJIELUNYIFAZUOCHUCHULIJUEDING。DANYEYAOKANDAO,ZAIJUTIDEZHIFASHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHIFAZHUTIZAIYANGEYIFAZUOCHUCHULIJUEDINGSHIHAIXIANGYOUFADINGDEZIYOUCAILIANGKONGJIAN。CHUFAFADINGYUANZEYUXINGZHENGCHUFAZHONGXINGZHENGJIGUANXIANGYOUZIYOUCAILIANGQUANBINGBUMAODUN。 27 LIXIANGZHUANGTAIDEYIFAXINGZHENGJIANLIZAIYIZHONGJIADINGDEJICHUZHISHANG:RENHEQINGKUANGXIA,FALVDOUNENGGOUDUIXINGZHENGZHUTIDEZHIFAXINGWEIJIYUJUTI、MINGQUE、JINGXIDEGUIFANZHIYIN。XIANSHIZHONGDEFALVQUEBINGFEIRUCI,QIWUFADUIZHIFAGUOCHENGZHONGKENENGCHUXIANDESUOYOUQINGXINGJINXINGJINGZHUNYUCEHELIANGHUA,YIWUFAXINGCHENGMINGQUEERHAOWUPIANCHADEKEGUANBIAOZHUNGONGZHIFAZHECANZHAO。 28 FALVGUIFANJIQIYUYANBIAODADEYOUXIANXINGYUSHEHUISHENGHUODEFENGFUXINGHEFUZAXINGZHIJIAN,FALVDEWENDINGXINGYUSHEHUIDEBIANDONGXINGZHIJIAN,JUNCUNZAILIEHEN,BUKENENGWANQUANDUIYING。 29 ZHEIJUEDINGLE,ZAIZHIFALINGYU,FALVCHULEYAOWEIZHIFAHUODONGTIGONGYANGEDEJISHUXINGGUIFANWAI,HAIBIXUWEIQITIGONGKEZAIYIDINGFANWEINEISHIYONGDECAILIANGXINGGUIFAN。YIXINGZHENGCHUFAFADI27TIAOWEILI,FALVYUANZEXINGDIGUIDING,XINGZHENGJIGUANKEYIGENJUWEIFAXINGWEIRENDESHIHOUBUJIUXINGWEI、PEIHECHACHUTAIDU、YOUWULIGONGBIAOXIAN、SHIFOUJISHIJIUZHENGWEIFADENGQINGXING,ZAIFADINGXINGZHENGCAILIANGFANWEINEIXUANZEBUYUCHUFA、CONGQINGCHUFA、JIANQINGCHUFADENGLIANGFAFANGSHI。 30 YOUXUEZHERENWEI,XINGZHENGCHUFAGUOCHENGZHONG,XIANGDUIRENYUZHIFAJIGUANZHIJIANJIUWEIFAXINGZHI、WEIFACHENGDU、CHUFAZHONGLEIHEFUDUDENGWENTIJINXINGJIAOSHE,SHIZHISHANGJIUSHIYIZHONGADRFANGSHI,SHIDUIHEJIEFANGSHIDEYUNYONG。 31 CIZHONGYIFANGSHIHOUJIJIGAIGUO、YIFANGSUIZHICONGKUANLIANGFADEHEJIESHICHULI,JIUBUSHIYI"SHISHIQINGKUANGHUOFALVZHUANGTAIBUMING"WEIQIANTI,FANERSHIZAI"SHISHIQINGKUANGHUOFALVZHUANGTAIWANQUANCHAMING"DEQINGXINGXIASHIYONG。ZAIFALVSHOUQUANXINGZHENGJIGUANJINXING"XINGZHENGCAILIANG"DEFALIJICHUSHANG,ZHIFAJIGUANYUXIANGDUIRENDEYIZAIHOUYIZHONGQINGXINGXIAKAIZHANHEJIE,XIANGYINGDEHEJIEKONGJIANJIUSHIZIYOUCAILIANGSUOYUNXUDEFUDU。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (ER)JIANG"GONGSHIHUIYING"ZUOWEIHEJIEBIAOYIXINGSHIDELIJU

                    星云棋牌官网下载   DUIYUZHIFAHEJIEERYAN,YAODACHENGHEYI,XIESHANGTANPANBINGFEIWEIYIKEXINGDEXINGSHI。YIHEZHONGXINGSHIBIAODAHEJIEYIYUANZHUYAOSHIYIGEJISHUXINGWENTI。XIESHANGTANPANYOULIYUZHIFAZHUTIHEXIANGDUIRENCHONGFENJIAOHUANYIJIAN,ZUIZHONGDACHENGSHUANGFANGJUNKEJIESHOUQIEYIYULUOSHIDECHULIFANGAN。DANZHENGRUQIANWENSUOSHU,RUSHEJIDEXIANGDUIRENSHULIANGPANGDA,HUODAICHAANJIANDESHULIANGJIAODA,YOUZHIFAZHUTIZHENDUIJUTIGEANTONGXIANGDUIRENZHUYIJINXINGXIESHANG,KENENGYAOFUCHUGAOANGDEXINGZHENGCHENGBEN,QIECUNZAICAOZUOSHANGDEKUNNAN。ZAISHUANGFANGXIESHANGTANPANZHIWAI,TANSUONENGGOUDUILEIANJINXINGPILIANGHUACHULIDEFANGSHI,JUYOUXIANSHIBIYAOXING。YAOMANZUZHEIYIXUQIU,YUNYONGGONGSHIHUIYINGDEXINGSHISHIYIGEKEXINGDEXUANXIANG。GAIZUOFAKEBEISHIWEIGESHIHETONGZAIXINGZHENGZHIFAHEJIELINGYUDESHIYONG。XIANGYINGDEHEJIEGUOCHENGTIXIANWEI,XINGZHENGJIGUANYUXIANDUIHEJIEDEXIANGGUANZHENGCEGUIDINGJINXINGGONGSHI,FUHETIAOJIANDEXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENKEYIZHIJIEZUOCHU"JIESHOUHEJIE"DEHUIYING。WOGUODANGQIANDEZHIFASHIJIANZHONG,YIJINGCHUXIANLECILEIMOSHI,YIZHUHAISHIHENGQINQUDESHUIWUCHENGXINBAOGAOMIANZEZHIDUWEIDIANXING。GAIXIANGZHIDUGULIQIYEZHUDONGXIANGSHUIWUBUMENBAOGAOZHONGDASHESHUISHIXIANG,ZAIYINGBAOSHUISHIDIAN,DANGSHESHUISHISHIHEZHENGCEGUIDINGSHANGBUMINGQUESHI,RUOXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENNENGZHUDONGXIANGXINGZHENGJIGUANCHENGXINBAOGAOXIANGGUANSHESHUIZILIAO,ZONGRANYIRIHOUSHUISHOUZHENGCEQUEDINGXUYAOJIAOSHUI,YEBUJIASHOUZHINAJINHUOJIYUCHUFA,ZHIXUBUJIAOSHUIKUANJIKE。 32 JUTIERYAN,QIHEJIEGUOCHENGWEI,XINGZHENGJIGUANSHIQIANGONGSHILEHEJIEDETIAOJIANBINGTICHUHEJIEYAOYUE,XIANGDUIRENXIANGZHIFAJIGUANZHUDONGBAOGAO,KESHIWEIJIESHOUYAOYUEDECHENGNUO。SUIHOU,ZHIFAJIGUANYIYAOYUEBUKEYIZHINAJINHUOCHUFA,SHUANGFANGWUXUXIESHANGTANPANBIANXINGCHENGHEYI。ZONGSHANG,ZUOWEIYIZHONGBIAODAYIYUANDEXINGSHI,GONGSHIHUIYINGBUJINJUBEILILUNSHANGDEZIQIAXING,YINENGZAISHIJIANZHONGYOUXIAOFAHUIZUOYONG。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (SAN)YI"DANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDING"ZUOWEIHEJIESHIXIANFANGFADELIJU

                      CHUSHUANGFANGQIANDINGHEJIEQIYUEWAI,XINGZHENGJIGUANZUOCHUDEDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGYIKECHENGWEISHIXIANZHIFAHEJIEJIEGUODEFANGFA。YIQIANDINGXINGZHENGQIYUELAISHIXIANHEJIE,KECHENGWEI"QIYUESHIHEJIE",YIDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGLAISHIXIANHEJIE,KECHENGWEI"JUEDINGSHIHEJIE".

