星云棋牌官网下载

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              俄罗斯《主权互联网法》的主要内容与评价

              时间:2018-11-28 来源:情报杂志 作者:官晓萌 本文字数:9241字

                摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 [目的/意义]《主权互联网法》是2019年俄罗斯最新通过的网络安全法律,对该法律进行分析有助于我国研究者了解俄罗斯网络法规的最新信息。[方法/过程]研究了《主权互联网法》的相关新闻媒体报道、近年来俄罗斯网络安全法律法规、《主权互联网法》的法律文本和专家解读,分析了法律出台的背景、实际内容、法律审议过程以及通过后的俄罗斯社会舆论反应。[结果/结论]美国近年来在网络和数字信息领域对俄罗斯的打压和制裁愈发严厉,《主权互联网法》既是对此的回应,也是俄罗斯国家网络安全、网络主权、信息化发展长期战略的延续。这一法律的实质是建立一个俄罗斯互联网的备用基础设施,以应对可能出现的威胁。

                关键词: 俄罗斯; 《主权互联网法》; 网络主权; 网络安全;

                Abstract: [Purpose/Significance]Sovereign Internet Law is a cybersecurity law recently passed in Russia in 2019. An analysis of this law helps Chinese researchers understand the latest information on Internet laws and regulations in Russia.[Method/Process]Based on the media reports of the Sovereign Internet law,the laws or regulations of Russian cybersecurity in recent years,the legal texts of the Sovereign Internet law and the interpretations by the Russian government and experts,this paper analyzes the background and the actual content of the Sovereign Internet law,Russia's public opinion reaction after the passage of the law.[Result/Conclusion]As the pressure and sanctions against Russia from the US in the field of network and digital information have become more stringent in recent years,the sovereign Internet law is not only a response to the external threats,but also a continuation of Russia's long-term cybersecurity strategy,cyber-sovereignty and information development. The essence of this law is to establish a backup infrastructure for Russian Internet in response to possible threats.

                Keyword: Russian; Sovereign Internet law; cyber-sovereignty; cybersecurity;

                0、 引 言

              星云棋牌官网下载   2019NIAN2YUEYILAI,ELUOSIXIANSHICHUANLAI“DUANWANGYANXI”XINWEN,ERHOU《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》DEDUMASHENYIYOUYINFAEGEJIEJILIETAOLUN。2019NIAN3YUEMOSIKEHAIFASHENGLEYICHANGZHICHIHULIANWANGZIYOUDEMINZHONGJIHUI。2019NIAN4YUE16RI《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》ZAIEGUOJIADUMASANDUTONGGUO,2019NIAN5YUE1RIPUJINGZONGTONGZHENGSHIQIANSHUZHEIYILIANBANGFALV。EZHENGFUCHENGGAIFALVZHIZAIDAZAOELUOSIZIZHUHULIANWANGXITONG,BAOZHANGELUOSIWANGLUOANQUAN。FALVDETONGGUOYINFAELUOSIGUONEIGEJIEJIQUANQIUDEGAODUGUANZHU。

                1、 《主权互联网法》出台的背景

                1.1、 针对外部压力的现实回应

              星云棋牌官网下载   《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》SHIJISHANGZHI2019NIANELUOSIGUOJIADUMATONGGUODE《ELIANBANGTONGXINFA》HE《ELUOSILIANBANGXINXI、XINXIJISHUHEXINXIBAOHUFA》LIANGBUFALVDEXIUZHENGAN。GAIXIUZHENGANYU2018NIAN12YUEYOULIANBANGWEIYUANHUI(ESHANGYIYUAN)XIANFALIFAHEEGUOJIAJIANSHEWEIYUANHUIFUZERENANDELIE·KELISHASIDENGRENTICHU。JUFAANTICHUZHEJIESHI,ZHEIYIFAANSHIDUI2018NIAN9YUEMEIGUO《GUOJIAWANGLUOANQUANZHANLVE》DEHUIYING。

                2018年9月美国公布了新的《国家网络安全战略》。这是2003年小布什政府《保护网络空间国家战略》推出15年以来,美国再次推出的国家网络战略。该战略以2017年美国《国家安全战略》为基础,解释了特朗普政府在互联网治理和网络安全方面的立场。“战略”中包含指责俄罗斯等国家进行网络攻击,带给美国及其盟友重大损失的内容[1]。“战略”同时展示了“防御前置”的理念。对此俄罗斯《主权互联网法》的提案者认为,面对美国新的“更富进攻性的网络安全立场”,俄罗斯“必须采取保护措施,以确保俄罗斯互联网的长期稳定运行,同时提高俄罗斯互联网资源的可靠性”[2]。
               

