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                            网络新闻转载常见方式及其法律构建

                            时间:2018-12-17 来源:新闻研究导刊 作者:段平华 本文字数:4278字

                              摘    要: 星云棋牌官网下载当前,我国在新闻作品着作权方面存在立法缺位的现象,导致网络媒体转载存在侵权行为。鉴于此,本文简要分析了网络新闻转载的基本要素及常见的转载方式,引出了网络新闻转载这个话题,并详细论述了制定网络新闻转载法律规制的前提条件,论述了基于着作权制定网络新闻转载法律规制的几点建议,以期引起学术界的广泛关注。

                              关键词: 着作权; 网络新闻转载; 法律规制;

                              BANSUIZHEWANGLUOCHUANBOJISHUDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,XINWENCHUANBODEFAZHANYOUXIAODAPOLESHIJIANHEKONGJIANSHANGDEXIANZHI。DANSHI,SUIZHIERLAIDESHIXINWENZUOPINDEBANQUANQINQUANWENTI。YOUQISHIJINNIANLAISUIZHEWANGLUOMEITIDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,YIBUFENWANGLUOMEITIZAIZHUANZAIQITAWANGZHANHUOZHEQITARENDEXINWENZUOPINSHI,CAIQUFEIFADESHOUDUAN,ZHISHIXINWENZUOPINDEBANQUANQINQUANWENTIYUELAIYUEYANZHONG。ZHEIJIUYAOQIUDUIWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIXINGWEIJINXINGYANGEXIANZHI,KEXUEBAOHUXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEHEFAQUANYI。

                              一、网络新闻转载的基本要素

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YAOXIANGSHENRUTANJIUWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIJIQINQUANXINGWEI,XUYAOLIQINGBEIQINQUANDEZHUTISHISHEI、QINQUANXINGWEIFASHENGDEDIZHI、JUTIQINFANLEHEZHONGQUANYI。

                              (一)新闻作品版权人

                              XINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENZHUYAOZHIDESHIXINWENZUOPINDECHUANGZUORENYUANHUOZHECHUANGZUOWANGZHAN。WANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIQINFANDEZHUYAOSHIXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEHEFAQUANYI。YUQITALEIXINGDEXINWENBUTONGDESHI,WANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIZHUYAOTONGGUOWANGLUODEFANGSHILAIJINXING,NEIMEZHUANZAIXINWENZUOPINDEWANGLUOHUOZHEGERENBIANHUIDUIXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEHEFAQUANYIZAOCHENGSUNHAI。CONGXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEJIAODULAIKAN,TAMENZHUANXIECHULAIDEXINWENZUOPINSHIJISHANGSHIZIJIDELAODONGGUOSHI,BAOHUZUOPINDEBANQUANSHIZHISHANGBIANSHIZUNZHONGTAMENDELAODONGCHENGGUO。[1]

                              (二)网络空间

                            星云棋牌官网下载   WANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIZHUYAOZHIDESHIFASHENGZAIWANGLUOKONGJIANZHINEIDEZHUANZAIXINGWEI。XIANJINBIANJIE、ZHUZHONGYINSIBAOHUDEWANGLUOWEIXINWENZHUANZAIXINGWEITIGONGLECHONGYUDETIAOJIAN。ZHUANZAIXINWENZUOPINDERENYUANJINJINTONGGUODIANJISHUBIAOBIANNENGGOUWANCHENGZHUANZAIDEXINGWEI,JIERSHIXIANCHUANBOXINWENDEMUDE。CIZHONGZHUANZAIDEBIANJIEXING、XUNSUXINGSHIQITAKONGJIANBUNENGSHIXIANDE。