                      SHOUXIAN,CONGLILUNSHANGJIANG,ZHIYAOSHUANGFANGYOUZHENSHIDEHEJIEYIYUAN,ZAIHEFA、ZIYUAN、GONGPINGDEJICHUSHANGDACHENGYIZHIYIJIAN,ZHIFAHEJIEDEHEXINYAOJIANBIANYIJINGJUBEI。JIUJINGSHICAIQUXINGZHENGQIYUEHAISHIDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGDEFANGFA,KEYIGENJUSHIJIXUYAOJIAYIQUEDING。ZAIWUXUHUOBUYINGDIJIESHUMIANXINGZHENGQIYUEDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIKEYOUZHIFAZHUTICAIQUDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGDEFANGFALAICHULI。DANGRAN,GAILEIJUEDINGBINGFEIDANFANGZIYIDEXINGWEI,YINWEIQIZHONGYIJINGBAOHANLEZHONGYAODEHEJIEYINZI:QIYI,YOUDUIXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENYIFANGYIFAJIESHOUHEJIEHUOSHIJILVXINGXIANGGUANYIWUDEQUEREN,JIRENDINGXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENYOUCIYIYUANHUOZHEYIJINGYISHIJIXINGWEIWANCHENGLEHEJIENEIRONGDEYAOQIU;QIER,ZHIFAZHUTIYIJUEDINGDEFANGFALVXINGZISHENCHENGNUODEFADINGYIWU,ERBUSHIXIANGCHUANTONGXINGZHENGJUEDINGNEIYANGYIJUEDINGYUESHUDUIFANGXINGWEI。XUYAOZHICHUDESHI,ZAIJUTIDEZHIFASHIJIANZHONG,SHUANGFANGYEKEYIYUEDINGXUANZEHEJIEDEFANGFA,DANWULUNSHENMEFANGFADOUBUGAIBIANHEJIEDEPINZHI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,SHUANGFANGQIANDINGHEJIEQIYUEDEZUOYONGZAIYU,TONGGUOMINGWENJIZAIHEJIENEIRONGYIJIGEZIBIXULVXINGDEYIWU,ZUOWEISHUANGFANGWEILAIXINGWEIDEYUESHU。CONGZHEIYIGONGNENGKAN,"QIYUESHIHEJIE"XIANRANSHIYONGYUHEJIENEIRONGZHONGYUEDINGDESHUANGFANGYIWUSHANGXULVXINGDEQINGXING。ZAI"JUEDINGSHIHEJIE"ZHONG,XIANGDUIRENYIFANGYIBANYIKAISHILVXINGHUOLVXINGWANBIHEJIEYAOQIUDEYIWU,XINGZHENGJIGUANZEZHIJIEYIDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGLAIRENKEXIANGDUIRENDEHEJIEBIAOYIYUXINGWEI。CISHI,SHUANGFANGYIBANYIWUQIANDINGQIYUEDEBIYAO。LIRU,ZAIXINGZHENGCHUFAHEJIEDEFALVGUANXIZHONG,ANZHAOFALVGUIDING,RUOXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENZAIWEIFAXINGWEIFASHENGHOU,NENGGOUJIJICAIQUCUOSHIBUJIUSUNHAIJIEGUO,ZEKECONGQINGJIANQINGCHUFAHUOBUYUCHUFA。YINCI,ZAIZHIFAGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHIFAZHUTIRUORENDINGXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENQUEYIZUOCHUJIJIXINGWEIBINGFUHEFALVGUIDING,BIANKEZHIJIEZUOCHUCONGQINGJIANQINGCHUFAHUOBUYUCHUFADEDANFANGJUEDING,WUXUQIANDINGHEJIEQIYUE。KEYIRENWEI,SHUANGFANGQIANDINGQIYUEZHUYAOZHENDUIDESHIWEILAIQIDAIFASHENGDELVXINGXINGWEI,QIZUOYONGZAIYUQUEBAOSHUANGFANGHEJIEYUQIDESHIXIAN。DANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGZEZHUYAOZHENDUIYIJINGFASHENGDELVXINGXINGWEI,SHIZHIFAJIGUANZAIRENKEXIANGDUIRENYIFASHENGXINGWEIDEJICHUSHANGLVXINGZIJIDEXINGWEIYIWU。

                      RENMENZHISUOYIHUIYOUHEJIEJIEGUOBIXUTONGGUOQIYUEXINGSHIJIAYICHENGXIANDEGUANCHANGRENSHI,KENENGSHIYINWEIHEJIEJIZHIZHAOSHIYUSIFALINGYU。ZAISIFALINGYUZHONG,QIYUESHINENGGOUTIXIANSHUANGFANGHEYIDEZUIWEIGUIFANDEXINGSHI。DANSHI,DANGHEJIEJIZHIBEIYIZHIRUGONGFA、TEBIESHIXINGZHENGFALINGYUHOU,ZEXUJIEHEDUIXIANGDETESHUXINGERYOUSUOFAZHAN,BUKEJIAOTIAOSHIDIGUSHOUSIFAQIYUEDEWAIBIAOXINGSHI。YIJUFALVHUOZHENGCEDEMINGWENGUIDING,YIXINGZHENGFASHANGCHANGJIANDEXINGZHENGJUEDINGXINGSHICHENGZAIJUYOUHEJIESHIZHIDEQUANLIYIWUNEIRONG,FUHEXINGZHENGFASHANGXIAOLVYUANZEDEJIBENYAOQIU,YETIXIANCHUZHIFALINGYUCHANGGUIYUNYONGDANFANGXINGZHENGXINGWEICHULISHIWUDETEDIAN。

                      三、行政执法和解多样模式的实践运用

                      JINGYOUSHANGSHUFENXIKEZHI,ZHIFAHEJIEZHIDUZHONGSANXIANGNEIRONGBUTONGDEYAOSUJINGBIANHUAZUHE,KEYISHENGCHENGDUOYANGHUADEHEJIEMOSHI。ZHEIXIEHEJIEMOSHIZAILILUNCENGMIANYOUQIHELIXING,ZAIZHIFASHIJIANZHONGYEBUNANCAOZUO。XIAWENJIANGJIEHEGELEIHEJIEMOSHIZAIJIEGOUHENEIRONGSHANGDETEDIAN,ZHENDUIQIZAIJUTIZHIFACHANGJINGZHONGDEYUNYONG,TICHUYIXIESIKAO。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (YI)"QINGKUANGNANCHA-XIESHANGTANPAN-XINGZHENGQIYUE"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIYIMOSHIZUOWEIJINGDIANDEDEGUOMOSHI,SUISHIYONGFANWEIJIAOWEIYOUXIAN,DANZAIZISHENSUOZHENDUIDETESHUQINGXINGZHONG,RENGYOUZHONGYAODEYUNYONGJIAZHI。CIZHONGMOSHISHIYONGYUDIAOCHANANDUDA、CHENGBENJIAOGAODEFUZAXINGZHENGZHIFALINGYU。QIJUYOUDEZHONGYAOTEDIANSHI:DIYI,ANJIANYIJINGJINRUDIAOCHACHENGXU,SHEXIANWEIFADEXINGWEIRENSHIMINGQUEDE,ZHIFAJIGUANKEYIYUZHIJINXINGXIESHANGTANPAN。DIER,ANJIANDIAOCHAKUNNAN、CHENGBENJIAOGAO,NANYIJIXUTUIJIN,SHUANGFANGTONGGUOXIESHANGTANPANDACHENGHEJIEGENGJIAFUHEXIAOLVYUANZE。DISAN,HEJIENEIRONGZHONGSHEJISHUANGFANGYIWU,KAOLVDAOXIANGDUIRENYIWUDELVXINGSHEJIHEJIEJINDENGJINQIANJIFU,QIEYOUSHIXUYAOJIAOZHANGDELVXINGQIXIAN,YOUBIYAOQIANDINGJUYOUMINGQUEJIZAIXINGHEYUESHUXINGDEHEJIEXIEYI。

