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                        社会舆论监督存在的问题与制度完善

                        时间:2018-12-17 来源:法制博览 作者:赵雅芝 本文字数:3933字

                          摘    要: 当今社会舆论的影响越来越大,存在的法律问题也不少。因此,本文通过政府、新闻媒体、公众的角度来探讨社会舆论监督所存在的问题及现状,从规范政府权力、完善新闻舆论监督法制方面入手,完善社会舆论监督的法律保障制度。

                          关键词: 舆论监督; 新闻媒体; 新闻法;

                          一、社会舆论监督的概念及意义

                          LIFAZAIYUBIAODAMINYI,FENPEIZHENGYI;XINGZHENGZAIYUZHIXINGMINYI,SHIXIANZHENGYI;SIFAZAIYUFUGUIMINYI,JIAOZHENGMINYI。KEJIAN,MINYISHIDANGJINFAZHISHEHUIZHONGBUKEHUOQUEDEZHONGYAONEIRONG,ERSHIXIANMINYIDEZUIZHIJIEZUIYOUXIAODEFANGSHIBIANSHISHEHUIYULUNJIQIJIANDU。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   SHEHUIYULUNJIANDU (XIAWENCHENGYULUNJIANDU) ,SHIGONGMINQUNTIDUISHEHUIZUIPUBIANDEJIANDU,JITONGGUOBAOZHI、GUANGBO、DIANSHI、HULIANWANGDENGDAZHONGCHUANBOMEIJIE (YOUCHENGXINWENMEIJIE) ,LAIFANYINGDUIMOUYISHEHUIXIANXIANG、MOUGESHEHUISHIJIANHUOSHEHUIWENTISUOXINGCHENGDEBIJIAOYIZHIDEYIJIAN,SHIJISHANGTASHIDAIBIAOGONGZHONGDEYIZHIDUISHEHUISHIJIANZUOCHUDEQIANGYOULIDEZHUDONGHUIYING。JIEJIANZHOUJIALUXIANSHENGDELIJIE:YULUNJIANDUZHUYAOSHIZHIGONGZHONGLIYONGDAZHONGCHUANBOMEIJIEDUIGUOJIAJIGUAN、GUOJIAJIGUANGONGZUORENYUANHEGONGZHONGRENWUYUGONGGONGLIYIYOUGUANDESHIWUJINXINGJIELU、PIPINGHETICHUJIANYIDEXINGWEI。[1]

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YULUNJIANDUQUANZAIWOGUOSUIWUMINGQUEGUIDING,DANYULUNJIANDUZUOWEIGONGMINXINGSHISHEHUIZHUYIMINZHUQUANLIDEYOUXIAOXINGSHIZHIYI,XUYAOZHENGQUEBAWOQIZHONGDE“DU”。MEIGUOSHEHUIXUEJIA、CHUANBOXUEDIANJIRENZHIYILAZHASIFEIERDERENWEIDAZHONGMEIJIESHIYIZHONGJIKEYIWEISHANFUWU,YOUKEYIWEIEFUWUDEQIANGDAGONGJU;ERZONGDESHUOLAI,RUOBUJIAYIXIANZHI,TAWEIEDEKENENGXINGGENGDA。[2]RUHEZUIDAXIANDUDIFAHUIYULUNJIANDUDECUJINZUOYONG,BINGJINKENENGDIXIAOCHUSHEHUIYULUNKENENGZAOCHENGDEXIAOJIYINGXIANG,ZHEIJIUXUYAOWOMENBAWOJIBENDEFALVJIAZHIPANDUANHESIWEILUOJI,SHULILIXINGDEYULUNJIANDUGUANNIAN,JIANGSHEHUIYULUNJIANDUNARUFAZHIDEGUIDAO,JIANLIHELIDEYULUNJIANDUMOSHI。