                              (三)精神权利及着作权

                              不合理的网络新闻转载不仅严重侵犯了新闻作品版权人的着作权,还侵犯了他们的精神权利。网络新闻转载侵犯新闻作品版权人着作权的行为主要指的是转载网络或者个人明明知晓新闻作品的具体来源及原创者的联络方式,却不愿意通过支付报偿来使用该新闻作品,一味谋求个人的经济利益。精神权利是新闻作品原创人员或者原创网站的一种合法权利。[2]从新闻作品的版权人的角度来看,所有对原创新闻作品的完整性造成损害或者未经许可擅自修改新闻作品的行为,均属于侵权行为。
                             

                            网络新闻转载常见方式及其法律构建
                             

                              二、网络新闻转载常见的几种方式

                            星云棋牌官网下载   TONGGUOJUTIFENXIGEGEWANGZHANDEXINWENZHUANZAIXINGWEI,WOMENKEYIFAXIANWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAITONGCHANGBAOKUOYIXIAJIZHONGFANGSHI。

                              (一)删除信息及修改信息

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIBUFENWANGLUOMEITIZAIZHUANZAIQITARENDEXINWENZUOPINSHI,WEILEXIYINSHEHUIDAZHONGDEMUGUANG,TISHENGZIJIWANGZHANDEREDU,RENYINIUQUSHISHI,TONGGUOXIANZHEDEGANQINGSECAIHUOZHEKUAZHANGDESHOUDUANDUIYUANXINWENXIANGGUANXINXIJINXINGXIUGAI。CHUCIZHIWAI,WEILEBURANGSHEHUIDAZHONGKANCHUYUANGAOJIANDELAIYUAN,YIXIEWANGLUOMEITIHAIHUISHANCHUXINWENZUOPINDESHUMING,YICIWUDAOSHEHUIDAZHONG。CIZHONGXINGWEISHUYUBUHELI、BUHEFADEXINGWEI,BUJINQINFANLESHEHUIDAZHONGDEZHIQINGQUAN,HAIYANZHONGQINFANLEXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEHEFAQUANYI。

                              (二)重新加工新闻作品的具体内容

                              YIBUFENWANGLUOMEITIZAIZHUANZAIQITARENZHUANXIEDEXINWENZUOPINSHI,WEILEBIRENERMU,HUIGUYIDUIXINWENDEJUTINEIRONGJINXINGZHONGXINJIAGONG。PIRU,XIUGAIXINWENDEBIAOTI、SHANCHUYIBUFENYUJUHUOZHEDUANLUO、DIAOZHENGXINWENNEIRONGDESHUNXU。CONGBENZHISHANGLAIKAN,CIZHONGBIANJISHUYUQIMANXINGWEI,BINGWEIWANQUANZHUANBIANXINWENZUOPINDEJUTINEIRONG。CONGFALVDEJIAODULAIJIANG,ZHEIXIEZHONGXINJIAGONGCHULAIDEXINWENZUOPINBINGBUSHIXINDEZUOPIN,RENGCUNZAIQINFANQITARENZHEZUOQUANDEXIANXIANG。

                              (三)修改新闻的相关链接

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BANSUIZHEWANGLUOJISHUDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,YIBUFENXINWENWANGZHANYUNYONGJISHUSHOUDUAN,CHAOXIQITARENDEXINWENZUOPIN。ZHEIBUFENWANGZHANTONGGUOXIUGAIYUANWANGYEDEJUTINEIRONG,HUOZHEXIUGAIYUANXINWENZUOPINDELIANJIE,CHANCHUXINDELIANJIEDIZHI,CIZHONGXINGWEIYESHUYUQINQUANXINGWEI。

                              (四)完全剽窃其他人的新闻作品

                              YIBUFENWANGZHANHUOZHEJIGOUBUYUANYIHUAFEIJINGLIZAICAIBIANHUANJIESHANG,HUIZHIJIEFUZHIZHANTIEQITAWANGZHANHUOZHEJIGOUDEXINWENZUOPIN,CIZHONGZUOFASHUYUPIAOQIEXINGWEI。CONGZHEIBUFENJIGOUJIWANGZHANDEJIAODULAIKAN,TAMENLIYONGWANGLUOZAIZHENGHEXINXIFANGMIANDEYOUSHI,HUOQULEYOUZHIDEXINXIZIYUAN,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGXIYINLESHEHUIDAZHONGDEZHUYILI,QUEYANZHONGQINFANLEYUANCHUANGWANGZHANHUOZHEYUANCHUANGGETIDEHEFAQUANYI。

