星云棋牌官网下载

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                              学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 行政诉讼法论文

                              行政诉讼一般证明标准的法理定位与构建

                              时间:2018-12-24 来源:政治与法律 作者:徐庭祥 本文字数:22790字

                                摘    要: 作为我国行政诉讼证明标准通说的多元论存在适用混乱、内涵不清等弊端。行政诉讼证明标准具有独立性,应当建构统一的一般证明标准。我国行政诉讼的一般证明标准应以大陆法系通说的真实确信理论为其法理基础;以我国《行政诉讼法》第69条规定的“证据确凿”为制度资源,为其注入引自德国法的“法官心证达到实际生活中必要程度的确信,使心中怀疑沉默,但无需完全排除”之内涵,从而为我国行政诉讼建构内涵清晰的一般证明标准。在一般证明标准基础上,辅以提高或者降低一般证明标准的法理,从而形成以一般证明标准为中心的分层式证明标准,使我国由多元论转向一元分层论,能够在保证证明标准的法之安定性基础上,与证明标准的灵活性形成平衡。

                                关键词: 证明标准; 真实确信理论; 证据确凿; 一元分层论; 廖宗荣案;

                                Abstract: 星云棋牌官网下载As the dominant theory of the standard of proof in administrative litigation in China, the Pluralism has some defects such as disordered application and unclear connotation. The standard of proof in administrative litigation enjoys the independence, so a general standard of proof should be uniformly established. The general standard of proof in administrative litigation in China should be based on the real belief theory of civil law system. The general standard of proof with clear connotation in administrative litigation in China shall be established by taking the "conclusive evidence" stipulated in Article 69 of the Administrative Procedure Law as the institutional resource, and introducing the connotation that "the judges' inner conviction reaches the necessary degree of belief in real life to make their suspicions silent which however it is unnecessary to completely exclude" from the German law to it. On the basis of the general standard of proof,with the help of jurisprudence on improving or reducing the general standard of proof, stratified standards of proof centering on the general standard of proof are formed, which turns the standard in China from Pluralism to Stratified Monism, and can achieve balance with the flexibility of the standard of proof on the basis of ensuring the stability of the law on the standard of proof.

                                Keyword: 星云棋牌官网下载Standard of Proof; Real Belief Theory; Conclusive Evidence; Stratified Monism; the Case of Liao Zongrong;

                                一、多元论及其弊端

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIYIXIANGZHONGYAODESUSONGFAZHIDU,DANGFUJUZHENGZERENZHIDANGSHIRENDEZHENGMINGSHIFAGUANDEXINZHENGCHENGDUDADAOFALVGUIDINGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHI,FAGUANRENDINGDAIZHENGSHISHICUNZAI。LILUNSHANGDETONGSHUORENWEI,WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGYINGDANGCAIDUOYUANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。BIZHERENWEIZUOWEITONGSHUODEDUOYUANLUNYOUQIBIDUAN,YINGDANGTONGGUOJIANGOUWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUYIWANSHAN。

                                (一)多元论的主张与理由

                                对于我国行政诉讼的证明标准,理论通说采多元论。1“根据行政诉讼的特点,《行政诉讼法》应当规定一个多元证明标准体系。”2“行政诉讼证明标准有多元性。不同的行政案件所涉及的权益大小及所适用的程序繁简各不相同,所要求的证明标准也不相同。”3多元论以行政诉讼证明标准与行政程序证明标准存在对应关系作为其理由,认为行政诉讼证明标准为应对不同行政程序证明标准而呈现多元性,“行政诉讼证明标准是从行政程序证明标准转化而来的……由于行政诉讼证明标准与行政程序证明标准存在对应关系,行政诉讼证明标准自然也存在多元性”;4“由于行政案件的特殊性与多样性,证明行政案件事实的方式也具有多样性,不可能适用单一的证明标准”。5由于主张行政诉讼证明标准多元,故多元论反对行政诉讼建构一般证明标准:“行政诉讼证明标准并不统一适用一个标准,而应根据行政行为的种类、性质及对当事人权益影响的大小等因素,来确定具体案件的证明标准。”(6)
                               

                              行政诉讼一般证明标准的法理定位与构建
                               

                                JIUSHIJIANFANGMIANERYAN,SHIWUBUMENPUBIANRENWEIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWUMINGWENGUIDING,“ZHIDINGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDETIAOJIANHAIBUGOUCHENGSHU,YINERJUEDINGZANBUZUOGUIDING”。6SIFASHIJIANZHONGSHIJIANDUOYUANLUNSHIYONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANDUIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEXIANGGUANJIEDUYICAIDUOYUANLUN,“YOUYUBEISUJUTIXINGZHENGXINGWEIDELEIXINGDUOYANGHUA,YUXINGSHISUSONGHEMINSHISUSONGXIANGBI,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYEBUSHIDANYIDE,YINCIYINJUTIXINGZHENGXINGWEIXINGZHIDEBUTONGERYINGSHIYONGBUTONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN……CONGMUQIANDESHENPANSHIJIKAN,DUIYUSHEJIXIANZHIRENSHENZIYOU、DAEFAMEIDENGDUIXINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENRENSHEN、CAICHANQUANYIYINGXIANGJIAODADEJUTIXINGZHENGXINGWEIDEANJIAN,KEYIBIZHAOSHIYONGLEISIYUXINGSHIANJIANDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN;DUIYUXINGZHENGCAIJUELEIXINGZHENGANJIANHEQITAXINGZHENGANJIAN,KEYIBIZHAOSHIYONGLEISIYUMINSHIANJIANDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN”。7

                                (二)多元论的弊端

                                1.造成证明标准适用混乱

                                BIZHERENWEI,DUOYUANLUNCUNZAIMINGXIANDEBIDUAN,ZHUYAODESHIQUESHIFADEANDINGXING,ZAOCHENGWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIYONGDEHUNLUAN。ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBENSHUFALVWENTI,YINGDANGCAIYONGFALVDEYIBANCHOUXIANGXINGSHI,SHIDANGSHIRENHEFAYUANJUNDUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUWENDINGDEYUQI。“YIBANLAISHUO,WEILEBIMIANFAGUANLANYONGCAILIANGQUAN,BAOZHENGFALVSHIYONGDEPINGDENG,BINGSHISUSONGJIEGUOJUYOUKEYUCEXING,ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUFALVSHIXIANJIAYIGUIDING,HUOYOUPANLIXINGCHENGYUESHUXINGGUIZE。”8RANERDUOYUANLUNSHIJIJIANGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDAOXIANGYOUFAGUANYIGEANZIYOUCAILIANG:“KENDINGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGHUOXING,JIFATINGKEYIGENJUFALVHEBENGUIDINGDEYOUGUANGUIDING,BINGKAOLVXINGZHENGANJIANDEXINGZHI、DUIDANGSHIRENQUANYIDEYINGXIANGDAXIAODENGYINSU,ZAIJUTIANJIANZHONGJUTIQUEDINGRENDINGANJIANSHISHIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN”;9“FATINGKEYIGENJUFALVHESIFAJIESHIDEYOUGUANGUIDING,KAOLVXINGZHENGANJIANDEXINGZHI、DUIDANGSHIRENQUANYIDEYINGXIANGDAXIAODENGYINSU,ZAITEDINGXINGZHENGANJIANZHONGJUTIQUEDINGRENDINGANJIANSHISHIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN”。10

                              星云棋牌官网下载   RANER,JIANGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZHEIYIFALVWENTIJIAOYOUFAGUANZAIGEANZHONGZIYOUCAILIANG,DAOZHILESIFASHIJIANZHONGCHUXIANXIANGTONGLEIXINGDEXINGZHENGANJIANSUOSHIYONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNQUEBUTONGDEWENTI,JI“ANYOUXIANGTONG,ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBUTONG”。YOUXUEZHEJINGTONGJIRENWEI:“SIFACAIPANZHEZAI15ZHONGZHUYAOLEIXINGDEXINGZHENGANJIANZHONG,DUIDUOSHULEIXINGDEANJIANSHIYONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWEISANZHONGDAOSIZHONG……KEJIAN,SIFACAIPANZHEDUIYUXIANGTONGANYOUDEANJIAN,SHIYONGBUTONGYAOQIUHENANDUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQINGXINGJIAOWEICHANGJIAN。”11ZHEIDUIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEGONGZHENGXINGCHANSHENGBULIYINGXIANG,“ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBUMINGQUE、BUQINGXI、BUTONGYI,SHENZHIXIANGHUPAICHI,DAOZHISHENPANZHESHIYONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUJIAODAHUORANXING,BULIYUSHENPANGONGZUODEYOUXUKAIZHAN,YINGXIANGRENMINFAYUANDEQUANWEIHESIFAGONGXINLI”。12