                          二、从不同角度看社会舆论监督存在的问题

                          (一) 从政府的角度看舆论监督存在的问题

                          SHOUXIAN,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEGONGJIYUGONGZHONGXINXIHUOQUDEXUQIUZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEYANZHONGDEBUPIPEIWENTI。YOUYUYULUNJIANDUSHISHEHUIDAZHONGDUIGONGQUANLIJINXINGXIANZHIYUYUESHUDEZHONGYAOTUJINGZHIYI,ZHENGFUZUOWEIGONGQUANLIDEZHONGJIDAILIZHE,DADUOBUYUANJIANGQIFUMIANXINXIGONGZHUYUZHONG,ZAOCHENGGONGZHONGDUIZHENGFUXINXIDEGUANZHUDUJIAODI,ZHIJIEDAOZHILE“JIANDUSHEHUIWENTIBIJIANDUGONGQUANLIDUO”、“JIANDUZHONGXIACENGBIJIANDUZHONGSHANGCENGDUO”DEQINGKUANG,XINGCHENGYULUNJIANDUCUOWEI,XUERUOLEXINWENMEITIDEYULUNJIANDUQUAN,SUNHAILEGONGMINDEZHIQINGQUAN。

                          其次,对舆论监督的利用不当。卢梭曾提及该情况:要影响舆论的形成可以在舆论还没有确定时就将其固定下来,即在公共判断形成之前做出以决定公共判断。[3]这样直接使社会舆论由“异言堂”变成“一言堂”,便也失去了舆论监督本身的意义。
                         

                        社会舆论监督存在的问题与制度完善
                         

                          (二) 从新闻媒体的角度看舆论监督存在的问题

                        星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIAN,SHIXINWENGONGZUOZHEBAODAODEXINXI。YIFANGMIAN,XINWENBAODAOYINGJUYOUZHENSHIXINGHEKEGUANXING。ZHIYOUBAODAOZHENSHI、KEGUAN,SHOUZHONGCAINENGDUIGEZHONGSHEHUIXINXIYOUZHENGQUEDERENZHI、LIXINGDEPINGJIA。GAOGANGTIDAO:“JIAXINWENYIGOUCHENGDUICHUANMEIGONGXINLIZUIWEIYANZHONGDEWEIXIE。”[4],YINWEIQISHIBIHUIZAOCHENGGONGZHONGDECUOWULIJIEYUBUDANGYANLUNSHENZHISHEHUIFENZHENG,BULIYUSHEHUIDEHEXIEFAZHAN,YEHUIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIANGDIGONGZHONGDUIXINWENMEITIDEXINRENDUYIJIDAJIDAOGONGZHONGDUIYULUNJIANDUDEJIJIXING。LINGYIFANGMIAN,XINWENBAODAODENEIRONGYINGSHIGUANHUSHEHUIDAZHONGQIESHENLIYIDEHUATI。ERDANGQIANWOGUODEXINWENMEITIYOUZHEIYANGDEYIZHONGQINGKUANG———SUIBAODAOZHENSHIXINXI,QUEYUANLIPUTONGBAIXINGDESHENGHUOHUOHUIBISHEHUIREDIAN,SHIGONGZHONGSANGSHIDUIGONGGONGSHIWUDEREQINGYUXINXIN,QUEFADUISHEHUIMINSHENGREDIANDEGUANZHU。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,SHIXINWENYEDEZHUANGKUANGWENTI。YISHIJIZHEDEZHENGDANGQUANYIDEBUDAOBAOZHANG。WOGUOBINGWEIGUIDINGJIZHEDECAIFANGQUAN,YINERZHINENGYIYIBANQINQUANLAICHULIJIZHEZAICAIFANGGUOCHENGZHONGSHOUDAODERENSHENSHANGHAISHIJIAN。ERSHIMEITIDEQINQUANXIANXIANGYANZHONG。YIBANBIAOXIANWEIQINFANCAIFANGDUIXIANGDERENGEQUAN,RUYINSIQUAN、XIAOXIANGQUAN、MINGYUQUANDENG。CIWAI,“MEITISHENPAN”YESHIMEITIQINQUANDEFANGSHIZHIYI,DUI“FAYUANSHENPAN”JUYOUYIDINGDEBULIANGYINGXIANG,FANGAISIFAGONGZHENG。SANSHI“XINWENXUNZU”。SUOWEI“XINWENXUNZU”SHIZHIXINWENJIEHUOXINWENCONGYERENYUANLIYONGXINWENXUANCHUANHEYULUNJIANDUDEQUANLI,WEITUANTIHUOGERENMOUQIUBUZHENGDANGLIYI,HUODE、SUOQUHAOCHUDEYIZHONGXINGYEFUBAIXINGWEI。YINWEIXINWENMEITIDENEIBUYINSU,DAOZHIGONGZHONGJIESHOUDEXINXIQIANQUEYIDINGDEGONGZHENGXINGYUZHENSHIXING,SHISHEHUIYULUNDEJIANDUZUOYONGWUFAZHENGCHANGFAHUI。