                              三、制定网络新闻转载法律规制的前提条件

                              (一)避免限制公众参与

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BANSUIZHESHUZIXINWENSHIDAIDEDAOLAI,XINWENDESHENGCHANJICHUANBOYIJINGBURULECHUANBOZHEYUSHEHUIDAZHONGYOUXIAOHUDONGDEXINSHIQI,SHEHUIDAZHONGYEZHUANBIANCHENGXINWENZUOPINDECHUANBOREN。RUOSHIMANGMUJINZHISHEHUIDAZHONGZAIWANGLUOSHANGZHUANZAIBINGWEIDEDAOBANQUANRENTONGYIDEXINWENZUOPIN,BUJINHUIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGBODUOSHEHUIDAZHONGCANYUXINWENCHUANBODEQUANLI,HAIHUIXIANZHISHEHUIDAZHONGDEZIYOUBIAODAQUAN,ZUIZHONGDUICHUANBODECHENGXIAOCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。[3]YINER,ZAIZHIDINGFALVGUIZHIDESHIHOU,YINGGAIMINGXIZHUANZAIDEZHUTI,BUNENGGOUMANGMUJIANGSHEHUIDAZHONGGUIRUFALVFAGUIDEFANCHOUNEI,ERSHIYINGGAIXIANZHITAMENZHUANZAIXINWENZUOPINDEJUTIXINGWEI,YIMIANDUISHEHUIDAZHONGDECANYUREQINGCHANSHENGFUMIANYINGXIANG。

                              (二)防止造成“草木皆兵”的不良后果

                              FALVFAGUIJUYOUQIANGZHIXINGDETEZHENG,ZAIZHIDINGWANGLUOXINWENJINZHIZHUANZAIDEXIANGGUANFALVTIAOWENSHI,BIXUKAOLVXINWENZUOPINSHENGCHANJICHUANBODEDUTEXING,KAOLVMUQIANSHEHUIDAZHONGCANYUXINWENCHUANBODEFANGSHI、XINWENDEYULUNHUANJING,BUNENGGOUMANGMUZHIDINGSHEJIQUANBUZHUANZAIXINGWEIDEWANGLUOJINLING,ERSHIYINGGAIANZHAOXINWENCHUANBODEXUQIUJIWANGLUOMEITIDEJUTITEZHENG,ZHIDINGJUYOUKEXINGXINGDEFALVFAGUI,BAOZHENGQISHIYONGYUMUQIANWANGLUOMEITIDEFAZHANQUSHI。

                              四、基于着作权制定网络新闻转载法律规制的几点建议

                              (一)严格设限

                              WOGUOZAIJIEJIANSIFASHIJIANHUODONGJIGUOWAILIFAJINGYANDEQIANTIXIA,ZHIDINGLEYIBUFENYONGLAIWEIHUXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENHEFAQUANYIDEGUIDING,ZHIZAIJUNHENGGEGELIYIQUNTIDEHEFAQUANYI,GOUJIANJIANKANGYOUXUDEJINGZHENGZHIXU。RANER,ZAIXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG,BUJINCUNZAIFEIFAZHUANZAIDEXINGWEI,HAIBANYANZHEZHONGJIEDEJIAOSE。ZHEIXIEWANGLUOMEITILIYONGFALVFAGUIZAIQINQUANRENDINGFANGMIANDELOUDONG,CAIQUGEZHONGXINGWEILAIGUIBIQINQUAN,ZHEIWEIXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEWEIQUANDAILAILEJIAODADEKUNNAN。YINER,ZAIZHIDINGFALVGUIZHIDESHIHOU,BIXUKAOLVDAOXINWENZUOPINBANQUANDEDUTEXING,SHEZHIYANGEDEJIEXIAN。