                                2.多元证明标准的内涵不明

                                DUOYUANLUNHAICUNZAIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNNEIHANBUMINGDEWENTI。YI“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”BIAOZHUNWEILI,ZHUZHANGDUOYUANLUNZHEDUOJIANG“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”ZUOWEIDUOYUANBIAOZHUNZHIYI。“DUOYUANHUADEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJIEGOUYINGRUHEGOUJIAN?YOUXUEZHECENGZONGJIEXUEJIEDEXIANGGUANTAOLUN,LIEJULE‘ERBIAOZHUNSHUO’、‘SIBIAOZHUNSHUO’DENG,DANWULUNSHIHEZHONGZHUZHANG,QIZHONGDOUKEYIKANDAO‘PAICHUHELIHUAIYI’DESHENYING。”13RANER,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHONG“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”BIAOZHUNDENEIHANBINGBUQINGXI,QIYUXINGSHISUSONGZHONGDE“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”NEIHANSHIFOUXIANGTONGCUNYOUYIWEN,LILUNSHANGWANGWANGSHENGMINGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDE“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”BIAOZHUNYUXINGSHISUSONGZHONGDEBUTONG,DANDUIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONG“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”BIAOZHUNDEJUTINEIHANYOUYUYANBUXIANG。LIRUYOUXUEZHETICHU:“XUYAOZHUYIDESHI,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDEPAICHUHELIHUAIYIBIAOZHUNZONGTIERYANYAODIYUXINGSHISUSONGZHONGDEPAICHUHELIHUAIYIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ZHEISHIYOULIANGZHEDECHAYIJUEDINGDE,DANSHIYOUGUANLAODONGJIAOYANGDEXINGZHENGSUSONGANJIANCHUWAI。”14ZHAOCIGUANDIAN,TONGYIGE“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”BIAOZHUN,ZAIPUTONGXINGZHENGSUSONG、XINGSHISUSONG、LAODONGJIAOYANGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDENEIHANGEBUXIANGTONG,YOUCIZHESHEDESHIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNNEIHANBUQING。ZHEIZAOCHENGSIFASHIJIANZHONGDUOGEANJIANSUIXUANCHENGSHIYONGTONGYIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,RANERSHIJISHIYONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGBUXIANGTONG。15ZHEIYIQINGKUANGTONGYANGBULIYUXINGZHENGSUSONGDEGONGKAIGONGZHENGSHENLI,“YOUYUFADINGDEHELIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQUESHI,SHIWUZHONGYINGYONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDUOWEIFAGUANDEGERENPANDUANERBUNENGWEIRENMENSUOLEJIE,YIZHIYUDUIZHENGJUDECAOZUOJIURUOMINGRUOAN,SHIRENMENDUIXINGZHENGSUSONGCAIPANDEGONGZHENGXINGCHANSHENGHUAIYI”。16

                                3.难以对证明标准的适用进行监督

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DUOYUANLUNBINGWEINENGCHANMINGGEGEBIAOZHUNDESHIYONGTIAOJIAN,CONGERZAOCHENGLEQIANSHU“ANYOUXIANGTONG,ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBUTONG”DEHUNLUANJUMIAN,YIJIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNNEIHANBUQINGDEWENTI,JINERJIANGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWENTIDAOXIANGFAGUANYIGEANZIYOUCAILIANG。ZHEIYANGDEJIEGUOHAIHUIDAOZHILINGWAIYIGEYANZHONGDEWENTI,JINANYIDUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIYONGJINXINGJIANDU。YOUYUQUESHITONGYIMINGQUEDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,SHANGJIFAYUANWUCONGPANDUANXIAJIFAYUANSHIYONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIFOUZHENGQUE,SHANGJIFAYUANYEKENENGZIYIPANDUANXIAJIFAYUANSHIYONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNCUOWU。ZAIMEIYOUTONGYIMINGQUEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQINGKUANGXIA,YISHANGLIANGZHONGQINGKUANGDOUYOUKENENGFASHENG,ZHEIJIUWEIFAGUANZIYILIUXIALEJIAODADEKONGJIAN,SHISHIRENDINGSHIFOUZHENGQUEYIJISHIFOUCUNZAIWANGFACAIPANDEQINGXINGYEWUYIJUZUOCHUPANDUAN。ZHEIYANG,MINGXIANJIANGDILEWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZHIDUDEFAZHIHUASHUIPING。

                                二、建构我国行政诉讼一般证明标准的根据

                                DUOYUANLUNYIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNCUNZAIDUIYINGGUANXIZUOWEIQILIYOU,RENWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWEIYINGDUIBUTONGXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNERCHENGXIANDUOYUANXING。BIZHERENWEI,CIDENGDUIYINGGUANXIBINGWUFALIGENJU,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUYOUDULIXING,YINGDANGJIANGOUWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,JIXINGZHENGSUSONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGWEIYIYUANBIAOZHUN,YITONGYIFALVDESHIYONG。

                                (一)行政诉讼证明标准应当具备法之安定性

                              星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGOUYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEGENJU,SHOUYAODESHIFADEANDINGXINGYAOQIU。ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHUYUFALVWENTIERFEISHISHIRENDING,BINGWUZHENGYI,“ZUOWEIZIYOUXINZHENGZHONGRENDINGSHISHIZHIJIZHUN,YINGJUYOUYIBANSHIYONGXING,ERFEIKERENYIBEIFAN”。17DEGUOTONGSHUORENWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUANZESHANGBIXUGUDINGHUA,“JIYUFALVDEANDINGXING、YUJIANKENENGXINGJIPINGDENGXING,CIJINGZHENGMINGZHIBIAOZHUNYINGCHOUXIANGJUEDING,RUGUOZHENGMINGDUSHIXIANGDUIDE,JIZAIGEANZHONGSHIJUEDINGZHENGMINGDU,SHANGSHUZHIFALVDEANDINGXINGDENGWUFASHOUDAOQUEBAO”。18WOGUOYIYOUXUEZHECHICIGUANDIAN,“JIYUFALVDEANDINGXING、KEYUJIANXINGYIJIPINGDENGSHIYONGXINGDENG,ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGDANGCHOUXIANGJUEDING,XINGZHENGSUSONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUANZESHANGBIXUGUDINGHUA”。19YINCI,TONGGUOJIANGOUTONGYIDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,CAINENGJIEJUEQIANSHUWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDUOYUANLUNDAILAIDEWENTI。

                                (二)行政诉讼证明标准具有独立性

                              星云棋牌官网下载   BIZHEZHUZHANGYINGDANGJIANGOUXINGZHENGSUSONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGYIGEGENJU,SHIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUYOUDULIXING。DUOYUANLUNZHUZHANGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNCUNZAIDUIYINGGUANXI,BINGQIEXIANRANRENWEIXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUEDINGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,“XINGZHENGSUSONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUANYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN”。20YOUXUEZHESHENZHIRENWEIXINGZHENGCHENGXUDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNKEYIBEIFEIZHIYUXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN:“YIDANXINGZHENGZHENGJUZHIDUDEYIQUELI,ZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONG,FAGUANJIUYINGDANGGENJU《XINGZHENGCHENGXUFA》DEZHENGJUGUIZELAISHENCHAXINGZHENGXINGWEI,《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》JISIFAJIESHIZHONGGUANYUXINGZHENGZHENGJUDEGUIFANJIUYINGDANGSHOUZHONGZHENGQINLE。”21RANER,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGFEIYOUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUEDING,YINWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGFAYUXINGZHENGSHITIFAJIANDEGUANXIJUYOUTESHUXING。

                                1.行政诉讼法的独立性决定证明标准的独立性

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                                2.独立的行政诉讼证明标准与多元行政程序证明标准的关系———以“形式审查”标准为例