              俄罗斯《主权互联网法》的主要内容与评价
               

                MEIGUOZUOWEIHULIANWANGJISHUHEXINGYEDEDIZAOZHE,ZAIHULIANWANGLINGYUYONGYOUXIANSHIDEYOUSHIDIWEI。DUONIANYILAIELUOSIYIZHITAOLUN,MEIGUOKENENGLIYONGQIZAIXINXIJISHUHEHULIANWANGLINGYUDE“BAQUANDIWEI”,WEIXIEELUOSIDEWANGLUOANQUAN。ELUOSICENGYU2014NIAN6YUEJINXING“SHUZIYANXI”,YICESHIELUOSIJINGNEIHULIANWANGDEWENDINGXING。ZAIZHEICIYANXIHOUELIANBANGSHUZIFAZHAN、TONGXINHEDAZHONGCHUANBOBU(XIAWENJIANCHENGELUOSITONGXINBU)ZHICHULEELUOSIWANGLUODECUIRUOXING,RENWEIELUOSIKENENGBEIZANSHIQIEDUANYUSHIJIEHULIANWANGDELIANXI[2]。2016NIANELUOSIZONGTONGDEWANGLUOWENTIGUWENGEERMAN·KELIMIANKECENGTICHU,RUGUOEMEIGUANXIJIXUEHUA,ELUOSIBEICONGSHIJIEWANGLUOQIEDUANDEKENENGXINGHENGAO,BIXUZHIDINGDUICE[3]。ZAI2017 NIAN7 YUETONGGUODEELIANBANG《SHUZIJINGJIGUOJIAXIANGMU》ZHONG,SHUZIANQUANSHIZHONGDIANNEIRONGZHIYI。XIANGMUZHUANMENTICHU“ZAI2020NIANQIANJIANLISHUZIJINGJIANQUANJICHUSHESHIKUANGJIA,QUEBAOELUOSILIANBANGDESHUZIZHUQUAN”[5]。

                JINNIANLAIYIMEIGUOWEIZHUDEXIFANGGUOJIADUIELUOSIWANGLUOJISHUCHANYEDEZHICAIYEZAICHIXUHESHENHUA。ZHEISHIWUKELANWEIJIYILAIMEIGUODUIEQUANMIANZHICAIDEYIBUFEN。ZHUDUOFUWUELUOSIZHENGFU、ANQUANBUMENHUOGUOFANGLINGYUDEDIANZIJISHUQIYESHITIJIGERENZAOYULEZHICAI。BIRUWOGUOMINZHONGSHUZHIDEELUOSIQIYE“KABASIJI”YEBEILIERUMEIGUOZHICAIMINGDANZHIZHONG。GENJUMEIGUOZONGTONGTELANGPU2017NIANQIANDINGDEGUOFANGCAIGOUFALV,2018NIAN10YUEKAISHIMEIGUOGUOJIABUMENBUYUNXUSHIYONGKABASIJIGONGSIDECHANPIN。2019NIAN2YUEMEICANYIYUANTIJIAOGUOHUISHENYIDE《BAOHUMEIGUOANQUANMIANSHOUELUOSIQINFANFAAN》(Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression Act of 2019)ZHONGBAOKUODUIELUOSIZHENGTIWANGLUOBUMENZHICAIDETIAOKUAN。JINNIANLAIELUOSIDEWANGLUOZHUQUANHEWANGLUOJISHUFAZHANSHOUDAOLEJIDADEWAIBUYALI。

                1.2、 网络安全战略的延伸

              星云棋牌官网下载   ELUOSIYIZHISHIOUZHOUHULIANWANGYONGHUZUIDUODEGUOJIAZHIYI。JIEZHIDAO2018NIAN,ELUOSI16SUIYISHANGWANGLUOYONGHUYUE9QIANWANREN,ZHANGUOJIACHENGNIANRENKOUDE75.4%YISHANG[6]。DUIYUWANGLUODEPUJIHEWANGLUOSHICHANGDEFAZHAN,EZHENGFUYIZHIZHILIYUCONGDUINEIHEDUIWAILIANGGEFANGXIANGWEIHUGUOJIAWANGLUOANQUAN。DUINEIWEIHUANQUANZHUYAOZHIDUIYUXINXICHUANBODEJIANGUAN,JIBIMIANWEIJINXINXICHUANBO(ZHUYAOZHISHEJIKONGBUZHUYIDEXINXI,WEIXIEGUOJIAANQUANDEXINXI,SHEJISEQING、DUPIN、DUBODENGBULIANGNEIRONGDEXINXIDENG)。DUINEIWEIHUWANGLUOANQUANHAIBAOKUODAJIWANGLUOFANZUI,JIJITUIDONGXINXIJICHUSHESHIJIANSHE,BINGYICIYUFANGWANGLUOGONGJIDAILAIDEJINGJISUNSHI。YUCITONGSHI,ELUOSIYIZHIZHILICONGDUIWAIJIAODUWEIHUWANGLUOANQUAN,FANGFANLAIZIWAIGUODEWANGLUOWEIXIE,BAOZHANGGUOJIADEANQUANLIYI。