                      ZHONGGUOZHENGJIANHUIJIYU"HEJIESHISHIBANFA"YUGAOSHENG(YAZHOU)YOUXIANZERENGONGSIDENG9MINGXINGZHENGHEJIESHENQINGRENDACHENGDEHEJIE,JISHIYUNYONGCIZHONGMOSHIDESHILI。GAIMOSHIZAIZHENGQUANZHIFALINGYUDEYISHIXING,ZHENGSHIYINWEIZHEIYILINGYUDEXUDUOWEIFAXIANXIANGYINMIFUZA、CHASHIKUNNAN。CONGXIANZHUANGLAIKAN,XINGZHENGZHIFADEFUZAQINGXINGBINGBUJINJINCUNZAIYUZHENGQUANLINGYU,ZHURUHULIANWANG、ZHISHICHANQUANDENGXUDUOLINGYUDEZHIFASHIJIAN,YEHUIMIANLINLEISIQINGXING。LIRU,SUIZHEHULIANWANGJISHUDESHENDUYUNYONG,SHICHANGLINGYUZHONGDEXINXINGJINGJIYETAIBUDUANYONGXIAN。XINXINGJINGJIYETAIZHONGDEWEIFASHISHIWANGWANGBUJUYOUCHANGGUIXING,NANYICONGFALVSHANGDINGXING,HUIJIZHIFAJIGUANDAILAIHENDAYALIHEKUNNAN。YIWANGYUECHEJIANGUANWEILI,ZI2012NIANCHUXIANWANGLUOYUECHEXIANXIANG,ZHI2016NIAN《WANGLUOYUYUECHUZUQICHEJINGYINGFUWUGUANLIZANXINGBANFA》CHUTAI,QIJIANDESHUNIAN,WANGYUECHEJIANGUANSHIJISHANGCHUYULAOBANFABUGUANYONG、XINBANFAJIEBUSHANGDEGANGAZHUANGTAI。CHUANTONGXUNYOUCHUZUCHEJIANGUANZHIDUNANYIYINGDUIWANGLUOYUECHEYINFADEXINWENTI,ERXINDEJIANGUANZHIDUYOUSHANGWEILUODI。CILEIYINXINJINGJIYETAIYINFADEZHIFAKUNJING,YESHIHETONGGUO"QINGKUANGNANCHA-XIESHANGTANPAN-XINGZHENGQIYUE"DEHEJIEMOSHIJIAYIPOJIE,QIBUJINNENGGOUXIANZHUTIGAOZHIFAXIAOLV,YEYOULIYUWEIHUXINJINGJIYETAIDESHENGMINGLI。YOUXUEZHEZAIFENXIMEIGUOANDAXINHUIJISHISHIWUSUOPOCHANANSHIJIZHICHU,YANLIDECHUFAJIANGSHIQIYEMIANLIN"SIXING".WEILEBAOCUNQIYESHENGMINGLI,BIMIANCHENGFABOJIGONGSIGUDONGHEYUANGONG,MEIGUOZHENGFUHEQIYEDOUQINGXIANGYUCAIYONGHEJIEDEGUIZHIFANGSHI。 33 DUIYUWOGUOERYAN,DANGXINJINGJIYETAIDUIYUJINGJIHESHEHUIDELIBIYINGXIANGHAIMEIYOUQINGXIXIANXIAN,JIANGUANJIGUANNANYIZUOCHUMINGQUEDEJIANGUANPANDUANSHI,CIZHONGMOSHIXIADEZHIFAHEJIEYINGSHIYIZHONGJIAOHAODECELVEXUANZE。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (ER)"QINGKUANGNANCHA-XIESHANGTANPAN-DANFANGJUEDING"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                      ZHEIYIMOSHITONGYANGSHIHEYUDIAOCHANANDUJIAODA、CHENGBENJIAOGAODEFUZAXINGZHENGZHIFALINGYU。YUSHANGYIMOSHILVEYOUQUBIEDESHI,QIHEJIEDESHIXIANJIEZHUDESHIDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGDEFANGFAERFEIXINGZHENGQIYUE,TIXIANLEHEJIEFANGFAYUNYONGSHANGDELINGHUOJIANBIANXING。

                      JINGUANRENMENPUBIANRENWEI"QIYUESHIHEJIE"SHIZHIFAHEJIEDEJIBENFANGFA,DANZAIWOGUODEYIXIEZHIFALINGYUZHONG,YIJINGYOULE"JUEDINGSHIHEJIE"DEZHIDUJICHUHESHIJIANXINGTAI。FANLONGDUANFAQUELIDEFANLONGDUAN"CHENGNUOGAIZHENGZHIDU"JIUSHIQIYI。GAIFADILIUZHANGDI45TIAOGUIDING,DUIFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUDIAOCHADESHEXIANLONGDUANXINGWEI,BEIDIAOCHADEJINGYINGZHECHENGNUOZAIFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOURENKEDEQIXIANNEICAIQUJUTICUOSHIXIAOCHUGAIXINGWEIHOUGUODE,FANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUKEYIJUEDINGZHONGZHIDIAOCHA。ZHONGZHIDIAOCHADEJUEDINGYAOZAIMINGBEIDIAOCHADEJINGYINGZHECHENGNUODEJUTINEIRONG。FANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUYINGDANGDUIJINGYINGZHELVXINGCHENGNUODEQINGKUANGJINXINGJIANDU。JINGYINGZHELVXINGCHENGNUODE,FANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUKEYIJUEDINGZHONGZHIDIAOCHA。GAIXIANGZHIDUDEYUNZUOLUOJITONGBENMOSHIDEZHIFAHEJIEBINGWUERZHI。BEIDIAOCHADEJINGYINGZHEHEFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUSHUANGFANGJIULONGDUANXINGWEIDECHULIZHANKAISHANGTAN,DUICIBINGBUYIDINGXUYAOQIANDINGXIEYI,ZHIDAIJINGYINGZHESHIJILVXINGCHENGNUOHOU,ZHIFAJIGOUZHIJIEYIDANFANGJUEDINGZUOWEIHEJIEZUIZHONGDESHIXIANXINGSHI。ZHEIJIUSHI"QINGKUANGNANCHA-XIESHANGTANPAN-DANFANGJUEDING"HEJIEMOSHIDEJUTIYUNZUOGUOCHENG。

                      SHIJISHANG,ZHEIYIHEJIEMOSHIZAIFANLONGDUANZHIFALINGYUZHONGHAIYOUGENGDASHIYONGKONGJIAN。DUILONGDUANDIWEIDEPANDUANSHIFANLONGDUANZHIFAMIANLINDEDIANXINGNANTIZHIYI。YIJINNIANLAIDUIBIAOZHUNBIYAOZHUANLI(SEP)QUANLIRENLONGDUANXINGWEIDERENDINGWEILI。ZAIJISHUBIAOZHUNXIANGDUIDANYIDESHIDAI,SEPQUANLIRENBINGBUSHOUQUZHUANLIFEI,DANSUIZHEYANFAFEIYONGYUELAIYUEGAO,SEPQUANLIRENKAISHIXIANGQITASHIYONGZHUTISHOUQUZHUANLIFEI,SHENZHIBUYUNXUQITAZHUTISHIYONGZHUANLI。WEIBAOZHENGSEPQUANLIRENYUQITAZHUANLISHIYONGZHUTIZHIJIANDEQUANYIPINGHENG,GUOJIBIAOZHUNZUZHIZHIDINGZHENGCE,YAOQIUSEPQUANLIRENZUNXUNFRAND(Fair,Reasonable and Non-discrimination)YUANZELAIDUIZHUANLIJINXINGXUKE。DANYOUYUJISHUYUXUKEJIANDEFUZAXING,SEPQIYEDEHEZHONGXINGWEISHUYUWEIFANFRANDYUANZEDEXINGWEI,JINERGOUCHENGBIAOZHUNBIYAOZHUANLIQUANLIDELANYONG,JINGCHANGNANYIPANDUAN。YOUXUEZHEYANJIUHOUZHICHU:"JINNIANLAIMEIOUJINGZHENGFAZHUGUANJIGUANJIUSEPSHOUQUANZHENGYISUIYOUZHANKAIDIAOCHA,DANZHUDUOANJIANSHIYOUSEPQUANLIRENZHUDONGTICHUGAISHANCUOSHIHOUSHOUCHANG,ZHENZHENGYOUCAIFAZHIANJIAN,SHULIANGYOUXIAN。" 34 SUIZHEYUELAIYUEDUODEZHONGGUOQIYECHENGWEISEPQUANLIREN,WEILAIWOGUOXIANGGUANDEZHIFASHIJIANYEHUIMIANLINTONGYANGDENANTI,KEYIJIEJIANCAIYONGCIZHONGZHIFAHEJIEMOSHIJINXINGCHULI。