                                DULIDEXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUDUOYUANXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZHIJIANBINGBUMAODUN。XINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGXINGZHENGJIGUANZAIZUOCHUBUTONGDEXINGZHENGXINGWEISHI,QISHIYONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQUESHIDUOYUANDE。YISHIJIANZHONGDUOFADEGONGSHANGDENGJI“XINGSHISHENCHA”JIUFENWEILI,WOGUO《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI56TIAOHEQITAFALVFAGUIDEXIANGGUANDENGTIAOWENJUNGUIDING,ZHIYAO“SHENQINGCAILIAOQIQUAN、FUHEFADINGXINGSHI”,GONGSHANGBUMENYINGDANGYUYIDENGJI。ZHEIXIEGUIDINGBEIRENWEISHIGONGSHANGBUMENZHIYING“XINGSHISHENCHA”DEFALVYIJU,QIFALVYIYISHIJIWEICAIYONGJIAODIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QIYUWOGUO《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI55TIAOGUIDINGDEYINGDANGGENJUJIANYAN、JIANCE、JIANYIDEJIEGUOZUOCHUXINGZHENGXUKEJUEDINGSHISHIYONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNXIANRANBUTONG,YEYUWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI30TIAO“XINGZHENGJIGUANBIXUCHAMINGSHISHI;WEIFASHISHIBUQINGDE,BUDEJIYUXINGZHENGCHUFA”SUOQUELIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNMINGXIANBUTONG。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SUIRANXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNXIANGHUDULI,DANSHIXIANSHIZHONGXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNHUIDUIXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZAOCHENGYINGXIANG,JIXINGZHENGJIGUANWEIBIMIANZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGBAISU,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHISHISHANGHUIYINGXIANGXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDESHIYONG,“ZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONG,MOUXIANGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQUELIYIWEIZHEXINGZHENGJIGUANZAISHISHIRENDINGSHANGXUYAODADAOTONGDENGDEZHENGMINGYAOQIU,FOUZEFAYUANJIANGZAIPANJUEZHONGDUIQIZUOCHUFOUDINGXINGPINGJIA”。23“ZAIZHIFAGUOCHENGZHONGJIUDEKAOLVWANYIBEISUZHIFAYUAN,RUHENENGGOUYINGDESUSONG。NEIME,ZUIHAODEFANGFAJIUSHIZAIZHIFAZHONGANZHAOSUSONGFADEBIAOZHUNYAOQIUZIJI。”24YINCI,RUOZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGCAIDULIDEYIYUANBIAOZHUN,ZEXUYAOHUIYINGZHEIYANGDEZHIYI:XINGZHENGSUSONGYIYUANBIAOZHUNSHIFOUYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGDUOYUANBIAOZHUNXIANGCHONGTU,CONGERZAOCHENGXINGZHENGJIGUANZAIXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGSHISHISHANGWUFAZAISHIYONGDUOYUANBIAOZHUN,HUOZHEYINZAIXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGHEFADISHIYONGLEDUOYUANBIAOZHUNQUEDAOZHIZAISUSONGZHONGBAISU。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   GONGSHANGDENGJI“XINGSHISHENCHA”JIUFENJIWEISHANGSHUZHIYIDEDIANXINGBIAOXIAN。WEITIGAOGONGSHANGDENGJIXIAOLV,WOGUO《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI56TIAOGUIDINGLEXINGSHISHENCHABIAOZHUN,RANERDANGGONGSHANGBUMENXINGSHISHENCHADEJIEGUOYUSHIJIQINGKUANGBUFU,XINGZHENGXIANGDUIRENHUOLIHAIGUANXIRENYICIWEIYOUQISUYAOQIUCHEXIAOGONGSHANGDENGJISHI,GONGSHANGBUMENYI“SHENQINGCAILIAOQIQUAN、FUHEFADINGXINGSHI”KANGBIANWANGWANGSHIFAYUANZUOYOUWEINAN:YISHIGONGSHANGDENGJIQUEYUSHISHIBUFU,ERSHIGONGSHANGBUMENXINGSHISHENCHAQUEWEIWEIFA,RUGUOYIJUWOGUO《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI56TIAOGUIDINGDEXINGSHISHENCHABIAOZHUNCAIPAN,ZESHISHIRENDINGCUOWUDEBUDAOJIUZHENGERWEIBEISHITIZHENGYI;RUGUOANZHAOGAOYUXINGSHISHENCHADEBIAOZHUNDUISHISHIWENTIJINXINGZHONGXINSHENCHAYIJIUZHENGCUOWU,GONGSHANGBUMENWANGWANGYOUZHUZHANGZIJIBINGWEIWEIFA,RUOBAISUZEHUIZAOCHENGGONGSHANGBUMENDUIRUHESHENCHAGONGSHANGDENGJIWUSUOSHICONG。BIZHERENWEI,SHANGSHUJIUFENDESHIZHIJIUSHIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEXUANZEWENTI,RUGUORENWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGYEZHIYINGDANGXINGSHISHENCHA,ZESHIRENWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYIFUYUWOGUO《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI56TIAOSHEDINGDEXINGSHISHENCHABIAOZHUN,ERRUGUORENWEIYINGDANGCAIYONGGENGGAODEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYIJIUZHENGSHISHIRENDINGCUOWU,ZESHIRENWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUYOUDULIXING。

                                SHIJIANZHONGFAYUANDADUOZHICHILEGONGSHANGBUMENDEZHUZHANG,RENWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYIFUYU《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI56TIAOSHEDINGDEXINGSHISHENCHABIAOZHUN,ZHISHISHISHIRENDINGCUOWUWUFADEDAOJIUZHENG。LIRUZAI“YANGSHENGJITUANYOUXIANGONGSIYUWEIFANGSHIGAOXINJISHUCHANYEKAIFAQUSHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIJUGONGSHANGXINGZHENGCHULIJIUFENAN”ZHONG,YANGSHENGJITUANYIZHANGBANGJUCAIQUWEIZAOGAIGONGSIYINZHANGSHOUDUAN,ZAIHUAIFANGSHIYUANGONGSHANGJUGAOXINFENJUDENGJISHELIWEIFANGFENGONGSIWEIYOU,XIANGFAYUANQISUYAOQIUCHEXIAOGAIWEIFANGFENGONGSIDENGJI。ZAIZHANGBANGJUYINWEIZAOSHANGSHU“YANGSHENGJIANSHEJITUANYOUXIANGONGSI”YINZHANG,YIBEIFAYUANPANCHUFANWEIZAOGONGSIYINZHANGZUIDEQINGKUANGXIA,GAIXINGZHENGSUSONGANDEYISHENHEERSHENFAYUANRENGYIXINGSHISHENCHAWEIYOU,RENDINGGONGSHANGDENGJIHEFA。25NEIMESIFASHIJIANDEZHEIYIGUANCHANGXUANZE,SHIFOUFUHEXINGZHENGSUSONGFADEZHIDUMUDENI?BIZHERENWEISHIBUFUHEDE。CHENGRUQIANSHU,YOUYUXINGZHENGSUSONGFAYUXINGZHENGSHITIFAGUANXIDETESHUXING,XINGZHENGSUSONGFABINGBUCONGSHUYUXINGZHENGSHITIFA,GUXINGZHENGSUSONGFAZHUIQIUQUBIEYUXINGZHENGSHITIFADEFAJIAZHI,XINGZHENGSUSONGFADESHOUYAOSHUXINGSHIJIUJIFAHEJIANDUFA,FAXIANZHENSHI、WEIHUSHITIZHENGYI、BAOZHANGDANGSHIRENHEFAQUANYIDENGJIAZHIZHUIQIUBIRANSHIYOUWEIDE,GUXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGBUYIFUYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,WEILEXINGZHENGXIAOLVDENGERXISHENGXINGZHENGSUSONGSUOZHUIQIUDEDULIJIAZHIBINGWUFALVYIJU。XIANGFAN,XINGZHENGSUSONGFAJIQIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEDULIXING,YOUXIANFASHANGDEQUANLIFENGONGYUANZEZUOWEIQIYIJU。

                                SHIJISHANG,SIFASHIJIANZHONGYEYOUANLIXUANZEZHICHIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEDULIXING。ZAI“QIUZHENYU、YANGXIUYINGYUHAINANSHENGGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJUGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJIUFENAN”ZHONG,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANJINGZAISHENRENWEI:“JIBIANGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJIGUANZUOCHUGAIGONGSHANGDENGJIXINGWEIDECAILIAOQIQUAN、FUHEFADINGXINGSHI,GONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJIGUANYIJINGLVXINGLEXINGSHISHENCHADEYIWU,ZAIQUEYOUZHENGJUZHENGMINGBEISUGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJIGUANZUOCHUDEGONGSHANGDENGJIXINGWEISUOYIJUDECAILIAOSHIXUJIAHUOCUOWUSHI,YEYINGQUERENWEIFA。SHOUXIAN,QUEYOUSHIZHICUOWUDEXINGZHENGXINGWEILIYINGDEDAOJISHIJIUZHENG。QICI,《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGFA》DILIUSHIJIUTIAOGUIDING:‘XINGZHENGXINGWEIZHENGJUQUEZAO,SHIYONGFALV、FAGUIZHENGQUE,FUHEFADINGCHENGXUDE,HUOZHEYUANGAOSHENQINGBEIGAOLVXINGFADINGZHIZEHUOZHEJIFUYIWULIYOUBUCHENGLIDE,RENMINFAYUANPANJUEBOHUIYUANGAODESUSONGQINGQIU。’YIFAJINXINGXINGSHISHENCHADEXINGZHENGXINGWEI,RUGUOSUOYIJUDECAILIAOSHIXUJIAHUOCUOWUDE,XIANRANBUSHUYUSHANGSHU‘ZHENGJUQUEZAO’DEQINGXING,ERYINGSHUYUZHUYAOZHENGJUBUZUDEXINGZHENGXINGWEI。”26