                              (二)界定相关概念

                              DANGQIAN,WOGUOZAIWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIXIANGGUANDEFALVTIAOWENZHONG,YIBUFENGUIDINGCUNZAIGAINIANQUESHIDEXIANXIANG,RUSHISHIXINWEN。GENJUWOGUOYIWANGZHIDINGDEFALVFAGUI,SHISHIXINWENBINGWEISHOUDAO《ZHEZUOQUANFA》DEBAOHU。YINER,YIBUFENWANGLUOMEITILIYONGZHEIFANGMIANDELOUDONG,JIANGQITALEIXINGDEXINWENZUOPINSHEZHICHENGSHISHIXINWENJINXINGZHUANZAI。WEILEJIEJUECIZHONGYANZHONGWENTI,BIXUMINGXISHISHIXINWENDEJIEXIAN。PIRU,DUIRONGYICHANSHENGQIYIDESHISHIXINWENDEXIANGGUANGAINIANJINXINGXIUGAI,DUIQIJINXINGBUCHONGSHUOMING,HUOZHEJIANGQIXIUGAICHENGCHUNCUIDESHISHIXIAOXI。

                              (三)明确侵权的标准

                            星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOZAIRENDINGWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAISHIFOUCUNZAIQINQUANXINGWEIDESHIHOU,XUYAOJINGGUOFUZADECHENGXUJIBIAOZHUN,TONGCHANGZAIQINQUANFASHENGZHIHOUDEHENZHANGYIDUANSHIJIANZHIHOU,CAINENGGOUZHENZHENGWEIHUXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEHEFAQUANYI。[4]YINER,XIANGGUANFALVFAGUIYINGGAIGUIDINGZHIYAOWANGLUOMEITIZAIZHUANZAIDEGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAIWEIFAXINGWEIHUOZHECUNZAIQINQUANDEKENENG,BIANKEYIRENDINGQIQINQUAN,BINGZELINGQICHENGDANGXIANGYINGDEZEREN。CIZHONGJIANGSHIHOURENDINGZHUANBIANCHENGSHIQIANYUPANRENDINGDEZUOFA,NENGGOUZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGBAOHUXINWENZUOPINBANQUANRENDEHEFAQUANYI,JIANQINGSHENZHIBIMIANTAMENDESUNSHI。

                              (四)选择平衡各方利益的价值取向

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XINWENZUOPINYUANBENBIANSHIGEFANGLIYIDEMAODUNZONGHETI,ZUIZHUYAODEMAODUNBIANSHIGONGZHONGLIYIYUGERENLIYIZHIJIANDEMAODUN,ERZHEZHIJIANDEMAODUNGUANCHUANZHIZHEZUOQUANLIFAJISHISHIDEQUANGUOCHENG,SHIYIZHONGBAOHANZHEQIANGLIEGONGZHONGLIYISHUXINGDEXIANGDUIQUAN。CIZHONGXIANGDUIQUANZUIZHUYAODEYIGEBIAOXIANBIANSHIJIBAOHUXINWENZUOPINDEZHEZUOQUAN,YOUXIANZHIXINWENZUOPINDEZHEZUOQUAN。“BAOHU”SHIWEILEDIAODONGSHEHUIDAZHONGYOUQISHIZHEZUOQUANRENDEGERENCHUANGZAOLI,“XIANZHI”SHIWEILESHEHUIDAZHONGNENGGOUXUNSUHUOQUDAOXIANGYINGDEXINWENXINXI,SHIXIANSHEHUIDAZHONGDEXINXIZHIQINGQUAN。[5]DANCICHUXUYAOZHICHUDESHI,GUODUDEBAOHUHUOZHEXIANZHIJUNHUIFANGAIZHEZUOQUANDEZUIZHONGMUBIAODESHIXIAN。ZHEIYANGDEHUA,ZAI“BAOHU”HE“XIANZHI”DEGUOCHENGZHONGBIANCUNZAISHIDUDEWENTI。RUHEZHENGQUEBAWOHAOXINWENZUOPINZHEZUOQUANDEBIANJIE,ZUIZHUYAODESHIZHANGWOHAOGERENLIYIHEGONGZHONGLIYIZHIJIANDEJUNHENGDIAN,ERZHEIGEJUNHENGDIANDEXUANZEZUIZHONGQUJUEYULIFAZHESUOYIZHAODELIFAJIAZHIQUXIANG。RUOSHILIFAYIZHAODEJIAZHIQUXIANGCHUYUBUDUANBIANHUADEZHUANGTAI,XIANGGUANDEFALVGUIZEJIANGHUICHUXIANSUIYIBIANDONGDEQINGKUANG。CIZHONGBIANDONGJIYIZHISHIGEFANGDELIYICHUXIANSHIHENGDEXIANXIANG,JIERCHUXIANSHIJIDEQUANYIJIUFEN。