                WEILESHIXIANSHANGSHUMUBIAO,ELUOSIYIZHIZHILIYUCONGDINGCENGSHEJICHUFA,TUIDONGBINGBUDUANWANSHANWANGLUOANQUANDEFAZHIJIANSHE。DUONIANLAIELUOSIYI《XINXI、XINXIJISHUHEBAOHUXINXIFA》(2006NIAN)、《ELIANBANGXINXISHEHUIFAZHANZHANLVE》(2008NIAN)、《2020NIANQIANELIANBANGGUOJIXINXIANQUANLINGYUGUOJIAZHENGCE》(2013NIAN)、《ELIANBANGXINXIANQUANXUESHUO》(DIYIBAN2001NIAN,DIERBAN2016NIAN)DENGFALVJIZHENGCEWENJIANYIJIELIANBANGJISHUHECHUKOUGUANZHIJUDENGXIANGGUANJIGOUDEBUMENJIANGUANGUIZEWEIJICHU,GOUJIANLERIJIANCHENGSHUDEWANGLUOANQUANFALVTIXI。《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》BUJINJINSHIDUIMEIGUO《GUOJIAWANGLUOZHANLVE》DEHUIYING。GAIFALVZAIZHENGSHITIANHELIFAQIAN,SHIJISHANGJINGLIMANZHANGDETAOLUNGUOCHENG,SHIELUOSIGUOJIACENGMIANDUIYUWANGLUOANQUAN、WANGLUOZHUQUAN、XINXIHUAFAZHANDEZHANGQIZHANLVESIKAODETIXIAN。

                JINNIANLAIELUOSIHAIJIJICHANGDAOYUSHIJIEGEGUOGONGTONGZHIDINGWANGLUOKONGJIANDEXINGWEIZHUNZE,BINGQIEJIJITANSUOJIANLIXIANGGUANGUOJIHEZUOJIZHI,BIRUELIANBANGANQUANWEIYUANHUIZAI2017NIAN10YUECENGZECHENGWAIJIAOBUHETONGXINBUTAOLUNZAIJINZHUANGUOJIAJIANLIZIZHUDEYUMINGGENFUWUQITIXI。

              星云棋牌官网下载   SHISHISHANG,ZAIDANGJINSHIDAI,QUANQIUWANGLUOKONGJIANYIJINGCHENGWEIGUOJIZHENGZHIDEXINLINGYU。WANGLUOKONGJIANYICHENGWEIJILU、HAI、KONGHEWAITAIKONGZHIWAIGUOJIAJIAOLIDE“DIWUJIANGYU”,ZHENGBIANCHENGXINYILUNGUOJIAJIANJINGZHENGYUBOYIDEJIAODIAN[6]。ZAIZHEIYIJICHUSHANG,WANGLUOZHUQUANYEBEIRENWEISHIGUOJIAZHUQUANZAIWANGLUOKONGJIANZHONGDEZIRANYANSHENHEBIAOXIAN[7],WEIHUWANGLUOZHUQUANHEWANGLUOANQUANZAOYIBEITISHENGDAOGUOJIAANQUANDECENGMIAN。BUJINELUOSI,QITAGUOJIAYECENGLIQIUJIANLIGENGWEIZIZHUDEHULIANWANGYIBAOZHANGBENGUOWANGLUOANQUAN。BIRU2014NIANDEGUOZONGLIMOKEERTICHU,JIANLIZAIOUZHOUFANWEINEIDULIDE、NENGCUNCHUSHUJUDEZIZHUKEKONGTONGXUNWANGLUO,BIMIANOUZHOUGUOJIAZHIJIANDEDIANZIYOUJIANHESHUJURAODAOMEIGUO[8]。2015NIAN12YUE,ZAIDIERJIESHIJIEHULIANWANGDAHUISHANGXIJINPINGZHUXIZHICHU“ZUNZHONGWANGLUOZHUQUAN,WEIHUWANGLUOANQUAN,GONGTONGGOUJIANHEPING、ANQUAN、KAIFANG、HEZUODEWANGLUOKONGJIAN,JIANLIDUOBIAN、MINZHU、TOUMINGDEGUOJIHULIANWANGZHILITIXI”。WOGUOXIAYIDAIHULIANWANGGONGCHENGZHONGXINLIANHEDUOGUOJIGOUHEGEREN,YU2015NIANGONGTONGFAQI“XUERENJIHUA”,LIQIUZAIIPv6SHIDAISHIXIANHULIANWANGDEDUOBIANZHILI。

                2、 《主权互联网法》的主要内容

                TONGGUOFENXIJUTIFALVWENBENHEJIESHISHUOMING,KEYIFAXIANELUOSI《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》BAOHANYIXIAZHONGDIANNEIRONG:

                DIYI,YAOQIUHULIANWANGYUNYINGSHANGANZHUANG“YINGDUIWEIXIEDEJISHUSHOUDUAN”,ZHIYOUGUOJIAWUCHANGTIGONGJIXIANGGUANYUNYINGDANWEIDEJISHUSHEBEI。

              星云棋牌官网下载   DIER,YAOQIUJINGYINGZHEBIXUTONGZHIJIANGUANJIGOUGUOJINGTONGXUNQUDAODEXIANGGUANXINXI。KUAJINGTONGXINXIANLUYEXUANZHUANG“FANWEIXIE”JISHUSHEBEI。