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIGAIANZHONG,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANRENWEIJISHIZAIXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGCAIYONGXINGSHISHENCHADEBIAOZHUN,DANZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGYINGCAIQUBIEYUXINGSHISHENCHABIAOZHUNDE“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”BIAOZHUN,CONGERSHIJIRENKEXINGZHENGSUSONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUYOUDULIXING,BUSHOUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEJUEDING。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   RENGXUSHUOMINGDESHI,DULIDEXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIFOUHUIFANGUOLAIFOUDINGXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHUIQIUDEXINGZHENGXIAOLVDENGJIAZHINI?RENGYIGONGSHANGDENGJI“XINGSHISHENCHA”JIUFENWEILI,DULIDEXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIFOUHUISHIGONGSHANGBUMENBEIPOTIGAOGONGSHANGDENGJICHENGXUZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNNI?BIZHERENWEI,DUIZHEIYIWENTIDEZHENGQUELIJIESHI,GONGSHANGBUMENBUYINGYINXINGZHENGSUSONGCAIQUJIAOGAODEDULIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNERTIGAOGONGSHANGDENGJICHENGXUZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,FOUZEFANERZAOCHENGWEIBEIGONGSHANGDENGJICHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEJIEGUO;GONGSHANGBUMENRENGYINGANFALVGUIDINGDE“SHENQINGCAILIAOQIQUAN、FUHEFADINGXINGSHI”LAIBANLIGONGSHANGDENGJI。ZHEIYANG,XINGZHENGSUSONGJIUBANYANZHELEISI“SHIHOUSHENCHA”DEJIAOSE,ZAIDALIANGDEWEIFASHENGZHENGYIDEGONGSHANGDENGJIDEYIGAOXIAOBANLIDEQINGKUANGXIA,DUILIWAIFASHENGZHENGYIDEDENGJIANJIANSHIYONGXINGZHENGSUSONGDULIDEGENGGAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,JIANGQUEYOUSHISHIRENDINGCUOWUDEGONGSHANGDENGJIYUYIJIUZHENG,CONGERXINGCHENGQIANJIEDUANXINGZHENGCHENGXUGAOXIAODENGJI,HOUJIEDUANSIFACHENGXUBAOZHANGZHENSHIDELIANGXINGJIZHI。YINCI,DULIDEXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGBUHUIFOUDINGXINGZHENGCHENGXUDEXIAOLVJIAZHI,ERSHIYINGDANGJIANLIPEITAOJIZHI,FANGZHIGONGSHANGBUMENYINWEIHAIPAHOUJIEDUANBAISUERBEIPOTIGAOGONGSHANGDENGJICHENGXUZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,LIRU,XIANGGUANKAOPINGHEZHIBIAOYINGQUXIAODUIGONGSHANGBUMENJINDAOXINGSHISHENCHAYIWU,DANGONGSHANGDENGJIYINQUEYUSHISHIBUFUERBEICHEXIAOANJIANDEFUMIANPINGJIA,CONGERSHISHANGSHULIANGXINGJIZHIDEYIZHENGCHANGYUNZHUAN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,YOUYUXINGZHENGFALINGYUSUSONGFAYUSHITIFADEGUANXIYUMINSHIHEXINGSHILINGYUCUNZAIGENBENCHAYI,XINGZHENGSUSONGFABUSHIXINGZHENGSHITIFADESHISHIFA,ERGENGDUODESHIJIUJIFAHEJIANDUFA,GUXINGZHENGSUSONGFAJUYOUDULIDEZHIDUMUDEHEJIAZHIZHUIQIU,ZHEIJUEDINGLEXINGZHENGSUSONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGBUYIFUYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,XINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUYOUDULIXING。YINCIBIZHERENWEI,WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGYINGDANGJIANGOUDULIDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。

                                三、两大法系差异背景下我国行政诉讼一般证明标准的法理定位

                                YAOJIANGOUWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,XUCHANMINGGAIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDENEIHAN。YINGYIFALVZHENSHIERFEIKEGUANZHENSHIZUOWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYISHIGONGSHI,YOUYURENDUIYIFASHENGSHISHIDERENZHINENGLIYOUXIAN,RENHEDUIKEGUANXINGDEXUANCHENGDOUKENENGZHISHIBIAOMIANSHANGDEKEGUANXING。27“ZAIHENDUOQINGKUANGXIA,ANJIANSHISHIDADAOBAIFENZHIBAIDEKEGUANZHENSHIDUIYUSUSONGHUODONGERYAN,JISHIBUXUYAODE,YESHIBUKENENGDE。”28GUZHENGMINGHUODONGYINGYOUFAGUANYIZIYOUXINZHENGYUANZEJINXINGYISHIGONGLUN,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGJURUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》DI55TIAOYEGUIDINGLEZIYOUXINZHENGYUANZE。FAGUANZIYOUXINZHENGDENEIRONGSHISHENME,RENGYOUYANTAODEKONGJIAN,DUICIWENTIDALUFAXIYUYINGMEIFAXIDERENZHICUNZAICHAYI,SHIDEYIGUIFANFAGUANZIYOUXINZHENGWEIMUDEDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZHIFALIDINGWEIYEZAILIANGGEFAXIZHONGCHENGXIANCHAYI。YINCI,WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGYAOJIANGOUNEIHANQINGXIDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,XUZAILIQINGQIFALIDINGWEIDEJICHUSHANGCAINENGJINYIBUCHANMING。

                                (一)证明标准法理的法系差异

                                1.英美法系的盖然性确信理论

                                GAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNRENWEI,SHISHIRENDINGRENGWEIFAGUANDENEIXINQUEXIN,DANFAGUANBUSHIDUIDAIZHENGSHISHIWEIZHENSHIXINGCHENGNEIXINQUEXIN,ERSHIDUIDAIZHENGSHISHIDADAOYIDINGCHENGDUDEGAIRANXINGXINGCHENGNEIXINQUEXIN。“ZHUZHANGGAIRANXINGZHENGMINGLUNZHERENWEI,SUOYOUZHIZHENGMINGJUNSHUGAIRANXINGZHENGMING,YIJI,ZHENGMINGHUODONGJINXIWEIQIUDEYIGAIRANXINGZHIQUEXINERYI,FEIYIDUIZHENSHIYOUSUOQUEXINWEIMUDE。”29

                              星云棋牌官网下载   GAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNZAIYINGMEIFAXIZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI。YIMEIGUOFAWEILI,FALVZHONGZHUYAOYOUSANZHONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN:(1)YOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUN(preponderance of evidence)SHIMEIGUOMINSHISUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QIHANYIWEI“MOUSHIDEFASHENGJIAOQIBUFASHENGYOUGENGGAODEGAIRANXING”;(2)PAICHUHELIHUAIYIBIAOZHUN(beyond a reasonable doubt)SHIMEIGUOXINGSHISUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QISHIZHI“ZHENGMINGDADAOYIJINHUQUEDINGDECHENGDU”;(3)“MINGBAIQIEJUXINFULIDEZHENGJU”(clear and convincing evidence)SHIQIANLIANGGEBIAOZHUNDEYIGEZHONGJIANBIAOZHUN,QIHANYIWEI“MOUSHISHIDEFASHENGJIAOBUFASHENGYOUFEICHANGGAODEGAIRANXING”。30KEJIAN,MEIGUOFAZHONGDESANGEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,JUNSHIJIANLIZAIGAIRANXINGDEJICHUSHANGDE,GUKEYIRENWEI,MEIGUOFASHANGDEFAGUANDEXINZHENGNEIRONGSHIGAIRANXING,“CHENGREN‘ZHENSHIDEFAXIANNAIYIGAIRANXINGDEWENTI’XICHENGSHIDE、HELIDEQIEYOUYIDE;YIGEFATIXIYINGYISUOYAODACHENGDEMUDEJUEDINGZUIJIADEGAIRANXINGZHENGMINGDUBIAOZHUN。”31