                      CHUCIZHIWAI,WOGUOFANQINGXIAOZHIFALINGYUDE"JIAGECHENGNUOZHIDU"YUZHEIZHONGMOSHIYEJIBENXIANGSI。JIAGECHENGNUOZHIDUGUIDINGYUXIANXINGFANQINGXIAOTIAOLIDI31-36TIAOYIJIDUIWAIMAOYIJINGJIHEZUOBU(XIANZHENGHEWEISHANGWUBU)BANXINGDE《FANQINGXIAOJIAGECHENGNUOZANXINGGUIZE》。ZAIFANQINGXIAOTIAOLIDISIZHANGZHONG,GUIDINGLESANZHONGFANQINGXIAOCUOSHI:YISHILINSHIFANQINGXIAOCUOSHI,ERSHIJIAGECHENGNUO,SANSHIFANQINGXIAOSHUI。QIZHONG,JIAGECHENGNUOSHIZHI,"QINGXIAOJINKOUCHANPINDECHUKOUJINGYINGZHEZAIFANQINGXIAODIAOCHAQIJIAN,KEYIXIANGSHANGWUBUZUOCHUGAIBIANJIAGEHUOZHETINGZHIYIQINGXIAOJIAGECHUKOUDEJIAGECHENGNUO".SHANGWUBURENWEICHUKOUJINGYINGZHEZUOCHUDEJIAGECHENGNUONENGGOUJIESHOUBINGFUHEGONGGONGLIYIDE,KEYIJUEDINGZHONGZHIHUOZHEZHONGZHIFANQINGXIAODIAOCHA,BUCAIQULINSHIFANQINGXIAOCUOSHIHUOZHEZHENGSHOUFANQINGXIAOSHUI。 35 SUIRANFANQINGXIAOTIAOLIDEWENBENZHONGBINGMEIYOUCHUXIAN"FANQINGXIAOZHIFAHEJIE""XINGZHENGZHIFAHEJIE"DENGYONGYU,XIANGGUANZHIDUQUEZAINEIHANSHANGYU"QINGKUANGNANCHA-XIESHANGTANPAN-DANFANGJUEDING"DEZHIFAHEJIEMOSHIJUYOUTONGGOUXING。

                      (SAN)"QINGKUANGNANCHA-GONGSHIHUIYING-XINGZHENGQIYUE"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                      CIZHONGMOSHIDESHIYONGLINGYUYUQIANSHUMOSHIXIANGTONG,CHABIEZAIYUSHUANGFANGHEJIEYIYUANDEBIAODATUJINGBINGFEISHIXIESHANGTANPANERSHIGONGSHIHUIYING,ZUIZHONGHEJIESHIXIANDEFANGFASHIQIANDINGHEJIEQIYUE。ZHEIYIMOSHIKEZHENDUIRENSHUZHONGDUODETONGLEIDUIXIANGHUOBUTEDINGDEDUIXIANGSHIYONG,SHIYINEIRONGMINGQUE、JUTIDEXINGZHENGXIEYILAIYUESHUSHUANGFANGDEHOUXUXINGWEI。

                      ZHEIZHONGMOSHIDETESHUXINGZAIYU:DIYI,SHEXIANWEIFADEXIANXIANGPUBIANCUNZAI(RUHUANJINGWURAN),ZHIFAJIGUANGENJUXIANXIANDEHOUGUODENGXIANGGUANFENXIYANJIUYIYOUYUPAN,DANSHANGWEIJINRUGEANDEDIAOCHACHENGXU,YINERZHIFADUIXIANGHAIBUMINGQUE,HUOZHETONGLEIDUIXIANGRENSHUZHONGDUO。CIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,ZHIFAJIGUANBUKENENGHUONANYITONGXIANGDUIRENYIYIJINXINGXIESHANGTANPAN。DIER,RUODUIANJIANZHANKAIQUANMIANDIAOCHA,KENENGYUDAOZHIFALILIANGBUZU、CHENGBENJIAOGAODENGFANGMIANDEKUNNAN,QIETUIJINJIAOMAN。ZHIFAJIGUANXIWANGTONGGUOSHEXIANWEIFADEXIANGDUIRENZICHA、ZIJIUDEFANGSHILAISHIXIANZHIFAMUDE,TIGAOXINGZHENGXIAOLV,YINERXUYAOYUNYONGGONGSHIHUIYINGDEXINGSHIKAIZHANHEJIE。DISAN,XIANGDUIRENZUOCHUHUIYINGHOU,HEJIEXIANGXIADEYIWUBUNENGTONGSHILVXING,GUSHUANGFANGRENWEIYOUBIYAOQIANDINGHEJIEXIEYI,DUCUXIANGDUIRENZAIHEJIEZHIHOULVXINGYIWU。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   GAIHEJIEMOSHIKEYUNYONGYUQIYEHEGUIJIANGUANDENGSHEHUIGUIZHILINGYU,RUMEIGUOHUANBAOSHUJIUCAIYONGLEZHEIZHONGHEJIEMOSHI,YITUIDONGQIYEKAIZHANHUANJINGHEGUIGUANLI。MEIGUOHUANBAOSHUYU1995NIAN12YUEMIANXIANGGEZHONGQIYEFABULEMINGWEI《ZIWOGUIZHIDEJILI:WEIGUIDEFAXIAN、PILU、JIUZHENGJIYUFANG》DEHEGUISHENJIZHENGCE,GAIZHENGCETIXIANDEHEJIENEIHANSHI:QIYERUYUANYIKAIZHANSHENJIZIWOFAXIANHUANJINGWEIGUIXINGWEI,BINGYUYIPILUHEJIUZHENG,KEYIHUODEZHIFAJIGUANDEJIANMIANCHUFA。QIYEHUIYINGTONGYISHISHIZHEIYIZHENGCEDE,YINGYUHUANBAOSHUQIANDINGYIFEN"SHENJIXIEYI",XIEYIDEJIBENNEIRONGBAOKUO:HEGUISHENJIDEFANWEI;SHENJIDEWURANSHESHISHULIANG、DILIWEIZHI;FAXIANWEIGUIXINGWEIYINGYUHESHIXIANGHUANBAOSHUBAOGAO、HESHIJIAYIJIUZHENG;QIYEKENENGSHEJIDEGEZHONGHUANJINGWEIGUIXINGWEIYIJIYINGSHOUXINGZHENGCHUFADEEDU;QIYEYINZHIXINGZHENGCEQIANDINGSHENJIXIEYIKEYIHUODEDECHUFAJIANMIANDENG。QIYEYISHENJIXIEYIDEYAOQIUWANCHENGHEGUISHENJIBINGXIANGHUANBAOSHUTIJIAOZUIZHONGSHENJIBAOGAOHOU,DUICUNZAIWEIGUIXINGWEIDEQIYE,HUANBAOSHUHUIZUOCHUYIFENMINGWEI"TONGYIXIEYIHETONGYILING"DECHULIXINGXIEYIJIJUEDING,ZAIMINGJINGSHENJIFAXIANDEQIYEWEIGUIXINGWEI,YIJIYISHENJIXIEYIZHONGDEJIANMIANZHENGCEJIYUDEJUTICHUFA,QIYEYINGZAI20RINEIRENKEQIANSHUHOUJIAOHUIHUANBAOSHU。 36 WEIFANGZHIZHEIYIHEJIEBEILANYONGHUOQINHAIDISANFANGDELIYI,HUANBAOSHUYUQIYEJIUSHISHISHENJIZHENGCEDACHENGDESUOYOUXIEYI(SHEJISHANGYEMIMIDECHUWAI)JUNYAOXIANGSHEHUIGONGBU,YUNXUDISANFANGLIYIXIANGGUANZHETICHUYIYI,BINGJIESHOUSHEHUIGONGZHONGDEJIANDU。 37