                DISAN,DIANXINYUNYINGSHANGYOUYIWUANZHAOJIANGUANBUMENDEZHILINGJIUZHENGXINXITONGGUODELUJING,ZHISHIYONGZAITESHUZHUCEBIAODENGJIDEJIAOHUANDIANJINXINGSHUJUJIAOHUAN,BINGXIANGZHENGFUTIGONGYOUGUANQIWANGLUOANPAIFANGSHIHESHIYONGDEDNSFUWUQIDEXINXI。

              星云棋牌官网下载   DISI,RUCHUXIANDUIYUELUOSIHULIANWANGDEWEIXIE,JIANGUANJIGOUKEYISHIXIANDUITONGXINWANGLUODEZHONGYANGGUANLI。

              星云棋牌官网下载   DIWU,HULIANWANGXIANGGUANCONGYEZHEYOUYIWUDINGQICANYUZHIZAI “QUEBAOELUOSIHULIANWANGHEGONGGONGTONGXINWANGLUOKECHIXUXING、ANQUANHEQUANMIANYUNZUO”DEYANXI。

                DILIU,JIANLITONGYIGUOJIAYUMINGXITONG,JIJIANSHEZIZHUDIZHIJIEXIXITONG,YIZAIJINJISHIKEQUDAIXIANYOUYUMINGFUWUXITONG。WANGLUOYUNYINGSHANGXUYAOCONG2021NIAN1YUERIQIKAISHISHIYONGGAIXITONG。

              星云棋牌官网下载   GENJUDUI《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》JUTINEIRONGJINXINGFENXI,FALVSHISHIHOUYUJISHIXIANRUXIAXIAOGUO:

                DIYI,FALVJIANGCHUANGZAOELUOSIWANGLUOYUJINGWAIWANGZHANHEFUWUQIDUANKAIDEJISHUKENENGXING。GAIFALVSHIJISHANGZHIZAIJIANLIYIGEELUOSIHULIANWANGDEBEIYONGJICHUSHESHIYIYINGDUIWEIJIQINGKUANG,JIZAIYUGUOWAIHULIANWANGDUANKAIDEQINGKUANGXIA,GUONEIDEWANGLUOZIYUANKEYIJIXUSHIYONG。FALVJIANGCHUANGZAOYIGEZAIWEIJIXIAKEYIBEIZHENGFUJIZHONGKONGZHIDE“EWANG”(Runet)。ELUOSIDIANXIN、XINXIJISHUHEDAZHONGCHUANMEIJIANDUJU(XIAWENJIANCHENGEDIANXINJIANDUJU)CENGZAICAIFANGZHONGQIANGDIAO,ZHEIYIFALVJUYOU“WEIYUCHOUMOU”DETEDIAN,FALVTONGGUOHOUJIANG“XIANGHEWUQIYIYANGCHUYUCHENSHUIZHUANGTAI”[9],BINGBUSHIMASHANGJIANGELUOSIWANGLUOYUSHIJIEHULIANWANGDUANKAI。

                DIER,FALVKESHIXIANZHENGFUDUIJINGNEIHEKUAJINGHULIANWANGLIULIANGJISHUJULUYOUDEJINYIBUGUIFANHEGUANLI。SUOYOUSHUJULUYOUJIANGTONGGUOZAIGUONEISHUJUJIAOHUANDIANHUOKUAJINGTONGXINXIANLUSHANGANZHUANGDE“FANWEIXIEJISHUSHEBEI”。《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》ZHONGHAIGUIDING,FALVTONGGUOHOUHULIANWANGYUNYINGSHANGBUZAIXUYAOCHENGDANGUOLVWEIJINXINXIDEZEREN,ZHEIYIZERENJIANGYOUGUOJIAJIANGUANBUMENCHENGDAN。ELUOSIZHUANJIAJIESHI,ZHEIYIWEIZHESUIZHEFALVDESHIXING,DUIWEIJINXINXIGUOLVJIANGYOUGUOJIAANZHUANGDESHEBEISHIXIAN。CIQIANHULIANWANGYUNYINGSHANGXUGENJUDIANXINJIANDUJUTIGONGDEQINGDANDUIHANYOUWEIJINXINXIDEZHANDIANXIANZHIFANGWEN[10]。

              星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,EDIANXINJIANDUJUJIANGCHENGWEIELUOSIHULIANWANGLINGYUZUIZHONGYAOJIANGUANBUMENZHIYI。GENJUFALV,EDIANXINJIANDUJUJIANGZHANGWO《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》ZHONGYIXIEJUTIGUIZEDEZHIDINGQUAN、DUIXIANGGUANYUNYINGDANWEIDEJIANDUQUAN、DUIYUSHIFOUGOUCHENGWEIXIEDEPANDINGQUAN(FALVGUIDING,EDIANXINJIANDUJUJIANGXIASHEGONGGONGTONGXINWANGLUOJIANCEHEGUANLIZHONGXINFENXIXIANGGUANSHUJU,SHIBIEKENENGDEWEIXIE)、“WEIXIE”QINGKUANGXIADEJIZHONGKONGZHIQUAN。