                                GAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNDEYOUDIANZAIYU,QIJIJIANCHILEZIYOUXINZHENGYUANZE,YOUSHIFAGUANXINZHENGYINGAIRANXINGDEYINRUERCHENGXIANKEGUANXING,YOULIYUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEMINGQUEXING、QUEDINGXINGHEKECAOZUOXING,YOULIYUFAGUANXINZHENGSHOUKEGUANHUABIAOZHUNDEGUIFAN。BUGUO,GAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNYIZAODAOPIPING:SHOUXIAN,JUTIDAIZHENGSHISHIDEGAIRANXINGWUFAQUEDING,“ZAIDADUOSHUQINGXINGZHONG,ZHENGMINGJIEGUODEKENDINGXINGSHIWUFAJISUANDE”;32QICI,GAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNSHIFAGUANXINZHENGBEILIFAXIANZHENSHIDEMUDE,WEIFANLESUSONGFAHESHITIFA。

                                2.大陆法系的真实确信理论

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNRENWEI,ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGFEISHIGAIRANXINGSHUZHI,FAGUANQUEXINDENEIRONGBUSHIMOUYIDAIZHENGSHISHIYOUDUODAGAIRANXING,ERSHIMOUYIDAIZHENGSHISHIWEIZHENSHI,JIFAGUANPINGGERENNEIZAIGUANDIAN,DUIYUDAIZHENGSHISHIDEZHENSHIXINGCHANSHENGGERENRENTONGDEWUKEHUIBIGAN。ZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNSHIDALUFAXIDETONGSHUO。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   《DEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAODI1KUANGUIDING:“FAYUANYINGKAOLVYANCIBIANLUNDEQUANBUNEIRONGYIJIYIYOUDEDIAOCHAZHENGJUDEJIEGUO,JINGGUOZIYOUXINZHENG,YIPANDUANSHISHISHANGDEZHUZHANGSHIFOUKEYIRENWEIZHENSHI。ZUOWEIFAGUANXINZHENGGENJUDELIYOU,YINGZAIPANJUEZHONGJIMING。”ZAIGAITIAOKUANZHONG,MINGQUEYAOQIUYI“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,LILUNSHANGDETONGSHUOYERENWEIDEGUOMINSHISUSONGCAIZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN,“《MINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAOYAOQIUFAGUANDEWANQUANQUEXIN”。33BINGQIE,DEGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANZAIZHEMINGDE“ANNATAXIYAZHENJIAGONGZHUAN”DEPANCIZHONGMINGQUEFANDUIGAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUN,34YOUDEGUOXUEZHEZAIPINGLUNCIANSHIZHICHU,DEGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANRENWEIFAYUANKEMANZUYU“YIKENDINGXINGWEIXIANDEGAIRANXING”SHICUOWUDE,FAGUANBUYINGDANGFANGQIDUIZHENSHIXINGHUODEQUEXIN。35DEGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANZHEIYIMINGQUEFANDUIGAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNDETAIDU,SHIDECIHOUZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNZAIDEGUOZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI。

                                JIUDEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGERYAN,SUIRAN《DEGUOXINGZHENGFAYUANFA》GUIDINGZIYOUXINZHENGYUANZEDEDI108TIAODI1KUANYU《DEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAODI1KUANYONGYUBUJINXIANGTONG,WEIYOU“SHIFOUKEYIRENWEIZHENSHI”ZHIYONGYU,DANDEGUOLILUNSHANGTONGSHUORENWEI,DEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGYUMINSHISUSONGSUOCAIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNXIANGTONG,YEYI“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。36

                                《RIBENMINSHISUSONGFA》DI247TIAOCUNZAIYU《DEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAODI1KUANLEISIDE“SHIFOUKEYIRENWEIZHENSHI”ZHIYONGYU,GUQILILUNSHANGTONGSHUORENWEIRIBENMINSHISUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNCAIZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN,“FAGUANDUITIGONGDEYIQIEZILIAOYIZIYOUXINZHENGZUOCHUPINGPAN,ZHIDAOQUEXINDANGSHIRENDESHISHIZHUZHANG,CAIRENDINGGAISHISHI。SUOWEIDE‘QUEXIN’JIZHISHEHUISHANGPUTONGRENDEBUJIAZARENHEYINIANDEXIANGXIN。RUGUOBUNENGQUEXINBIANBUNENGRENDINGGAISHISHI,ZUNXUNLIZHENGZERENFENPEIYUANZE,JIANGBULIJIEGUOGUIZHIYUDANGSHIRENMOUYIFANG”。37

                              星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOTAIWANDIQUDEXINGZHENGSUSONGLILUNTONGSHUOTONGYANGCAIZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN,“ZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGSHANGYIJISHUIWUSUSONGSHANG,YIBANTONGSHUORENWEIYINGSHIFAGUANWANQUANQUEXINQISHISHISHANGZHIZHUZHANGWEIZHENSHIZHICHENGDU……YIJICAIQUSUOWEI‘YUANZEDEZHENGMINGCHENGDU’……SHANGSHU‘YUANZEDEZHENGMINGCHENGDU’YEKEWEISHICAIQU‘ZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN’”。38

                                ZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNSUIQIANGDIAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGWEIFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINWEIZHENSHI,DANQIBINGFEIYAOYIZAIJIANGZHENSHIDEQUEXINWANQUANJIAOYOUFAGUANGERENRENYIJUEDING,ERSHIYAOQIUFAGUANXINGCHENGQUEXINYINGJIEZHUYIDINGDEKEGUANHUAGONGJU,SHIQIXINZHENGYINGNENGYUYIGONGKAIWEIWAIJIEZHIXIAO,BINGNENGYIKEGUANHUADEBIAOZHUNJINXINGSHENCHA。YINCI,ZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNBAOHANYIZHONGYAONEIRONG,JIRUHETONGGUOKEGUANHUADEGONGJULAIMIAOSHUHEBIAODADUIZHENSHIDENEIXINQUEXINZHUANGTAI,HOUWENJIANGDUICIJINXINGLUNSHU。

                                (二)我国行政诉讼证明标准的法理定位———大陆法系的真实确信理论

                              星云棋牌官网下载   BIZHERENWEI,WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGDANGYIDALUFAXITONGSHUODEZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNZUOWEIQIFALIJICHU。

                                DANGXIA,YINGMEIFAXIGUOJIAHEDIQUYIZHIDINGLEDALIANGDEFADIAN,DALUFAXIGUOJIAHEDIQUYERIYIZHONGSHIPANLIDEZUOYONG,JINCONGFADIANYUPANLIFADEXINGSHICHAYIRENZHIDALUFAXIYUYINGMEIFAXIDEQUBIE,YIJINGSHIYIZHONGWUJIE。39LIANGDAFAXIZHENZHENGDEQUBIEZAIYUFALVXINGSHICHAYIBEIHOUFALVSHIYONGFANGFADEBUTONG:“DALUFADEZHIDUBUTONGYUPUTONGFAZHIDU,YOURULIXINGZHUYIBUTONGYUJINGYANZHUYI,HUOYANYITUILIBUTONGYUGUINATUILIYIYANG。DALUFADEFALVRENTUILIZIRANDICONGYUANZEDAOGEAN,PUTONGFAFALVRENZECONGGEANDAOYUANZE,DALUFAFALVRENJIANXINSANDUANLUNFA,ERPUTONGFAFALVRENZEXINFENGXIANLI。”40JINGUANDALUFAXIRIYIZHONGSHIPANLIZHIDU,YINGMEIFAXIYEZHIDINGLEDALIANGDEZHIDINGFA,DANLIANGDAFAXIZAIFALVSHIYONGFANGFASHANGDECHAYIBINGWEIGAIBIAN。41YIWOGUODEZHIDAOANLIZHIDUWEILI,DUIZHIDAOANLIDECANZHAOSHIYONGDUOSHIJIANGZHIDAOANLIDECAIPANYAOZHIZUOWEIDAQIANTI,RENGANSANDUANLUNFAZEYUYIZHIJIESHIYONG,ERFEICONGZHIDAOANLIJUTISHISHICHUFASUOJINXINGDELEIBITUILI。ZHEIYIZHUANGKUANGBINGFEIZHIYOUWOGUOCUNZAI,TA“BIAOMINGZHENGGEOUZHOUDALU‘CONGANJIANDAOANJIANTUILI’YISHUZHIJINRENGRANRUHEBUFADADELINGYIGEFANGMIAN,SHINEILIBUJIAPIPINGDISHIYONGZAIFABIAODEPANJUEQIANMIANSUOZAIDE‘PANJUEYAOZHI’”。42CIZHONGDALUFAXIZHIQUPANLIFAZHIXINGSHI,WEIQUPANLIFAZHILEIBITUILISIWEISHIZHIDEXIANXIANG,YETUXIANLELIANGGEFAXIDEGENBENCHAYI。