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (SI)"QINGKUANGNANCHA-GONGSHIHUIYING-DANFANGJUEDING"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                      ZHEIYIMOSHIYUSHANGYIMOSHIDETEDIANJIBENXIANGTONG,DANYOUYICHUMINGXIANBIANHUA,JIZHIFAJIGUANSHIYIDANFANGJUEDINGDEFANGFALAISHIXIANHEJIEDE。ZAIWOGUODEZHIFASHIJIANZHONG,QIANWENTIDAODEZHUHAISHIHENGQINXINQUDESHUIWUCHENGXINBAOGAOMIANZEZHIDUJISHIZHEIYIMOSHIDEJUTIYUNYONG。ZHISUOYIHUIXINGCHENGZHEIYANGDEZHIDUANPAI,SHIYINWEIZAIYINGBAOSHUISHIDIAN,YOUGUANDESHUISHOUZHENGCESHANGBUQUEDINGQIESHEJIDEDUIXIANGZHONGDUO。LIRU,YOUDEQIYEHUIYINJINZHUANJIABINGYIRENLIZIBENCHUZIDEFANGSHIRUGU,ZHEIZHONGCHUZIFANGSHIZAIWOGUOXIANXINGSHUISHOUFALVFAGUIZHONGHAIMEIYOURUHENASHUIDEJUTIGUIDING。DANGSHIRENZAIYINGBAOSHUISHIDIANRUBUSHENBAO,RIHOUYIDANZHENGCEMINGQUENASHUIYAOQIU,QIKENENGBUJINYAONASHUI,HAIHUIYINWEIANSHISHENBAOERBEIJISHOUZHINAJINSHENZHIFAKUAN。DANRUOANSHIZUOCHUSHENBAO,YOUYUXIANGGUANSHUISHOUZHENGCEHAIBUQUEDING, 38 SHUANGFANGHAISHIHUICHANSHENGZHENGYI。TUIXINGSHUIWUCHENGXINBAOGAOMIANZEZHIDUHOU,SHUIWUJIGUANXIANGSHEHUIGONGSHI,RUOXIANGSHUIWUBUMENZHUDONGCHENGXINBAOGAOXIANGGUANZILIAODE,RIHOURUANZHENGCEGUIDINGXUBUJIAOSHUIKUAN,SHUIWUJIGUANJIANGDUIQIMIANSHOUZHINAJINHEFAKUAN。ZHEIZHONGHEJIEMOSHIYIGONGSHIHUIYINGDEXINGSHIZHANKAI,SHIYOUYUSHUISHOULINGYUCUNZAIDALIANG、TONGLEIQINGKUANGDEBUTEDINGZHIFADUIXIANG。 39 TONGGUOGONGSHIHUIYINGKEYIMINGQUEQIZHONGDEJUTIDUIXIANG,ZAIZHUGEYIDANFANGJUEDINGDEFANGFAWANCHENGHEJIE,ZAIJIESHENGZHIFACHENGBEN、TIGAOZHIFAXIAOLVDETONGSHI,YENENGYINDAONASHUIRENZHUDONG、CHENGXINNASHUI,PEIYUHEXINGCHENGSHUANGFANGHUXINHEZUODEZHENGNAGUANXI。

                      (WU)"QINGKUANGCHAMING-XIESHANGTANPAN-XINGZHENGQIYUE"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIZHONGHEJIEMOSHIYUQIANSIZHONGMOSHIJIEYOUZHONGYAOQUBIE,SHIYONGYUWEIFASHISHIHEFALVZHUANGTAIYIJINGCHAQINGDEANJIAN,ZHENDUIDESHIDANGE、MINGQUEDEWEIFAXIANGDUIREN。ZAIXIANGDUIRENYUANYIJIJILVXINGZHIFAJIGUANCHULIJUEDINGZHIYIWUYAOQIUDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIFAJIGUANKEYISHIDUKUANXIANLVXINGSHIJIAN、YUNXUBIANTONGLVXINGYIWUDEFANGSHI,JIANMIANJIACHUDEFAKUANHUOZHINAJINDENG。DUICI,XINGZHENGJIGUANYUDANGSHIRENYAOXIESHANGJUTIDENEIRONGXIJIEBINGQIANDINGHEJIEQIYUE,YIYUESHUGEZICHENGNUODEYIWU。CIZHONGHEJIEFANGSHIZAIWOGUOXINGZHENGQIANGZHIZHIXINGLINGYUYIJINGYOUSUOYUNYONG。XINGZHENGQIANGZHIFADI42TIAOGUIDING,SHISHIXINGZHENGQIANGZHIZHIXING,XINGZHENGJIGUANKEYIZAIBUSUNHAIGONGGONGLIYIHETARENHEFAQUANYIDEQINGKUANGXIA,YUDANGSHIRENDACHENGZHIXINGXIEYI。RUGUODANGSHIRENYUANYIDINGLIZHIXINGXIEYI,BINGANXIEYIYAOQIULVXINGYUANYIWU,ZHIFAJIGUANZEZHONGJIEXINGZHENGQIANGZHIZHIXINGCHENGXU,BUYUQIANGZHIZHIXING。 40 ZAIXUDUOLEISIDEZHIFACHANGHEZHONG,DANGXIANGDUIRENJISHILVXINGQUANBUYIWUCUNZAISHIJIKUNNAN,ZHIFAJIGUANRUOZHIJIECAIQUQIANGZHIXINGZHIFACUOSHI,BUJINHUIZENGJIAXINGZHENGCHENGBEN,HAIKENENGYINFAQIANGLIEDEDUIKANGCHONGTU。CISHIYUNYONGZHIFAHEJIE,NENGGOUBIMIANBUBIYAODESUNSHI,YEYOULIYUYINDAODANGSHIRENJIJILVXINGYIWU。

                      ZHENDUIZHEILEIXIANGGUANWEIFASHISHIHEFALVWENTIYICHAMINGDEQINGXINGJINXINGHEJIE,XUYAOFANGFANLANYONGHEJIEDEFENGXIAN,YIMIANHEJIESUNHAIDISANFANGLIYI。ZHEIYAOQIUHEJIEYOUMINGQUEDEFALVYIJUBINGZAIFALVYUNXUDEFANWEINEIJINXING,HUOZHEJIANLIQITAFENGXIANFANGFANJIZHI。DUIYUXINGZHENGQIANGZHIZHIXINGDEHEJIE,XINGZHENGQIANGZHIFAMINGQUEGUIDING,XINGZHENGJIGUANYAO"ZAIBUSUNHAIGONGGONGLIYIHETARENHEFAQUANYIDEQINGKUANGXIA"YUDANGSHIRENDACHENGZHIXINGXIEYI,BINGXIANDINGLEHEJIEKEXIESHANGDENEIRONG:YISHI"KEYIYUEDINGFENJIEDUANLVXING",ERSHI"DANGSHIRENCAIQUBUJIUCUOSHIDE,KEYIJIANMIANJIACHUDEFAKUANHUOZHEZHINAJIN".TONGSHI,HAISHEZHIYOUWEIYUECHUZHIJIZHI,YIDANDANGSHIRENBULVXINGZHIXINGXIEYI,XINGZHENGJIGUANJIUYINGDANGHUIFUQIANGZHIZHIXING。ZHEIXIEZHIDUJUCUODOUNENGGOUFAHUIFENGXIANFANGFANDEZUOYONG。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (LIU)"QINGKUANGCHAMING-XIESHANGTANPAN-DANFANGJUEDING"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                      ZHEIYIMOSHIYESHIYONGYUYOUGUANWEIFASHISHI、FALVZHUANGTAIYIJINGCHAMINGDEANJIAN,TONGYANGSHIZHENDUIDANGE、MINGQUEDEWEIFAXINGWEIREN。YUQIANYIMOSHIDECHABIEZAIYU,XINGZHENGJIGUANTONGCHANGSHIZAIXIANGDUIRENYIJINGZHUDONGJIUZHENGWEIFAXINGWEIHUOBUJIUWEIFAHOUGUODEQINGXINGXIA,JINGTINGQUXIANGDUIRENSUQIUYIJIANHELIYOUBINGJINXINGSHANGTANJIAOSHE,YIDANFANGJUEDINGDEXINGSHIRENKEXIANGDUIRENDETAIDU、XINGWEIBIAOXIANHEXIAOGUO,ZAIFADINGXINGZHENGCAILIANGFANWEINEIZUOCHUXIANGYINGDECONGKUANCHULI。WOGUOXINGZHENGCHUFAFADI27TIAO、ZHIANGUANLICHUFAFADI19TIAO,BIANSHICIZHONGZHIFAHEJIEMOSHIDEZHIDUTIXIAN。XINGZHENGCHUFAFADI27TIAODI1KUANGUIDING,DANGSHIRENZHUDONGXIAOCHUHUOZHEJIANQINGWEIFAXINGWEIWEIHAIHOUGUO,HUOZHEPEIHEXINGZHENGJIGUANCHACHUWEIFAXINGWEIYOULIGONGBIAOXIANDE,YINGDANGYIFACONGQINGHUOZHEJIANQINGXINGZHENGCHUFA;DI2KUANGUIDING,WEIFAXINGWEI QINGWEIBINGJISHIJIUZHENG,MEIYOUZAOCHENGWEIHAIHOUGUODE,BUYUXINGZHENGCHUFA。ZHIANGUANLICHUFAFADI19TIAOZHONGYEYOULEISIDEZHIDUANPAI,GAITIAOGUIDINGDEKEYIJIANQINGCHUFAHUOZHEBUYUCHUFADEQINGXINGYOU:ZHUDONGXIAOCHUHUOZHEJIANQINGWEIFAHOUGUO,BINGQUDEBEIQINHAIRENLIANGJIE;ZHUDONGTOUAN,XIANGGONGANJIGUANRUSHICHENSHUZIJIDEWEIFAXINGWEI;YOULIGONGBIAOXIAN。SHANGSHUGUIDINGZHONGDEXIAOCHUHUOZHEJIANQINGXINGWEIHOUGUO、PEIHECHACHU、LIGONGDENGQINGXING,DOUSHIXIANGDUIRENWEIFAHOUZUOCHUDEBUJIUXINGWEI。XIANGDUIRENYIQITAIDUHEXINGWEIQINGQIUJIANMIANCHUFA,BENZHISHANGJIUSHITICHUHEJIE。YOUYUFALVJINLIEJULEXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENBUJIU、LIGONGXINGWEIDEJIZHONGLEIXING,YUANZEXINGDIGUIDINGLEXINGZHENGJIGUANKEYIJIANMIANCHUFA,JUTISHIFOUJIANMIANCHUFAYIJIJIANMIANDAOHEZHONGCHENGDU,RENGXUSHUANGFANGGENJUANJIANDEJUTIQINGKUANG,YISHANGTANHUOLEISIXINGSHIJINXINGJIAOSHE,RUZHIFAJIGUANTINGQUXIANGDUIRENDECHENSHUSHENBIAN、JINXINGTINGZHENGDENG。