                ZONGTILAISHUO,《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》YUELUOSIJINNIANLAIYIGUANDEWANGLUOZHENGCEXIANGQIHE。ZHEISHOUXIANTIXIANZAIELUOSIZHONGSHIHULIANWANGJICHUSHESHIDEANQUANXING,BINGYIZHIZHILIYUTIGAOANQUANXING。BIRU2018NIAN7YUEELUOSICHUANGJIANLEGUOJIAJISUANJISHIJIANXIEDIAOZHONGXIN(Национальный координационный центр по компьютерным инцидентам)。GAIZHONGXINZHIZAIJIANCEHEYUFANGSUOYOUJISUANJIGONGJI,BINGXIEDIAOELIANBANGXINXIJICHUSHESHIGEBUFENDEHUODONG。QICI,ELUOSIYIZHIZHUZHONGDUIKUAJINGSHUJULIUDONGJINXINGGUANLI。ZAIMEIGUO“LENGJINGMEN”SHIJIANHOU,ELUOSIYIZHIZHILIYUSHIXIANSHUJUZAIELIANBANGJINGNEIDESHIYONGHECHUCUN。BIRUELUOSIYIZHIXIWANGWAIGUOGONGSIJIANGELUOSIHULIANWANGYONGHUDESHUJUCUNCHUZAIELIANBANGJINGNEI,BINGLITUTONGGUOYIXIEJICHUSHESHIZUZHIWAIGUOSHEJIAOWANGLUOHUOZAIXIANSHANGDIANJIESHOUYOUGUANELUOSIYONGHUDEXINXI。《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》DEZHUYAONEIRONGQIAQIASHEJILEHULIANWANGJICHUSHESHIJIANSHEHEKUAJINGSHUJUJIANGUANWENTI。

                XUYAOZHUYIDESHI,DANGQIANDEFALVZHISHEDINGLE“FANWEIXIE”CUOSHIDEDAZHIKUANGJIA。ETONGXINBUTICHU,ZAISANLEI“WEIXIE”XIAEDIANXINJIANDUJUKEYISHIXING“DUANWANG”。ZHEISANLEIWEIXIEZHIWANGLUOMIANLINWANZHENGXINGWEIXIE(ZHIBEITURANQIEDUANHULIANWANG);MIANLINWENDINGXINGWEIXIE(ZHIYOUYUZIRANZAIHAIHUOJISHUSHIGUDAOZHIBAOZHANGLUYOUDESHEBEISHIXIAO);MIANLINANQUANWEIXIE(ZHIYUNYINGSHANGSHEBEIBEIRUQINHUO“SHOUDAOPOHUAIWENDINGDENEIBUHUOWAIBUXINXIYINGXIANG”)。XUDUOJUTIWENTI,RUZHEIXIEWEIXIEDEJUTIDINGYI、WEIXIECHENGDUHUOJIBIEHUAFEN、JUTISHIXINGHEZHONGJISHUYIJIANZHUANGHEZHONGSHEBEISHIXIANFANWEIXIESHOUDUAN,MUQIANFALVZHONGHAIMEIYOUMINGQUEGUIDING,YOUDAICHUTAIGENGXIANGXIDEFALVFAGUI。JUMEITIBAODAO,DANGQIANELUOSIZHENGFUYIJINGJINXINGLEYIBUFENYUSUANBOKUAN,EDUYUE308YILUBU(YUE4.76YIMEIYUAN),QIZHONG208YILUBUJIANGYONGYUGOUMAIQUEBAOELUOSIHULIANWANGLINGYUANQUANDEITXITONG[11]。

                3、 俄各界对《主权互联网法》的评价

                ZAI《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》SHENYIGUOCHENGZHONGHETONGGUOHOU,ELUOSIGEJIEDUIQITAOLUNYICHANGJILIE。ZANCHENGFALVZHEDADUOLAIZIZHENGFUHEJIANGUANBUMEN,TAMENRENWEIFALVWEIHULEELUOSIWANGLUODEANQUANXINGHEWENDINGXING。YUZHIXIANGDUI,FALVZAISHENYIGUOCHENGZHONGHETONGGUOHOU,YESHOUDAOLEYIXIELAIZIHULIANWANGZHUANJIA、CONGYEZHEHEPUTONGMINZHONGDEZHIYI,ZHUYAOTIXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN。

              星云棋牌官网下载   DIYI,DUIYUJISHUFENGXIANHEJINGJIXINGDEZHIYI。

              星云棋牌官网下载   EHULIANWANGYANJIUZHANLVEXIANGMUZHURENYILINNA·LIEWOWARENWEI“ZAIDIANXINJIANDUJUDUILIULIANGDE‘JIZHONGHUAGUANLIXIA’,RUGUODIANXINJIANDUJUZISHENZAOSHOUHEIKEGONGJI,KENENGHUIDAOZHIELUOHULIANWANGDEWANQUANTANHUAN”[12]。2019NIANYIXIEDAXINGHULIANWANGGONGSICENGBAOGAOZIJIZAOSHOULEWANGLUOGONGJI,RENWEIELUOSIDIANXINJIANDUJUSHEZHIDELANJIEZHUANGZHICUNZAILOUDONG,YINCIDAOZHIHEIKENENGGOUGANYUWANGZHANDEZHENGCHANGGONGZUO[13]。