                                YOUFALVSHIYONGSIWEIFANGFACHAYIJUEDINGLELIANGGEFAXIDESUSONGZHIDUYECUNZAIQUBIE。YOULUNZHEJIJUQIFADIJIANGDALUFAXISUSONGZHIDUCHENGWEI“GUIFANCHUFAXINGSUSONG”,JIANGYINGMEIFAXIDESUSONGZHIDUCHENGWEI“SHISHICHUFAXINGSUSONG”,“DALUFASHICONGGUIFANCHUFADUIDAISUSONG,ERYINGMEIFASHICONGSHISHICHUFALAIBAWOSUSONG,ZHENGSHILIANGZHESIWEICHUFADIANDEBUTONG,DAOZHILELIANGZHEZAIZHIDUCENGMIANSHANGDEZHONGDUOCHAYI”。43ZAIDALUFAXIDEGUIFANCHUFAXINGSUSONGZHONG,SUSONGSHICONGZUOWEIDAQIANTIDEFAGUIFANCHUFAQUFAXIANSHISHI,YINERDAQIANTIFAGUIFANZHONGGUIDINGDE“YAOJIANSHISHI”SHIYIGEZAIXIANDEJUEDUIGAINIAN,XIAOQIANTIANJIANSHISHIZHINENGYAOMEFUHEDAQIANTIYAOJIANSHISHI,YAOMEBUFUHE。GUDALUFAXIBUCHENGRENYAOJIANSHISHIZAIXIANSHIZHONGCUNZAIZHONGJIANZHUANGTAI,FAGUIFANYAOQIUXIANSHIYUGOUCHENGYAOJIANWANQUANFUHECAIHUIDEYISHIYONG。YINCI,DALUFAXIYI“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEIFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINDENEIRONG,“LUOMAXINGSUSONGGUIDINGBIXUCHAMINGYUANGAOZHUZHANGDEQUANLISHIFOUSHUSHI(GUIFANCHUFAXINGSUSONG)……RANGFAGUANQUEXINQISHI,FOUZE,FAGUANBIANBUHUIRENKEQIQUANLI”。44ZAIYINGMEIFAXIDESHISHICHUFAXINGSUSONGZHONG,YOUYUQISHICONGSHISHIZHONGFAXIANFALV,GUYINGMEIFAXIDUI“SHISHI”GAINIANDELIJIEBINGFEIYIFAGUIFANWEIJICHU,ERSHIYIRENDUIXIANSHIDERENZHIZHUANGTAIWEIJICHU,SHIXIANYOUDUISHISHIDERENZHI,ERHOUCAIZAISHISHIZHONGFAXIANGEANZHONGDEFA。45GUZAIRENDUIXIANSHIDERENZHIZHONG,WUKEFOURENDICUNZAI“JIANGXINJIANGYI”DENGRENZHISHISHIDEZHONGJIANZHUANGTAI,CONGERYINGMEIFAXIQUFEN“ZHONGJISHISHI”(ultimate facts)HEZHONGJIANSHISHI,ZHONGJIANSHISHIYIWEIZHESHISHIBINGFEICUNZAIHUOBUCUNZAI,ERSHICHENGXIANYIDINGDEGAIRANXING。YINCI,YINGMEIFAXIRENKEJIANGGAIRANXINGZUOWEIFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINDENEIRONG,BINGYICISHELIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,“SUOWEIZHENGJUYOUYUEDEGAIRANXING,JIZHISUSONGZAIBENLAISHISHIZHONGFAXIANFADERIERMANXINGSUSONGDE(SHISHICHUFAXINGSUSONG)YIZHONGGUANDIAN”。46

                                YINGMEIFAXILILUNSHANGRENWEIYIGAIRANXINGWEINEIRONGSHELIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,GENGFUHEZHENGYIDEGUANNIAN,YINWEIYAOMEQUANYOU、YAOMEQUANWUDESHISHILINIAN,JIANGSHIDEFAYUANDESHISHIRENDINGYAOMEZHENGQUE、YAOMECUOWU,ERRONGXUZHONGJIANSHISHIZEKEYOUXIAOJIANGDIQUANYOUHUOQUANWUSUODAILAIDECUOWUPANJUE,“ZHICHIYI‘ZHENGJUZHIYOUYUE’ZUOWEIZHENGMINGDUBIAOZHUNDELIYOUZAIYUGAIBIAOZHUNYOUYUQITARENHEBIAOZHUNDEZHENGMINGDU,JIANGCUOWUPANJUEDEZONGTICHENGBENJIANGZHIZUIDI”。47CONGGAILIYOUKEYIKANCHU,YINGMEIFAXIDESHISHIRENDINGSHIYAOJINLIFAXIANSHIYONGYUBUTONGGEANDEFA,SHIYAOJINLISHIXIANBUTONGGEANDEGEANZHENGYI,YINCIRENKEGEZHONGBUTONGGAIRANXINGDEZHONGJIANSHISHI,YIFAXIANBUTONGGAIRANXINGZHONGJIANSHISHIZHONGBUTONGDEFAHEGEANZHENGYI。

                                DALUFAXIYUYINGMEIFAXIBUTONG,DALUFAXIDEZHENGYIYIJINGYOUZHIDINGFAYUXIANSHEDING,SUSONGFADEMUDEBUSHIQUFAXIANGEANZHONGDEFAHEZHENGYI,ERSHIJIANGZHIDINGFAYUXIANSHEDINGDEZHENGYISHISHIDAOGEANZHONG,YINCIDALUFAXIDESUSONGFAYAOJIEJUEDEWENTISHIFAGUIFANDEYAOJIANSHISHICUNZAIHUOBUCUNZAI,RUOCUNZAIZEYAOJIANGFAGUIFANGUIDINGDEZHENGYIYUYISHIXIAN,RUOBUCUNZAIZEBUSHIYONGFAGUIFAN,ZHEIQIZHONGJIUSHIQUANYOUHUOQUANWU,MEIYOUZHONGJIANZHUANGTAI。YINCI,DALUFAXIYI“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEIFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINDENEIRONG,YI“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEISUSONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。

                                WOGUOFATIXIHEFAZHIDUZHENGTISHANGSHUYUDALUFAXI,XINGZHENGSUSONGSHISHIDIAOCHAZHIDUYICHAMINGFAGUIFANDEYAOJIANSHISHISHIFOUCUNZAIWEIZHONGXIN,ZHIYOUFAGUIFANDEYAOJIANSHISHIBEIZHENGMINGZHENSHICUNZAI,CAINENGSHIYONGFALV,FALVMEIYOUGUIDINGDANGYAOJIANSHISHICHENGXIANYIDINGDEGAIRANXINGSHIYEKEYISHIYONGFALV。LIRU,ZHIYOUDANGXINGZHENGXINGWEICUNZAIWEIFADESHISHISHICAIHUIBEICHEXIAO,ERFEIXINGZHENGXINGWEIYOU90%DEKENENGWEIFAJIHUIBEICHEXIAO。YINCIBIZHERENWEI,WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGDINGWEIZAIDALUFAXIDEZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN,ERFEIGAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUN,JIANDANJIANG“YOUSHIZHENGJU”HE“PAICHUHELIHUAIYI”DENGYINGMEIFAGAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNBEIJINGXIADEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINRUWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONG,BUFUHEWOGUODESHIJI。

                                四、我国行政诉讼一般证明标准的建构

                              星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELILUNJICHUDINGWEIYUZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN,KEZAICIJICHUSHANGJINYIBUJIANGOUYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDENEIHAN。BIZHEZHUZHANG,YIWOGUO《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》DI69TIAOGUIDINGDE“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”ZUOWEIZHIDUZIYUAN,DUI“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”ANZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNYUYICHANSHIHEJIANGOU,WEIQIZHURUJUTINEIHAN,YIZHIZUOWEIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。