                      ZAIHEJIEFENGXIANDEFANGFANSHANG,YOUYUXIANGDUIRENYIJINGZIXINGJIUZHENGLEWEIFAXINGWEIHUOBUJIULEWEIFAHOUGUO,ZHIFAJIGUANSHIZAIFADINGTIAOJIANJUBEIZHIHOU、YIFALVSHOUYUDEZIYOUCAILIANGQUANZUOCHUHEJIEXINGRANGBU,YINERZAIYINGFOUHEJIEDEWENTISHANGYIBUCUNZAIJUEDINGLANYONGDEKENENG。DANXINGZHENGJIGUANDECAILIANGQUAN,RENGXUZAIHELIFUDUNEIYUNYONG,YIMIANCHULIGUOYUKUANSONGHUOZHEGUOYUYANGE,CHUXIANTONGLEIQINGKUANGWEIYUTONGDENGDUIDAIDEXIANXIANG,ZAOCHENGBUGONGPING、BUPINGDENGDEJIEGUO。DUICI,XINGZHENGJIGUANPUBIANJIANLILECAILIANGJIZHUNZHIDU,XIHUALECAILIANGQINGXINGDEBUTONGDANGCI,YICIJIEZHIZIYOUCAILIANGQUANDEKUANFANYUNYONG,CONGERFANGFANHEJIEZHONGDECAILIANGQUANLANYONG。 41

                      CHUANTONGDEZHIFALINIANSHIYIZHONGDANXIANGDEGUANLIYUBEIGUANLIDESIWEI,ZAICHULIWEIFAXINGWEIZHISHI,TONGCHANGJIANGFOUDINGXINGPINGJIAHEZHUIJIUFALVZERENQUEDINGWEIMUBIAODINGWEI。XIANGDUIRENZHINENGBEIDONGSHOUCHENG,JISHIYOUQIESHIHUIGUO、JIJIBUJIUDEYIYUANHEXINGDONG,YEZHIHUIBEIZUOWEILIANGFADEQINGJIEYOUXINGZHENGJIGUANDANFANGKAOLIANG。SHIJISHANG,WEIFAXINGWEIRENSHIHOUDEHUIGUO、BUJIUYIJIPEIHEZHIFADELIGONGBIAOXIANDENG,JUYOUMIBUSUNHAI、PAICHUFANGAI、HUIFUZHIXU、ZHONGSUDAODEDENGJIJIYIYI。JIEZHUZHIFAHEJIETIGONGDEHUDONGQUDAO,ZHIFAZHUTIDUIYUWEIFAXINGWEIRENDEJIJITAIDUHEXINGWEIJIYUKENDINGHEGULI,QINENGGOUCHANSHENGDESHEHUIXIAOYIYAOYUANGAOYUDANCHUNDECHENGFA。

                      (QI)"QINGKUANGCHAMING-GONGSHIHUIYING-XINGZHENGQIYUE"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                      BENMOSHITONGYANGSHIYONGYUWEIFASHISHI、FALVZHUANGTAIYIJINGCHAMINGDEANJIAN,DANYUYISHANGDIWU、DILIULIANGZHONGMOSHICUNZAICHABIE,TAZHUYAOZHENDUIRENSHUZHONGDUOYOUTONGLEIWEIFAXINGWEIDEXIANGDUIREN。ZAIZHIFAXUQIUYUZHIFAZIYUANZHIJIANCUNZAIJINZHANGGUANXIDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIFAJIGUANZHENDUIZHONGDUODUIXIANGKEZHIDINGTONGYIDEHEJIEJILIZHENGCE,TICHUJUYOUHEJIEXINGZHIDETIAOJIAN。DANGSHIRENYUANYIJIESHOUTIAOJIANDE,SHUANGFANGQIANDINGHEJIEQIYUE,YICIDUISHUANGFANGXINGCHENGYIWUXINGYUESHU。

                      ZAIMEIGUO,ZHEIYIMOSHIZAIYOUGUANWEIXIANWUZHIXIELOUDEHUANJINGZHIFAZHONGYIJINGDEDAOYUNYONG。FUZADEWEIXIANWUZHIXIELOUANJIANCHANGSHEJIZHONGDUOZERENZHUTI,ZHEIXIEZHUTISUOYINGCHENGDANDEFALVZERENYEBUJINXIANGTONG,QIZHONGYOUBUFENZHUTIZAOCHENGDEDUHAIWURANYUQITAZHUTIXIANGBIFEICHANGQINGWEI。1985NIAN,HUANBAOSHUWEILETIGAOBUJIUWURANHOUGUODEXIAOLV,FABULE"CHAOJIJIJINHEJIEZANXINGZHENGCE",GAIZHENGCEGUIDINGDEHEJIENEIRONGSHI,FUHEHUANBAOSHU"WEILIANGWURANZHERENDINGBIAOZHUN"DEWURANZHE,RUGUOYUANYIZHIFUYIDINGSHULIANGBUCHANGSUNHAIDEHEJIEJIN,BIANKEMIANYUBEIHUANBAOSHUQISU。WEIXIANWUZHIXIELOUANJIANFASHENGHOU,HUANBAOSHUHUIJINKUAICHAMINGBINGGONGBUANJIANZHONGSUOYOUKENENGSHEJIWURANDEQIANZAIZERENRENYIJITAMENZAOCHENGWURANDESHISHI,QIZHONGFUHE"WEILIANGWURANZHE"BIAOZHUNDEDUIXIANGKEGONGTONGHUOFENBIEHUIYINGHUANBAOSHUDEHEJIEZHENGCE,JIUHEJIEJINE、MIANYUQISU、BUDEZAIZHONGFUCHULIDENGJINXINGHEJIESHANGTAN,QIANDINGHEJIEXIEYI。HEJIEXIEYIDEZHUYAONEIRONGJINGXIESHANGQUEDING,BAOKUO:WEILIANGWURANZHEMIANYUBEIQISU;WEILIANGWURANZHEXUYAOZHIFUDEHEJIEJINDEJUTISHUE;WEIANQIJIAONAHEJIEJINSUOYINGCHENGDANDECHUFADENG。 42 YOUCI,ZAIZHIFALILIANGYOUXIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIFAJIGUANNENGYIJIAOXIAODEJIAOYICHENGBENZAIZUIDUANSHIJIANNEICHULIZHONGDUOWEILIANGWURANZHEDEWURANZERENCHENGDANWENTI,YEDEYIJIZHONGPEIZHIZHIFAZIYUANCHULIQITAYOUJIAODAZERENHEWEIHAIDEDUIXIANG。ZAISHANGSHUSHIJIANDETUIDONGXIA,1986NIANMEIGUO《CHAOJIJIJINXIUZHENGANHEZAISHOUQUANFAAN》DI122TIAO(g)KUANCONGLIFASHANGZHENGSHIQUELILE"WEILIANGWURANZHE"HEJIEZHIDU,SHOUQUANHUANBAOSHUKEYUWEILIANGWURANZHEDACHENGZHIFAHEJIE。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   (BA)"QINGKUANGCHAMING-GONGSHIHUIYING-DANFANGJUEDING"MOSHIDEYUNYONG