                HAIYOUYIXIEZHUANJIAZHICHUGAIFAANDETONGGUOJIANGHAOFEIDALIANGYUSUAN,HAIKENENGDAOZHIHULIANWANGXINGYEDECHENGBENZENGJIA。ZAIFALVTAOLUNSHENYIGUOCHENGZHONG,ELIANBANGHESUANYUANCENGFANDUIFAAN,RENWEI“GAIFAANDESHISHIJIANGDAOZHIELUOSISHICHANGSHANGSHANGPINHEFUWUCHENGBENZENGJIA”[14]。ZAIFAANSHENYIGUOCHENGZHONGELUOSIWULIANWANGXIEHUICENGZHIXINEZHENGFUFUZONGLIHEFALVDETIANREN,DANYOUFAANKENENGHUI“JIANHUANELUOSIWULIANWANGDEFAZHAN,YINWEIWULIANWANGDUIQIANZAIDESHUJUCHUANSHUYANCHIHENMINGAN”[15]。

                DIER,DUIYUJIANGUANBUMENQUANLIGUODUJIZHONGDEZHIYI。

              星云棋牌官网下载   GAIFALVSHIEDIANXINJIANDUJUZHANGWOLEELUOSITONGXINJIANGUANHEKONGZHILINGYUDEJIDAQUANLI。DUICIELUOSILIANBANGZHENGFUZHUANJIAWEIYUANHUIRENWEI“TONGXINXINGYEDEFALVJIANGUAN、JIANDUHEZHIJIEGUANLIDEZHINENGJIZHONGZAIEDIANXINJIANDUJU,ZHEIJIANGDAILAIBUKEJIESHOUDEFUBAIFENGXIAN”[16]。

                DISAN,DUIYUWANGLUOGUANKONGDEDANYOU。

                BUFENMEITI、ZHUANJIADANXINGAIFALVHUISHIELUOSIHULIANWANGSHENCHAZHIDUGENGWEIYANGE。BIRUFANDUIPAIYIYUANCENGTICHU“ZHEIXIANGFAANZHONGZUIZHONGYAODENEIRONGSHIKONGZHIHULIANWANG,CONGERKONGZHIRENMINDEZIYOUSIXIANG”[17]。

                ELUOSIJINNIANLAIZAIHULIANWANGLINGYUTUICHULEYIXIELIFA,JINGCHANGBEIYIXIEFANDUIPAIHUOXIFANGMEITIRENWEISHIZHENGFUDUIHULIANWANGZIYOUDEGANSHE。BIRU2012NIANELUOSITONGGUODELIANBANG《BAOHUERTONGMIANSHOUJIANKANGHEFAZHANWEIHAIDEXINXIFA》XIUZHENGAN。ZHEIYIFALVYOUBEIMEITICHENGWEI“WANGZHANHEIMINGDANFA”,YINWEITAGUIDINGKEYIZAISIFAJUEYIYIWAI,DUIYIXIEWANGZHANJINXINGXIANZHIFANGWEN。2014NIANELUOSIHAITONGGUO“ZHIMINGBOZHUFA”,GUIDINGRIJUNWANGZHANFANGWENLIANGCHAOGUO3000RENCIDEBOKEZUOZHEBEIRENDINGWEIZHIMINGBOZHU,XUBEILIERUEDIANXINJIANDUJUDEJIANDUMINGDAN。2016NIANELUOSIDUMATONGGUOLEYIXIANGTONGYIELUOSIDANGYIYUANYILINNA·YALUOWAYAQICAODEFANKONGFAXIUZHENGAN。ZHEIYIFALVYOUBEICHENGWEI“YALUOWAYAFA”。GAIFALVYAOQIUSUOYOUHULIANWANGFUWUGONGYINGSHANGHETONGXINYUNYINGSHANGBIXUJIANGSUOYOUSHUJUJILUBAOLIU6GEYUE,SUOYOUYUANSHUJUBAOLIUSANNIAN,BINGYAOQIUDIANXINGONGSIXIEZHUZHENGFUPOJIEJIAMIXINXI。ELUOSIZHENGFUXUANCHENGSHANGSHUFALVZHIZAIXIANZHIWEIJINXINXICHUANBO,DANYIXIEXIFANGMEITIHEFANDUIPAIRENWEIZHEISHIEZHENGFUDUIHULIANWANGZIYOUDEGANSHE。