                                (一)以法定的证据确凿标准作为建构一般证明标准的制度资源

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SUIRANPUBIANRENWEIWOGUO《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》WEIGUIDINGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,DANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHINAISHIYIXIANGSUSONGZHIDUWUFAHUIBIDEZHONGYAONEIRONG,“ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZAIGONGBUDE《XINGZHENGZHENGJUGUIDING》(ZHI《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGJURUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》———BIZHEZHU)ZHONGSUIRANWEIZUOGUIDING,DANSHIZAIMEIYIJIANXINGZHENGANJIANZHENGJUDESHENCHAHEYUNYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDOUSUISHISUIDIZAIFAHUIQIZHONGYAOZUOYONG,RENHEYIGEFAGUANHUOZHEJUYOUSIFAQUANDERENYUANDOUBUNENGHUIBIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWENTI。”48YINCISHIJISHANGWOGUO《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》ZAIGUIDINGSUSONGZHONGDESHISHIRENDINGGUIZEFANGMIANBUKEBIMIANDIHUISHEJIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWENTI,FOUZEFAGUANRUHERENDINGDAIZHENGSHISHICUNZAIJIANGWUSUOYIPING。BIZHERENWEI,WOGUO《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》DI69TIAOJIGUIDINGLEFAGUANRENDINGSHISHIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。GAITIAOGUIDING:“XINGZHENGXINGWEIZHENGJUQUEZAO,SHIYONGFALV、FAGUIZHENGQUE,FUHEFADINGCHENGXUDE,HUOZHEYUANGAOSHENQINGBEIGAOLVXINGFADINGZHIZEHUOZHEJIFUYIWULIYOUBUCHENGLIDE,RENMINFAYUANPANJUEBOHUIYUANGAODESUSONGQINGQIU。”KEJIAN,XINGZHENGXINGWEIDUISHISHIDERENDING,YAODADAOZHENGJUQUEZAODECHENGDU,CAINENGBEIFAYUANRENWEIZHENSHI,CIJIDIANXINGDEDUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEGUIDING。BIZHEYU2018NIAN11YUE7RIZAI“ZHONGGUOCAIPANWENSHUWANG”SHANGJIANSUOBAOHAN“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”GUANJIANCIDEXINGZHENGANJIANCAIPANWENSHU,GONGZHAODAO169560GEJIEGUO。KEJIAN,“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”YIJINGSHIWOGUOXINGZHENGSHENPANSHIJIANZHONGGUANGFANSHIYONGDEFALVGAINIAN。BINGQIE,ZAIQIANSHU“QIUZHENYU、YANGXIUYINGYUHAINANSHENGGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJUGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIJIUFENAN”ZHONG,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANMINGQUEJIANG“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”ZUOWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUYISHIYONG。YINCI,BIZHERENWEI“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”SHIWOGUOJIANGOUXINGZHENGSUSONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEXIANYOUZHIDUZIYUAN,MEIYOUBIYAOLINGXINGCHUANGSHEQITAFALVGAINIANHUOBIAOZHUN,ZHEIYANGYOULIYUTONGYIRENSHI,BIMIANCHANSHENGXINDEHUNLUAN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   RANER,HEWEI“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”RENGYOUJINYIBUCHANSHIDEKONGJIAN,“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”BENSHUBUQUEDINGFALVGAINIAN,NENGGOUTONGGUOLILUNCHANSHIHESIFASHIYONGDUIQIZHURUXINDENEIHAN,YIBINGBUZAOCHENGWEIBEI“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”WENYIDEHOUGUO。GUBIZHEZHUZHANG,JIYUZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNDUIZHENGJUQUEZAOBIAOZHUNDEZHONGGOU,WEIZHENGJUQUEZAOBIAOZHUNZHURUZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNDENEIHAN。

                                (二)基于真实确信理论对证据确凿标准的建构

                                CHENGRUQIANSHU,WOGUOZHENGTISHANGSHUYUDALUFAXI,GUBIZHEZHUZHANGWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGDINGWEIYUZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN,JIYINGYIFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINWEIZHENSHIZUOWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。CIZHONGFAGUANQUEXINWEIZHENSHIDENEIXINZHUANGTAI,YINGDANGNENGGOUYUYIGONGKAIWEIWAIJIEZHIXIAO,BINGNENGDUIQIJINXINGSHENCHA,FOUZEJIANGZAOCHENGDUIZHENSHIDEQUEXINWANQUANJIAOYOUFAGUANGERENRENYIJUEDING,CONGERZAOCHENGFAGUANZIYI。YINCI,JIYUZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNJIANGOUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QIZHONGYAONEIRONGJIDUIQUEXINWEIZHENSHIDENEIXINZHUANGTAIYUYIMINGQUEJIEDING。

                                DUIQUEXINWEIZHENSHIDENEIXINZHUANGTAIYUYIJIEDING,DEGUOFADELILUNJUYOUZHONGYAODECANKAOJIAZHI。RUQIANSUOSHU,《DEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAODI1KUANMINGQUEYAOQIUYI“ZHENSHI”ZUOWEIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,LILUNSHANGDETONGSHUOYERENWEIDEGUOMINSHISUSONGCAIZHENSHIQUEXINLILUN。DEGUOSHIJIANHELILUNDUI《DEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGDEQUEXINWEI“ZHENSHI”DENEIXINZHUANGTAIJIUJINGWEIHE,TONGSHUOCAI“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”。GAI“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”,WEIDEGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANSUOCAIYONG,ZAIQIANSHU“ANNATAXIYAZHENJIAGONGZHUAN”ZHONGYUYIQUELI:“FAGUANZAIPANDUANDAIZHENGSHISHIZHENWEISHI,BIXUCHANSHENGZAISHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUZHIQUEXIN,SHIQIXINZHONGHUAIYICHENMO,DANWUXUWANQUANPAICHUZHI。”49DEGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANDEZHEIYIJIANJIE,BEIDEGUOLIANBANGXINGZHENGFAYUANCAINAHEZHICHI,ZAIZHEMINGDE“TUERQIRENZHENGZHIBIHUAN”ZHONG,50DEGUOLIANBANGXINGZHENGFAYUANZHIMINGYIJUANNATAXIYAANQUELIDE“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”JINXINGCAIPAN,GU“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”YIZUOWEIDEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONG“ZHENSHI”ZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDENEIHAN。

                                DEGUOSIFAPANLITICHUDE“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”,WEI《DEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》DI286TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGDE“ZHENSHI”ZHIFADINGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNTIGONGLENEIHAN,FAGUANZHIYAOJIYUSHIJISHENGHUOJINGYANZHONGHUODEDERENZHI,CONGYIBANLIXINGRENDEJIAODU,NENGGOUQUEXINDAIZHENGSHISHICUNZAI,JIKERENWEISHU“ZHENSHI”,ERWUXUDADAOJIYUZHUANYEZHISHIZHIZHENSHI,LIRUWUXUDADAOJIANDINGRENSUORENWEIZHIZHENSHI,“ZAICAIPANSHISHIWENTISHI,FAGUANBINGBUCAIYONGKEXUEDEJICHU,ERSHISHIYONGCONGRICHANGJINGYANZHONGHUODEDERENZHI”。51BINGQIE,SHANGSHUDEGUOSIFAPANLIHAIDUI“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”YUYIJINYIBUCHANSHI,JI“SHIXINZHONGHUAIYICHENMO,DANWUXUWANQUANPAICHU”,CONGERSHIFADINGDE“ZHENSHI”BIAOZHUNZHINEIHANGENGWEIFENGMAN。

                                XUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI,DEGUOYEYOULUNZHEDUI“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”YINRUGAIRANXINGYUYIJIESHUO,LIRUYOUXUEZHETICHU“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”WEI“YIKENDINGWEIXIANDEGAIRANXING”、“GAODUGAIRANXING”HUO“YOUSHIDEGAIRANXING”。52RANERANDEGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANDUIGAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNDEMINGQUEJUJUETAIDU,ZHEIXIELILUNDUIGAIRANXINGDEZHUZHANG,QIJIAZHIZHIZAIYULIYONGGAIRANXINGLAIDUI“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”JINXINGJIESHUO,ERBUSHIYAOJIANGZHENSHIQUEXINTIHUANWEIGAIRANXINGQUEXIN,ZHENSHIQUEXINCAISHIDEGUODETONGSHUO。

                                BIZHEDUI“SHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN”ZUORUXIAPINGJIA。DIYI,YOUYURENDENEIXINZHUANGTAINANYIYONGYUYANZHUNQUEJIEDING,GUSHANGSHUDEGUOZHUZHANGCAIYONGMIAOSHUDEFANGSHIBIAODAQUEXINWEIZHENSHIDENEIXINZHUANGTAI,YIJINGJUYOUZUGOUDEMINGQUEXING,NENGGOURANGRENGANZHIHEGONGXIANGQISUOYUMIAOSHUHEJIEDINGDENEIXINZHUANGTAI,YINCIGAIZHUZHANGJUYOUZUGOUDEGUIFANYIYI,NENGGOUZUOWEIFADINGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZHINEIHAN。DIER,TONGGUOSHIJISHENGHUOZHONGDEPUBIANLIXING,JISHIFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINXIANGDUIKEGUANHUA,QIKEGUANHUACHENGDUZUYISHIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJUBEIKECAOZUOXINGHEKESHENCHAXING,YOUSHIWOMENNENGGOUYONGRICHANGJINGYANFAZEHELUOJIGUIZEDUIFAGUANXINZHENGSHIFOUDADAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJINXINGSHENCHA,BINGQIEGAIKEGUANHUACHENGDUYOUWEISHIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDUNRUGAIRANXINGQUEXINLILUNSHENHUOKEGUANSHUO,JIANCHILEZIYOUXINZHENGYUANZE,JIAOHAODIPINGHENGLEFAGUANNEIXINQUEXINYUFADEANDINGXINGDENGJIAZHIZHIJIANDEZHANGLI。