                              (五)创新网络转载许可制度

                              CONGWOGUOXIANXING《ZHEZUOQUANFA》DEGUIDINGLAIKAN,YUZHEZUOQUANHELISHIYONGXIANGGUANDEZHIDUZHUYAOBAOKUOSHOUQUANXUKE、HELISHIYONG、FADINGRENKE3ZHONGMOSHI。QIZHONG,FADINGXUKEJIHELISHIYONGSHIZHEZUOQUANXIANZHIZHIDUDEYOUJIZUCHENGBUFEN。ZAIZHEI3ZHONGMOSHIZHONG,WANGLUOZHUANZAIDEFADINGXUKESHILIFAWEISHEJIDENEIRONG;WANGLUOZHUANZAIDESHOUQUANXUKEZAILIFAFANGMIANCUNZAIMOHUDEXIANXIANG,QIESHIJICAOZUOGUOCHENGZHONGXUYAOHAOFEIDALIANGDECHENGBEN,YINERBUJUBEIKECAOZUOXING;WANGLUOMEITIDUIXINWENZUOPINDEZHUANZAIYOUYUCUNZAIMINGXIANDEJINGJIMUBIAO,YINERBINGBUSHIYONGYUHELISHIYONG。CONGZHEIGECENGMIANSHANGJIANG,WANGLUOMEITIYAOXIANGHELIHEFADIZHUANZAIQITAWANGZHANHUOZHEGERENCHUANGZUODEXINWENZUOPIN,SIHUNANSHANGJIANAN。RANER,WANGLUOZHUANZAIBUJINNENGGOUYOUXIAOMANZUSHEHUIDAZHONGDEZHIQINGQUAN,HAINENGGOUMANZUTAMENZAIXINWENXINXIFANGMIANDEDUOZHONGXUQIU。YINER,WEIWANGLUOMEITIZHUANZAIXUNZHAOHEFADECHULU,BIANCHENGWEIXIUDINGZHEZUOQUANXIANGGUANFALVGUIZHIDEZHUYAOMUBIAO。

                              (六)回应式修法

                              HUIYINGSHIXIUFAZHIDESHITONGGUOBUCHONGHUOZHEXIUGAIXIANXINGFALVDELOUDONG,BUZUXIANXINGFALVCUNZAIDEQUESHIXIANXIANG。

                              DIYI,ZHEZUOQUANXIANGGUANFAGUIMINGQUEGUIDINGLE“WANGLUOMEITI”HE“WANGLUOZHUANZAI”DEJUTINEIHAN。DANGQIAN,WANGLUOMEITIYIJINGCHENGWEIXINWENZUOPINDEZHUYAOCHUANBOZHE,WANGLUOZHUANZAICHENGWEIXINWENZUOPINDEZHUYAOCHUANBOXINGSHI。RUOSHIBUJIANGWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAINARUZHEZUOQUANDEFANCHOUNEI,BIANCUNZAIWEIFANGONGPINGYUANZEDELIFAJIAZHILINIAN。