                      BENMOSHIZAISHIYONGQIANTIYIJIHEJIEBIAOYIXINGSHISHANGYUQIANYIMOSHIXIANGTONG,ZHUYAOYESHIZHENDUIRENSHUZHONGDUOQIEYOUTONGLEIWEIFAXINGWEIDEXIANGDUIREN。QUBIEZAIYU,ZHEIYIMOSHISHIYIZHIFAJIGUANDANFANGJUEDINGZUOWEISHIXIANHEJIEDEFANGFA。ZHIFAGUOCHENGZHONGJINGCHANGCHUXIANDANGSHIRENZAIWEIFAHOUZHUDONGZUOCHUGAIZHENGHUOBUJIUXINGWEIDEQINGXING,BINGQIEFUHEZHIFAJIGUANGONGSHIDEHEJIETIAOJIAN。ZAICIQINGKUANGXIA,BINGWUXIESHANGTANPANDEBIYAO,XINGZHENGJIGUANYINGZHIJIEYIDANFANGXINGZHENGJUEDINGRENKEXIANGDUIRENDEGAIZHENGHUOBUJIUXINGWEI,BINGZUOCHUXIANGYINGDECONGKUANCHULI。SHANGHAISHI、XINYUSHI、QINGDAOSHIDENGDIJINLAITUICHUDEQINGWEIWEIFAXINGWEIMIANFAQINGDANZHIDUJIUSHICILEIHEJIEMOSHIDEJUTIYUNYONG。YISHANGHAISHI《SHICHANGQINGWEIWEIFAWEIGUIJINGYINGXINGWEIMIANFAQINGDAN》WEILI,GAIQINGDANLIEYOU34ZHONGQINGWEIDEWEIFAWEIGUIJINGYINGXINGWEI,RUODANGSHIRENSHISHILEQIZHONGDEXINGWEI,DAN"NENGJISHIJIUZHENG、WEIZAOCHENGWEIHAIHOUGUO",BIANBUYUXINGZHENGCHUFA,ZHIXUSHISHIPIPINGJIAOYUHUOYUETANZHIDAO。 43

                      ZHEIZHONGHEJIEMOSHIYUQIANWENSUOLIEDILIUZHONGMOSHIYOUYIDINGQUBIE。ZAIDILIUZHONGMOSHIZHONG,FALVFAGUIZHIYUANZEXINGDIGUIDINGLEBUYUCHUFA、CONGQINGHUOZHEJIANQINGCHUFASUOZHENDUIDEGAIKUOLEIXING,RUJIUZHENGWEIFA、BUJIUSUNHAI、YOULIGONGBIAOXIANDENG,DUIYUZHEIXIELEIXINGJUTIYINGDANGRUHERENDING,KEYICONGQINGHUOZHEJIANQINGCHUFADAOHEZHONGCHENGDUDENG,ZAIZHIFAZHUTIYUXIANGDUIRENZHIJIANHAIYOUSHANGTANKONGJIAN。DAN"QINGKUANGCHAMING-GONGSHIHUIYING-DANFANGJUEDING"DEHEJIEMOSHIZHONG,GONGSHIDEHEJIETIAOJIANFEICHANGJUTIXIZHI,QIEYOUMINGQUEDEZHENDUIXING,BUNENGYOUSHUANGFANGXIESHANGJUEDING。RUSHANGHAISHIFABUDEMIANFAQINGDANZHONGGUIDING,XIANGDUIREN"WEIFAN《YAOPINGUANGGAOSHENCHAFABUBIAOZHUN》DI7TIAODI1KUAN,FABUYAOPINGUANGGAOWEIBIAOMINGYAOPINGUANGGAOPIZHUNWENHAO,DANYIQUDEPIZHUNWENHAODE","WEIFAN《NONGYAOGUANGGAOSHENCHAFABUBIAOZHUN》DI11TIAO,FABUNONGYAOGUANGGAOWEIJIANGGUANGGAOPIZHUNWENHAOLIEWEIGUANGGAONEIRONGTONGSHIFABU,DANYIQUDEPIZHUNWENHAODE",NENG"JISHIJIUZHENG,MEIYOUZAOCHENGWEIHAIHOUGUODE",ZE"BUYUXINGZHENGCHUFA". 44 KEJIAN,CIZHONGMOSHIZHONG,ZHIFAJIGUANYUXIANGDUIRENZAIHEJIEZHONGDEYIWUDOUBUKEBIANDONG,BINGWUXUANZEDEYUDI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHIJIANZHONG,CIZHONGMOSHIYECUNZAILANYONGFENGXIAN。YAOFANGFANXIANGGUANFENGXIAN,HEJIEZHENGCEDEZHIDINGBIXUYAOYOUFALV、FAGUIDENGSHANGWEIFAYIJU,HEJIESUOSHESHIXIANGYEYINGDANGSHUYUZHIFAJIGUANDEFADINGZHIQUANFANWEI。LIRU,SHANGSHUMIANFAQINGDANZHENGCEBIANSHIYIJUXINGZHENGCHUFAFAZHONGYIJINGQUELIDECHUFASHIYONGYUANZE,YIJIXIANGGUANXINGYEXINGFALV、FAGUIHEGUIZHANGGUIDINGDEZHIFASHIXIANGFANWEIERZHIDING。

                      结 语

                    星云棋牌官网下载   XIJINPINGTONGZHIZAIZHONGYANGQUANMIANSHENHUAGAIGEWEIYUANHUIDISANCIHUIYISHANGQIANGDIAO,"YAOJIFAZHIDUHUOLI,GANYUTUPO,ZHUDONGZUOWEI""YONGZHIDULAIPANHUOZIYUAN、TIGAOXIAONENG""YAOJIHUOJICENGJINGYAN,DUILVXIANTUPO、QUDEJINGYANDE,JISHINADAOMIANSHANGLAIYANJIULUNZHENG,TIAOJIANCHENGSHUDEYAOJISHITUIGUANG". 45 BENWENYI"HEJIESHIYONGQIANTI-HEJIEBIAOYIXINGSHI-HEJIESHIXIANFANGFA"WEIFENXIKUANGJIA,TICHULEBAZHONGZHIFAHEJIEMOSHI,LUNZHENGLEBUTONGMOSHIDELILUNYUANLIYUSHIJIANKEXINGXING,MUDEZAIYUJIANGHEJIEJIZHICHONGFENYINRUXINGZHENGZHIFA,FAHUIPANHUOHEJIEZIYUAN、JIHUOHEJIEJINGYAN、TIGAOXINGZHENGXIAONENG、HUAJIEZHIFANANTIDEZUOYONG。WULUNSHIZHONGYANGCENGMIANDEZHIDUCHUANGXIN,HAISHIDIFANGCENGMIANDESHIDIANJINGYAN,DOUSHIJIFAZHIDUHUOLI、CHUANGXINZHIFAJIZHIDEZHONGYAOCHANGSHI。DANZHIFAHEJIEZUOWEIYIZHONGZHIFACHUANGXINXINGSHI,YAOYIHUIYINGXIANSHIXUQIUWEICHUFADIANHELUOJIAODIAN,BUYINGJUXIANYUMOUZHONGSHIJIANZUOFA,YEBUNENGJIXIEDIFUZHIYIYOUJINGYAN。XIANGJIAOYUXIANHUODEYIXIANZHIFASHIJIANERYAN,MOSHIHUADELILUNZHINENGTIGONGFANGFALUNSHANGDEZHIYIN。YAOJUTIHUIDAHEZHONGMOSHISHIYONGYUHEZHONGLINGYU、HEZHONGQINGXING、HEZHONGDUIXIANGDEWENTI,HAIYINGJIEHESHIJIQINGKUANGDEXUYAOZUOCHUXUANZE,JINXINGDIAOSHI,HUOZHEBIANTONG、FAZHANDIYUNYONG。