              星云棋牌官网下载   CICI《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》TONGGUOHOU,YIXIEXIFANGMEITIYEPINFANBAODAOELUOSIZHENGFUXIANZHIHULIANWANGZIYOU。ZHEISHEJIDAOMEIGUOYUELUOSIDENGGUOJIAZAIWANGLUOKONGJIAN、WANGLUOZHUQUANDENGFANGMIANDERENZHICHAYI。ELUOSIRENWEIWANGLUOKONGJIANDEGAINIANYINGSHEJIZAIWANGLUOKONGJIANZHIZAO、CHUCUNHECHUANSHUDEXINXI,YOUCIYANSHENCHUGUOJIAZAIWEIHUWANGLUOKONGJIANANQUANSHIBIXUJIAQIANGDUIWANGLUOXINXIDEJIANGUAN[18]。ELUOSIDUIYUWANGLUOKONGJIANANQUANDEWEIHUYIZHISHIYIDUINEIHEDUIWAILIANGGEWEIDUJINXINGDE。

                ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZAIMEIGUODUIHUAWEIJINXINGZHICAIHOU,ELUOSIGUOJIADIANSHITAIDIYIPINDAODENGMEITIJIGOUDUOCIDUICIJINXINGLEXIANGGUANBAODAO。ZAIHUAWEISHIJIANDEBEIJINGXIA,YIXIEELUOSIMINZHONGKAISHIZAISHEJIAOMEITIHUOXINWENZHONGBIAODA,DUIPUJINGTUIDONGGUONEISHUZIJISHUFAZHANHEYINGDUIHULIANWANGWEIXIEBIAOSHILIJIE,RENWEIJIANYUMEIGUOKEYILIYONGQIKEJIDIWEI“SIYI”DAYADUISHOU,《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》SHIDUIXIANGGUANWEIXIEYOUYUANJIANDEFANGFAN。

                4、 结 语

                SUIZHEXINXIHEWANGLUODEGAODUFAZHAN,WANGLUOKONGJIAN、WANGLUOZHUQUAN、WANGLUOANQUANWENTIZIRANDICHENGWEIGUOJIAANQUANWENTIDEXINYIPIANJIANGYU。WANGLUOYEYINCICHENGWEILEGUOJIAJINGZHENG、GUOJIGUANXIBOYIDEYIGEXINZHENDI。2014NIANWUKELANWEIJIYILAI,MEIEZAIJINGJI、JUNSHILINGYUDEDUIZHIYANSHENZHIWANGLUOKONGJIAN。ZAIHULIANWANGHESHUZIJINGJILINGYU,ELUOSIMIANLINZHEJINGJISUNSHIHEANQUANWEIXIEDESHUANGZHONGKAOYAN。ZAIZHEIYIBEIJINGXIA,ELUOSILINGDAOCENGDUIYUTUIXING《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》BIAOSHILEFEICHANGJIANDINGDEJUEXIN。ZHEIYIFAANSHIELUOSIXINXIFAZHANLINGYULIFASHIJIANDEYANXU,TIXIANLEELUOSIZAIWANGLUOANQUANNAIZHIGUOJIAANQUANFANGMIANDEZHANLVEKAOLV。

                ZAIGUANZHUELUOSIZUIXINWANGLUOANQUANFALVDETONGSHI,YEYINGYISHIDAOZHONGGUOMIANLINZHEYUELUOSIXIANGSIDEWANGLUOWEIXIE。ZHONGGUOZHANGQIYILAIZHILIYUYIJISHUCHUANGXINTUIDONGHULIANWANGDEANQUANSHIYONGBINGWEIHUWANGLUOZHUQUAN。JUTICUOSHIBAOKUOTUIDONGIPv6DEJIANSHE,FAZHANGENJINGXIANGFUWUQI,TIGAOYUMINGXITONGDEANQUANXIAOLVDENG。ERELUOSIDE《ZHUQUANHULIANWANGFA》ZESHICONGDINGCENGSHEJIJIAODU,MINGQUEYINGDUIWANGLUOWEIXIEDEBIYAOXINGJIZHUYAOSHOUDUAN,BINGJIANGTONGYIGUOJIAYUMINGXITONGJIANSHEDENGJUTICUOSHITIGAOZHILIFACENGMIAN。GAIFALVDUIWOGUOWANGLUOANQUANDEZHIDUSHEJIHEHULIANWANGJICHUSHESHIANQUANJIANSHEYOUYIDINGDECANKAOJIAZHI。CIWAIGAIFALVDESHIJIZHIXINGSHIFOUHUIYUDAOJISHUNANTIHECHENGBENWENTIRENGYOUDAISHIJIAN,ZHEIXIEDOUZHIDEWOGUOJIXUGUANZHU。ZAICIYINGZHICHU,ZHONGGUOZAIHULIANWANGFAZHIJIANSHEHEWANGLUOANQUANLINGYUBINGMEIYOULUOHOU。2016NIANWOGUOCHUTAILE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOWANGLUOANQUANFA》,QUEDINGLEWANGLUOKONGJIANDEZHUQUANYUANZE,SHIQUANMIANGUIFANWANGLUOKONGJIANANQUANGUANLIDEFALVJICHU。2017NIANWOGUOFABUDE《WANGLUOKONGJIANGUOJIHEZUOZHANLVE》“TICHUYIHEPING、ZHUQUAN、GONGZHI、PUHUIDENGSIXIANGJIBENYUANZETUIDONGWANGLUOKONGJIANGUOJIHEZUO”[19]。CIWAI,2015NIANWOGUOQIANTOUFAQI“XUERENJIHUA”,LIQIUZAIIPv6SHIDAISHIXIANHULIANWANGDUOBIANZHILILINGYUDETUPO。2017NIANWOGUOJIANLIWANGLUOKONGJIANANQUANJUNMINRONGHECHUANGXINZHONGXIN,LITUYIKAOJUNMINRONGHETIGAOWANGLUOGUOFANGLILIANG。