                          (三) 从公众的角度看舆论监督存在的问题

                        星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIAN,SHEHUIYULUNDEYIZHIYUZHENGCEFAGUIDENEIRONG、SIFAPANJUENANMIANHUICHUXIANCHONGTU。ZAIYULUNJIANDUGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENGCECHUTAIQIANDEZHENGQIUMINYI、ZHENGCECHUTAIHOUDEJUTILUOSHIHEANJIANSHENLIDENGXUSHEJIZHUANYELINGYUDEFANGMIANBUSHAO,DANSHEHUIDAZHONGYIBANBUJUBEIZHUANYEDEZHISHIYUNENGLIQULIJIEQIZHONGDESHENYI,CONGERCHUXIANSHEHUIDAZHONGDUIZHENGCESHISHICHIGUANWANGTAIDUHUOYIYIDEQINGKUANG,HUOZHESHIWANGTUYIYULUNGANRAOSIFASHENPAN、DUISIFAYUYIGANSHEDEQINGKUANG。GONGZHONGZONGSHIGANXINGZHISHANGERFEIFALVZHISHANG,BINGBUGUODUODIKAOLVFALVFAGUIDEYAOQIU,DAOZHICHUXIANLEYULUNJIANDUYULIFA、SIFAHEXINGZHENGCHANSHENGCHONGTUDEQINGKUANG。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,GONGZHONGYIBEIYULUNQIANZHEBIZIZOU,ZUIHOUXINGCHENGYULUNYIMIANDAOHUOLIANGJIFENHUADEJUMIAN。DAZHONGPUBIANYIGANXINGLIJIEFALVWENTI,YIGERENQINGGANPANDUANSHEHUISHIJIAN,YIZHIYUJIYIMANGCONGMEITIDEYINDAO,GENSUIMOUXIEXINWENGONGZUOZHEDEYANLUNXINGCHENGYIGUGU“KUILEI”YULUN,CONGERSHISHEHUIYULUNSHIQUYIYI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZUIHOU,GONGZHONGQUEFADUIFALVDEZUNZHONG,CHUXIANYULUNJIANDUYUEWEIDEQINGKUANG。GONGZHONGDUIFALVYUDAODEDEHUNXIAO,SHISHEHUIYULUNDEFEILIXINGTAIDUDEGENBENYUANYIN。RU“YULUNSHENPAN”,QIBAODAOWANGWANGSHIPIANMIAN、SHISHIDE,BAODAOZHELIYONGSHANQINGDEYUYAN,QUJIQIGONGZHONGDUIMOUYIFANGDANGSHIRENDEZENGHENHUOTONGQING,YOUYIWUYIDIYAZHILEGONGZHONGDUIANJIANSHISHIDEZHENSHIQINGGANYUPANDUAN,SHIGONGZHONGDUIWEISHENJIEDEANJIANXIANRUWEIZHU、ZUOCHUDINGLUN,CONGERQINFANSIFASHENPANDEDULI。