                              DIER,WEILEQUEBAOWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIDEJIANKANGYOUXUFAZHAN,BIANXUYAOZAILIFADEGUOCHENGZHONGMINGXIHEZHONGXINWENZUOPINSHUYUZHEZUOQUANFADEBAOHUFANCHOU。YIBANERYAN,WOMENZHUZHANGXIANBA“XINWENZUOPIN”GUIRU《ZHEZUOQUANFA》DEFANCHOUNEI,RANHOUTONGGUOLIFADEFANGSHIDUIXINWENZUOPINJINXINGXIZHIDELEIBIEHUAFEN,BINGMINGXIXINWENZUOPINKESHIWEIMOUYIWANGZHANHUOZHEMOUGEGETIDEBANQUANDEJUTITIAOJIAN,YICIQUFENSHISHIXINWENHEXINWENZUOPINZHIJIANDECHAYI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,ZAIMINGQUE“WANGLUOMEITI”“WANGLUOZHUANZAI”XIANGGUANGAINIANDEJICHUSHANG,SHEZHIGENGJIAHELI、GENGJIAYOUXUDEZHEZUOQUANXIANZHIDU,DUIXINWENZUOPINZHEZUOQUANDEQUANXIANZUOCHUJIEDING,MINGQUEQUFENXINWENZUOPINZHEZUOQUANDEBAOHUFANCHOU。WANGLUOMEITIZAIZHUANZAICHUANTONGMEITISHANGDEXINWENZUOPINSHI,YINGGAIZAIZHEZUOQUANBAOHUDEFANCHOUNEIJINXING,FOUZEBIANKEYISHIWEIQINQUAN。TONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHI,WANGLUOMEITIZHUANZAICHUANTONGZHIZHIMEITIXINWENZUOPINDEHEFAYUFOU,BIANZHINENGCONGXINWENZUOPINZHEZUOQUANXIANZHIDUZHONGXUNQIUYIJU。

                              五、结语

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIZHEZUOQUANSHIJIAOXIA,WOGUOBUFENWANGZHANJIGERENZAIZHUANZAIWANGLUOXINWENSHICUNZAIQINQUANDEXIANXIANG。JIANYUCI,XIANGGUANBUMENYINGGAIZAIJUNHENGGEFANGLIYIDEJIAZHIQUXIANGDEZHIDAOXIA,CAIQUHUIYINGSHIXIUFADEFANGSHI,DUIZHEZUOQUANXIANGGUANFALVGUIZHIJINXINGXIUDING,MINGQUEZHEZUOQUANSHIYONGDEFANCHOU,MINGQUEQINQUANDEBIAOZHUN,CHUANGXINWANGLUOZHUANZAIXUKEZHIDU,ZUIZHONGSHIXIANGUIFANWANGLUOXINWENZHUANZAIDEMUBIAO。

                              参考文献

                              [1]姚海波.关于新闻聚合服务与版权保护的思考[J].出版广角,2016(12):69-71.
                              [2]彭桂兵.网络转载许可制度研究:版权生态学与法哲学的视角[J].南京社会科学,2016(06):113-119.
                              [3] 《新闻作品版权侵权与防范》课题组.我国新闻作品版权保护的现状、问题及对策[J].传媒,2016(10):16-22.
                              [4]王靖.网络环境下新闻作品版权保护困境与对策[J].科技与法律,2016(01):172-185.
                              [5]高峰,郑承友.着作权视阈下新闻作品网络转载秩序构建[J].山东理工大学学报(社会科学版),2017,33(06):44-50.

                              段平华.著作权视角下网络新闻转载的法律规制[J].新闻研究导刊,2019,10(20):57-58.
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