                2018NIAN《MEIGUOGUOJIAWANGLUOANQUANZHANLVEZHONG》,ZHONGGUOYEHEELUOSI、CHAOXIAN、YILANGYIYANG,BEIRENWEI“LIYONGWANGLUOKONGJIANZUOWEISHOUDUAN,TIAOZHANMEIGUOJIQIMENGGUOHEHEZUOHUOBAN”,“ZHANLVE”HAIZHIZEZHONGGUO“CONGSHIWANGLUOJINGJIJIANDIEHUODONGBINGJINXINGSHUWANYIMEIYUANDEZHISHICHANQUANDAOQIE”。KEJIANZAIZHONGMEIGUANXIFASHENGJUDAZHUANZHEDELISHISHIQI,WANGLUOANQUAN、XINXIANQUANDENGWENTISHIMEIGUODUIZHONGGUOSHIYADEZHONGYAOLIYOU,WANGLUOHEXINXICHANYEYESHIMEIGUODUIZHONGGUOSHIYADEZHONGYAOLINGYU。BUJIUQIANMEIGUOFAQIDUIHUAWEIZHICAIQIAHAOZHENGMING,MEIGUOZAISHUZIJISHUHEHULIANWANGLINGYUZAIGUCHUIZIYOUDETONGSHIQUEZHIXINGZHESHIJIDEBAQUANLUOJI。

                MIANDUIGONGTONGDEWEIXIEYUTIAOZHAN,ZHONGGUOHEELUOSIJUEDINGJINYIBUJIAQIANGWANGLUOANQUANLINGYUDEJIAOLIUYUHEZUO。ZHONGEWANGLUOANQUANHEZUOYONGYOULIANGHAODEJICHU。LIANGGUODUIYUWANGLUOKONGJIANZHUQUANDERENSHIYIZHI,BINGJUNZHILIYUTUIDONGDUOBIANHULIANWANGZHILITIXI。2016NIAN,XIJINPINGZHUXIYUPUJINGZONGTONGQIANSHULE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOZHUXIHEELUOSILIANBANGZONGTONGGUANYUXIEZUOTUIJINXINXIWANGLUOKONGJIANFAZHANDELIANHESHENGMING》,BIAODALELIANGGUOZAIQUEBAOGUOJIXINXIANQUANYIJIHULIANWANGZHILIWENTISHANGDEGONGSHI。GENJU2019NIAN6YUEFABUDE《ZHONGEGUANYUFAZHANXINSHIDAIQUANMIANZHANLVEXIEZUOHUOBANGUANXIDELIANHESHENGMING》,WANGLUOANQUANSHIZHONGEANQUANHEZUODEZHONGYAOLINGYU。SHENGMINGTICHULIANGGUO “JINYIBUCAIQUCUOSHIWEIHUSHUANGFANGGUANJIANXINXIJICHUSHESHIDEANQUANHEWENDING。JIAQIANGWANGLUOKONGJIANLIFALINGYUJIAOLIU,GONGTONGTUIDONGZUNZHAOGUOJIFAHEGUONEIFAGUIJINXINGHULIANWANGZHILIDEYUANZE。FANDUIYIGUOJIAANQUANWEIJIEKOU,BUBIYAODIXIANZHIXINXITONGXINJISHUCHANPINDESHICHANGZHUNRU,BUBIYAODIXIANZHIGAOXINJISHUCHANPINCHUKOU。ZAIGEGUOPINGDENGCANYUJICHUSHANGWEIHUWANGLUOKONGJIANHEPINGYUANQUAN,TUIDONGGOUJIANQUANQIUXINXIWANGLUOKONGJIANZHILIZHIXU。JIXUKAIZHANGONGZUO,JINYIBUTUIDONGZAILIANHEGUOKUANGJIAXIAZHIDINGWANGLUOKONGJIANGUOJIAFUZERENXINGWEIZHUNZE,BINGTUIDONGZHIDINGJUYOUPUBIANFALVYUESHULIDEFALVWENJIAN,DAJIJIANGXINXITONGXINJISHUYONGYUFANZUIMUDEDEXINGWEI” [20]。ZHONGELIANGGUOZAIWANGLUOKONGJIAN、WANGLUOANQUANLINGYUYONGYOUGUANGFANDEGONGTONGLIYI,SHUANGFANGKEYIGONGTONGYINGDUIWAIBUWEIXIE,HUXIANGXIQUJINGYAN,HEZUOGONGYING。

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