                      注释
                      1例如,对于互联网平台上的新经济业态或新型社交领域中出现的违法行为,许多执法部门欠缺成熟的规制经验。国外学者亦称,当前"政府正处于互联网监管的危局之中",说明该现象已成为世界性问题。See Philip J.Weiser,The Future of Internet Regulation,43 U.C.Davis L.Rev.,529 (2009)。再如,近年来资本市场的违法案件呈多发高发态势。时任证监会主席肖钢曾撰文指出,2009-2012年资本市场的违法案件增幅年均14%,2012年同比增长21%,2013年上半年同比又增加40%.一方面,还有为数不少的违法行为没有得到查处;另一方面,随着多层次资本市场的发展,市场规模将继续扩大,违法案件还会增多。参见肖钢:《监管执法:资本市场健康发展的基石》,《求是》2013年第15期,第30页。
                      2仅以资本市场为例,行政执法普遍存在案件发现难、取证难、处罚难、执行难的问题。资本市场案件查实率只有60%-70%,执法手段不足、调查困难是其主要原因。参见前引[1],肖钢文,第30页。
                      3见《证监会与相关申请人达成行政和解协议》,年8月25日最后访问。
                      4见《珠海横琴推出税务诚信报告免责体系》,年8月25日最后访问。
                      5参见赵银翠:《行政执法和解制度探讨》,载杨建顺主编:《比较行政法--方法、规制与程序》,中国人民大学出版社2007年版,第237页。
                      6张红:《破解行政执法和解的难题--基于证券行政执法和解的观察》,《行政法学研究》2015年第2期,第23页。相似定义参见涂怀艳:《行政执法和解初探》,《法商研究》2008年第2期,第68页;余克弟、葛阳、黎红:《服务型政府背景下行政和解制度的构建》,《江西社会科学》2011年第12期,第154页。
                      7参见王婷、张平:《论行政执法和解的风险控制--以反垄断法等特殊执法领域为视角》,《政法学刊》2015年第6期,第22页。相似定义参见吕林:《论我国行政和解制度之建立》,《重庆师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版)》2012年第6期,第120页;贾建平:《行政和解制度在公安工作中的运用》,《武警学院学报》2008年第9期,第33页。还有部分研究虽未直接给出行政执法和解的定义,但基本上是在第二种认识的语境下展开探讨的。参见周佑勇、李俊:《论行政裁量中的和解--以德国法和美国法为观察》,《行政法学研究》2007年第1期,第4页以下;杨铮:《论行政过程中的和解制度》,载胡建淼主编:《公法研究》第10卷,浙江大学出版社2011年版,第289页以下。
                      8参见施建辉:《行政执法中的协商与和解》,《行政法学研究》2006年第3期,第13页;肖钢:《积极探索监管执法的行政和解新模式》,《行政管理改革》2014年第1期,第6页。
                      9胡建淼主编:《中外行政法规分解与比较》中册,法律出版社2004年版,第1358页以下。
                      10参见[德]哈特穆特·毛雷尔:《行政法学总论》,高家伟译,法律出版社2000年版,第356页。
                      11林明锵:《行政契约法研究》,台湾翰芦图书出版有限公司2006年版,第13页。
                      12参见应松年主编:《当代中国行政法》下册,中国方正出版社2005年版,第1003页。
                      13前引[6],张红文,第28页。
                      14前引[7],杨铮文,第294页。
                      15参见前引[7],周佑勇等文,第2页以下。实际上,针对"限定条件和解",我国台湾地区有学者认为,"经依职权调查仍不能确定者"之要件与行政和解"促使行政程序经济化、有效达成行政目的、减少不必要的行政争讼"之目的相背离,主张不应适用这一要件。参见刘孔中:《略论公平交易委员会行政和解之实务及法理》,《律师杂志》总第235期(1999年),第73页;陈新民:《和为贵--由"合作行政"的概念论行政调解的法制改革》,《政大法学评论》总第121期(2011年),第132页以下。
                      16前引[8],施建辉文,第14页。
                      17See Matthew C.Turk,Regulation by Settlement,66 U.Kan.L.Rev.266 (2017);毕金平:《欧盟卡特尔和解制度研究及启示》,《社会科学》2018年第2期,第99页以下。
                      18See 42 U.S.C.A.§ 9622 (g) (4)。
                      19See 42 U.S.C.A.§ 9622 (i)。
                      20参见前引[6],张红文,第26页。也有学者将其称为"非正式行政手法"(参见前引[7],周佑勇等文,第2页)。另外,英国、法国、我国香港特别行政区等地行政法中的执法和解制度,也并未以事实或法律状态难以查清作为和解的前提条件,这类似于"宽松条件和解".参见《英国金融市场行为监管局行为手册》(British Financial Conduct Authority Handbook,Settlement decision procedure),;《法国有关发展和解程序以友善地解决争端行政通报》(Circulaire du 6 avril 2011 relative au développement du recours à la transaction pour régler amiablement les conflits),;《香港特别行政区证监会纪律处分程序概览》,年8月25日最后访问。
                      21See 5 U.S.C.A.§ 554.(c) (1)。
                      22前引[6],张红文,第28页。
                      23参见前引[7],杨铮文,第290页。
                      24前引[8],施建辉文,第14页;另参见前引[7],周佑勇等文,第4页。
                      25陈信勇:《法律社会学教程》,浙江大学出版社2014年版,第62页。
                      26参见应松年、刘莘:《行政处罚立法探讨》,《中国法学》1994年第5期,第66页。
                      27参见前引[26],应松年等文,第66页。
                      28参见前引[7],杨铮文,第285页。
                      29参见王名扬:《美国行政法》上册,北京大学出版社2016年版,第408页。
                      30行政处罚法(2017年修正)第27条规定:"当事人有下列情形之一的,应当依法从轻或者减轻行政处罚:(一)主动消除或者减轻违法行为危害后果的;(二)受他人胁迫有违法行为的;(三)配合行政机关查处违法行为有立功表现的;(四)其他依法从轻或者减轻行政处罚的。违法行为轻微并及时纠正,没有造成危害后果的,不予行政处罚。"
                      31参见前引[7],周佑勇等文,第4页。
                      32见《又一全国首创!横琴税务诚信报告免责体系获企业点赞》,年8月25日最后访问。
                      33参见前引[17],Turk文,第266页。
                      34李素华:《公平会高通公司处分案之简评与省思》,《月旦法学杂志》总第275期(2018年),第116页。
                      35《反倾销条例》(2004年修正)第31条规定:"倾销进口产品的出口经营者在反倾销调查期间,可以向商务部作出改变价格或者停止以倾销价格出口的价格承诺。商务部可以向出口经营者提出价格承诺的建议。商务部不得强迫出口经营者作出价格承诺。"
                      36See Environmental Protection Agency,Use of Corporate Auditing Agreements for Audit Policy Disclosures Correction,http://www.epa.gov/compliance/use-corporate-auditing-agreements-audit-policy-disclosures-correction,last visited on August 25,2019.
                      37See Environmental Protection Agency,Incentives for Self-Policing:Discovery,Disclosure,Correction and Prevention of Violations,FRL-6576-3 (2000)。
                      38同前引[32].
                      39参见李介民:《论税务协谈制度》,《财税研究》2008年第4期,第165页。
                      40参见方世荣:《"执行协议":行政强制执行制度的一种变革》,《江苏社会科学》2012年第4期,第39页。
                      41各类行政机关的裁量基准制度可参见:《北京市人力资源和社会保障行政处罚自由裁量标准》《北京市生态环境局行政处罚自由裁量基准(试行)》《上海市城市管理行政执法行政处罚裁量基准(一)、(二)》《珠海市公安局行政处罚自由裁量权细化标准》,等等。
                      42See Environmental Protection Agency,Interim Guidance on Settlements with De Minimis Waste Contributors under Section 122 (g) of SARA,http://www.epa.gov/enforcement/guidance-superfund-settlements-de-minimis-waste-contributors,last visited on August 25,2019.
                      43不予行政处罚并非执法部门放任不管。该免罚清单规定:"对于适用不予行政处罚的市场轻微违法违规经营行为,行政执法部门应当坚持处罚与教育相结合的原则,通过批评教育、指导约谈等措施,促进经营者依法合规开展经营活动。"见上海市《市场轻微违法违规经营行为免罚清单》(沪司规[2019]1号)。
                      44详见上海市《市场轻微违法违规经营行为免罚清单》(沪司规[2019]1号)。
                      45《习近平主持召开中央全面深化改革委员会第三次会议强调,激发制度活力,激活基层经验,激励干部作为,扎扎实实把全面深化改革推向深入》,《人民日报》2018年7月7日第1版。

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