                          三、社会舆论监督机制运行现状

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YISHIYULUNJIANDUFAZHIBUJIANQUAN,ZHUYAOTIXIANWEILIANGDIAN:QIYI,WOGUOFALVDUICHUANBOXINGHUODONGDESHOUQUANXINGGUIFANBUWANSHAN,RUCAIFANGQUAN、BAODAOQUANDENGMEIYOUCHENGWEIFADINGXINGQUANLI;QIER,WOGUOGUANYUXINWENDEFALVSHIFENSANDE,MEIYOUYIBUXITONGDEFALVFAGUI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ERSHIYULUNJIANDUTIZHIBUKEXUE。ZHEITIXIANZAIWOGUODEXINWENMEITISHOUXINGZHENGQUANLIDEGANSHEJIAODA,BUNENGWANQUANDULI,DAOZHICHUXIANZHENGFUZULANQIFUMIANXIAOXIGONGKAI、YANGAISHEHUIMOUXIEHEIMUDENGXIANXIANG。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   SANSHIYULUNJIANDUJIZHIBUWANSHAN。ZHUYAOTIXIANWEISANDIAN:QIYI,CAIFANGJIZHI———XINWENJIZHEDECAIFANGWANGWANGZAOSHOUGONGQUANLIDEQIANGLIZUNAO。QIER,XINXIFANKUIJIZHI———SHEHUIDAZHONGNANYILEJIEZHENGFUDUIMEITI“PUGUANG”YIJIGONGZHONGYULUNDEFANYING,ERZHEZHIJIANMEIYOUYIGEJIANQUANDEXINXIFANKUIJIZHI。QISAN,ZERENZHUIJIUJIZHI———QUEFADUIJIZHEZAICAIFANGGUOCHENGZHONGSHOUDAODERENSHENSHANGHAIYUXIANSUOTIGONGZHEHOUQIZAODAODAJIBAOFUDEBAOZHANGCUOSHI。

                          SISHIXINWENMEITIZISHENDEZHIYUE。ZHUYAOTIXIANWEIXINWENMEITIZHONGDEQUANQIANJIAOYIYIJIMEITIGONGZUORENYUANDEZISHENSUZHI。

                          四、加强社会舆论监督机制的法律保障

                          (一) 规范政府权力,使舆论监督不错位、不缺位

                          1.政府要放开对新闻媒体的控制

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGFUYAOMINGQUEXINWENMEITIDEXINWENZIYOUQUAN,ZHIYAOXINWENBAODAOBUWEIFA,JIUBUDEGANYU,RANGQISHOUZHONGGUOYULUNSHICHANGDEYINGXIANG,ZIWOFAZHAN、ZIWOWANSHAN。RANGZHENGFUGUANYUANYISHIDAO,XINWENMEITIBUSHITAMENDEGONGJU,ERSHIKEYIYUTAMENXIANGTIBINGLUNDE“DISIZHONGQUANLI”DESHIXIANFANGSHI。

                          2.提高政府的信息能力与责任追究能力

                          YAOJIANQUANXINWENYULUNJIANDUJIZHI,BIXUZUODAOXINXICHUANTONGQUDAOCHANGTONG、XINXIFANKUIYUZERENZHUIJIUJIZHIWANSHAN。RUBUDEKONGZHIHEFABAODAODEFAXING,NAPASHIZHENGFUDEFUMIANXIAOXI;BINGJIANGZHENGFUBUMEN、DANWEIJIQIGONGZUORENYUANNARUYANGEZHUIJIUZERENQINGDANZHONG,FANGZHIQIBULVXINGHUOZHEBUZHENGQUELVXINGZHIZEDEXINGWEI。

                          (二) 完善新闻舆论监督法制

                          1.出台系统性的新闻法律法规

                        星云棋牌官网下载   RUZHIDING《XINWENFA》。WOGUOYIYOUDEGUANYUXINWENMEITIDEFALVGUIDINGXIANGDUIBORUO,CHULEQUESHAODUIXINWENGONGZUOZHEDEZHENDUIXINGDEQUANLIGUIDINGWAI,QIJINZHIXINGGUIFANYEWUTAIDUODEGUIDING,LIRUQUANQIANJIAOYI、YOUCHANGXINWENDENGGUIDINGDOUSHIZAISHANGSHIJIJIUSHINIANDAICHUTAIDE,NEIRONGJIANLVEQIEGENBUSHANGSHIDAIDEFAZHAN,ERHOUJINZAI2005NIANBANBUDE《BAOZHICHUBANGUANLIGUIDING》ZHONGJIANDANTIJIGAIJINZHIXINGGUIDING。YINCI,WOGUOBUJINXUZHENGHE、SHANGAIWOGUOYIYOUDEXINWENXIANGGUANFALV,HAIYAOSUISHIDAIFAZHANZHONGXINZHIDINGXINDEXINWENFALVFAGUI,ZUIZHONGCHUTAIYIBUXITONGDEXINWENFA。

                          2.完善新闻媒体的保护性权利

                          JIZHEQUANSHIXINWENGONGZUOZHEZAIQIRENSHEN、CAICHANQUANLISHOUDAOQINFANSHI,XUNQIUQUANLIJIUJIDEGENJU。YINCI,FALVYINGDANGGUIDINGJIZHEQUANYIJIMINGQUEQINFANJIZHERENSHEN、CAICHANQUANLIDEHOUGUOYIJISHIHOUDECHENGFAYUZHUIJIUJIZHI。

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                          3.完善新闻媒体的限制性与禁止性规范

                          DUIMEITIQUANLIDEXIANZHI。FALVXUYAOGUIDINGMEITIBAODAOBIXUZUNXUNZHENSHIKEGUANDEYUANZE,MEITIDEQUANLIBUNENGYUEJUFALVZHISHANG,XINWENMEITIBUKEYIZHIJIEGANSHESIFAPANJUE,XINWENGONGZUOZHEBUKEYIJIEMEITIWUDAOYULUNDEFANGXIANG,FALVYINGDUIXIANGYOUQUANLIDETIAOJIANHENEIRONGYIJIQUANLIDEFANWEI、XINGSHIDECHENGXU、WEIFANFALVDEHOUGUODENGXIANGGUANWENTIYUYIGUIDING。[5]ZHENDUIDANGQIANWOGUODEGUOQING,KEYIJIEJIANMEIGUODEZUOFA:XINWENCHUANBOJIANSHOUSHENERWEIJIEYUANZE。ZHEIYIYUANZEZHUYAOSHIZHIZAISUSONGJINXINGZHISHI,BUDECHUBANZHENDUIFATINGHEFAGUANDEPIPING,BUDEFABIAOWEIJIAZHENGSHIDEYOUGUANANQINGDEXIAOXI。ZHEIYIYUANZEJIBIMIANLEYULUNDUISIFASHENPANDEGANRAO,YOUBAOZHENGLESIFADEQUANWEIXING。

                          DUIMEITIQUANLIDEJINZHI。RUYOUCHANGXINWEN、JIZHEQIAOZHALESUODENGQUANQIANJIAOYIDEXIANXIANGDOUXUYAOFALVDEYANLIDAJI。2006NIAN,MEIGUOYANLIPENGJI77JIADIANSHITAIDE“YOUCHANGXINWEN”SHIJIANHOU,JIBENXIAOMIELEYOUCHANGXINWEN,QIGENBENYUANYINZAIYU“XINGYEZILV”。YINWEIMEIGUODEJIZHEYIDANWEIFANXINWENGONGZUOGUIDING,XINWENDANWEIHUIHAOBUYOUYUDIJIANGQIKAICHU,BODUOQIYIQIANHUODEDESUOYOURONGYU,BINGGONGKAIXIANGDUZHEDAOQIAN。[6]YUMEIGUOXIANGBI,WOGUODUIXINWENGONGZUOZHEBAODAOYOUCHANGXINWENDECHUFAJIAOQING,ZAI《XINWENJIZHEZHENGGUANLIBANFA》DI35TIAOZHONGGUIDINGDECHUFANEIRONGJINSHIJINGGAO、FAKUAN,QINGJIEYANZHONGZHEZHUXIAOXINWENJIZHEZHENG。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YINCI,WOGUOYINGZHIDING《XINWENFA》,JIANGXINWENGONGZUOZHEDEQUANLIYUYIWU、YUNXUYUJINZHI、BAOHUYUCHUFADENEIRONGJINXINGMINGQUEGUIDING,CAINENGSUQINGXINWENMEITIDEBULIANGFENGQI,TUIJINYULUNJIANDUFAZHIDEWANSHAN。

                          参考文献

                          [1]周甲禄.舆论监督权论[M].山东:山东人民出版社,2006:25-26.
                          [2] 苑子熙.美国新闻自由探析[M].北京:中国广播电视出版社,1985. 1.
                          [3]让·雅克·卢梭.社会契约论[M].杨国政,译.西安:陕西人民出版社,2006.
                          [4]高钢.扞卫新闻真实[J].国际新闻界,2006. 01.
                          [5]胡旗保,江怡.社会舆论监督的法律保障问题研究[J].内蒙古农业大学学报 (社会科学版) ,2007, 06:166.
                          [6] 唐勇.美国:有偿新闻基本被消灭[N].人民网,2005-09-15.

                          赵雅芝.社会舆论监督的法律问题研究[J].法制博览,2019(24):107-108.
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