                                KEJIAN,SHANGSHUDEGUOZHUZHANGCHENGGONGDIJIANGDEGUO“ZHENSHI”ZHIFADINGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJIEDINGZAILEZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNDEQUJIAN,BINGYOUSHI“ZHENSHI”BIAOZHUNJUBEILEZUGOUDEMINGQUEXING、QUEDINGXINGHEKESHENCHAXING,GUBIZHEZHUZHANG,JIANGQIYIZUOWEIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONG“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”BIAOZHUNDENEIHAN。YINCI,BIZHEJIANG“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”JIEDINGWEI,FAGUANDEXINZHENGDADAOSHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN,SHIXINZHONGHUAIYICHENMO,DANWUXUWANQUANPAICHU。JIYUCIJIEDING,BIZHETICHUYI“ZHENGJUQUEZAO”ZUOWEIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。YICIJIEDINGGUANZHI,BIZHEZHUZHANGDEZHENGJUQUEZAOBIAOZHUN,QIDUIZHENGMINGDEYAOQIULVEDIYUWOGUO《XINGSHISUSONGFA》GUIDINGDEPAICHUHELIHUAIYIBIAOZHUN,YINWEIWOMENDUIZHENGJUQUEZAODEJIEDINGWUXUWANQUANPAICHUHUAIYI,JINSHIDEHUAIYICHENMOJIKE。LINGWAI,ZHENGJUQUEZAOBIAOZHUNMINGXIANGAOYUWOGUO《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUMINSHISUSONGZHENGJUDERUOGANGUIDING》DI73TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGDEYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUN,JIJINYIFANGZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGLIYOUYOUSHI,DANWEIDADAOSHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN,WEINENGSHIHUAIYICHENMO,FAGUANWEIXINGCHENGDAIZHENGSHISHIWEIZHENSHIDEQUEXINDE,BUNENGRENDINGDAIZHENGSHISHICUNZAI。

                                五、我国行政诉讼证明标准由多元论向一元分层论的转向

                                DUOYUANLUNPIANMIANDIQIANGDIAOLEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGHUOXINGXUQIU,GUBIZHEZHUZHANGTONGGUOJIANGOUYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,KEFUDUOYUANLUNJIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFAZHIANDINGXINGDAILAIDEBULIYINGXIANG。RANER,YOUSHIJIYUSHITIFAHUOSUSONGFADETESHUKAOLIANG,DEQUEXUYAOJIANGDIHUOTIGAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。GUYOUZHICHIDUOYUANLUNDELUNZHEJIUCONGLINGHUOXINGBUZUDEJIAODUDUIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNTICHUPIPING:“ZAIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGCUNZAIZHEBUTONGLEIXINGDEXINGZHENGJIUFEN,DANYIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNQUEFALINGHUOXING、YINGBIANXING,BUNENGMANZUXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGCHUXIANDEFENFANFUZADEQINGKUANG。”53HAIYOUXUEZHERENWEI:“YIYUANHUADEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNTUXIANLERENMENDUISHISHIRENZHIDEGUODULEGUAN,YEZAIGUIFANYUSHISHIZHIJIANBAOCHULEYITIAOSHENSHENDEHONGGOU。”54

                              星云棋牌官网下载   RANER,YIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYIYOUZENGJINLINGHUOXINGDEFALI,JITONGGUOZAILIWAIQINGXINGZHONGTIGAOHUOJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,YIHUANJIEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNLINGHUOXINGBUZUDEWENTI。YINCI,WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGKEYIZAIJIANGOUYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEJICHUSHANG,FUYITIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALI,CONGERXINGCHENGYIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWEIZHONGXINDEFENCENGSHIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,SHIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUDUOYUANLUNZHUANXIANGYIYUANFENCENGLUN,NENGGOUZAIBAOZHENGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFAZHIANDINGXINGJICHUSHANG,YUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGHUOXINGQUDEPINGHENG。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   BUGUO,LIWAIDETIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,JILIWAIDEBUSHIYONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,XUYAOYOUZHENGDANGLIYOU,FOUZEJIANGDAOZHIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBEIJIAKONG。BIZHEZHUZHANG,YOUYUJUEDINGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDESHISHITIFAJIAZHIHESUSONGFAJIAZHI,YINCIZHIYOUZAISHITIFAHUOSUSONGFAZHONGBIAOMINGSHUYUBUSHIYONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELIWAIQINGKUANG,CAINENGTIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,JITIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGYOUFALVYIJU,YIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFAZHIANDINGXINGYULINGHUOXINGZHIJIANDEPINGHENG,YINGYOUFALVYUYIBAWO,CHUFEICUNZAIXUYAOSIFATIANBUDEFALVLOUDONG。“ZHENGMINGJIANQING,FUWUYUWUQIPINGDENGYUCHENGXUGONGPINGDEMUDE,YUANZESHANGYINGDANGYOUFALVMINGWENCHUANGSHE;JIBIANYUNXUFAGUANJINXINGFALVXUZAO,YEYINGDANGJIYUTEBIEDEHEFASHOUQUANHEBIYAOLIYOU”;55“HAISHIYINGDANGZAITEDINGDEANJIANLEIXINGZHONG,TONGGUOMINGSHIDESHIDINGFAJIESHILUNZHIGENJULAIJIANGDIZHENGMINGDU”。56YINCI,YOUBIYAOCHANMINGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNFENCENGHUADEJUTIFANGSHI,YIYOULIYUSIFASHIJIAN。

                                (一)一般证明标准分层化的方式

                                1.依法律规定

                                GUOGAOHUOGUODIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ZAOCHENGSHITIFAWUFASHIYONGHUOGUOFANSHIYONG,WEIBEISHITIFADEMUDE,“ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,RUGUOJIANGZHENGMINGSHITIFASHANGQINGQIUQUANZHIYAOJIANSHISHISUOBIXUZHIZHENGMINGCHENGDUJIANGDISHI,ZEYIWEIZHEKUODAQINGQIUQUANJICHU,QIJIEGUOYOUGUANSHITIFAGUIDINGZHIFALVXIAOGUO,JINGYIZHENGJUFAZIJIWEIJICHUJIAYIJUEDING,SHIZHISHANGKENENGBIANXIANGBIANGENGSHITIFAGUIDING,ERYOUWEIFANYIFAXINGZHENGYUANZEZHIYU”。57YINCI,SHITIFAHUOSUSONGFAHUIJIYUMOUZHONGMUDEBIAOMINGQITIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEYITU。LIRU,WOGUO《FANLONGDUANFA》DI3TIAODI3XIANGGUIDING,“JUYOUHUOZHEKENENGJUYOUPAICHU、XIANZHIJINGZHENGXIAOGUODEJINGYINGZHEJIZHONG”,SHUYULONGDUANXINGWEI。GAITIAOWEN“KENENGJUYOU”ZHIYONGYU,JIMINGXIANBAOHANJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEYITU。YOURU,WOGUO《FANLONGDUANFA》DI28TIAOGUIDING:“JINGYINGZHEJIZHONGJUYOUHUOZHEKENENGJUYOUPAICHU、XIANZHIJINGZHENGXIAOGUODE,GUOWUYUANFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUYINGDANGZUOCHUJINZHIJINGYINGZHEJIZHONGDEJUEDING。DANSHI,JINGYINGZHENENGGOUZHENGMINGGAIJIZHONGDUIJINGZHENGCHANSHENGDEYOULIYINGXIANGMINGXIANDAYUBULIYINGXIANG,HUOZHEFUHESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDE,GUOWUYUANFANLONGDUANZHIFAJIGOUKEYIZUOCHUDUIJINGYINGZHEJIZHONGBUYUJINZHIDEJUEDING。”GAITIAOWENDIYIJUZHONG“KENENGJUYOU”ZHIYONGYU,YIMINGXIANBAOHANJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEYITU,ERDIERJUZHONG“YOULIYINGXIANGMINGXIANDAYUBULIYINGXIANG”ZHIGUIDING,ZEXIANRANBAOHANTIGAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEYITU,JINGYINGZHEYAOJIANGQI“YOULIYINGXIANGDAYUBULIYINGXIANG”ZHENGMINGZHI“MINGXIAN”DECHENGDU,FANGNENGRENKEGOUCHENGYAOJIANSHISHIDEDAOLEZHENGMING。KEJIAN,FALVTONGGUODUOZHONGBIAOSHUFANGSHI,TIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGYINGZHUYIBIANSHI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   FALVKENENGJIYUDUOZHONGLIYOUTIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。YOUDESHITIFAQINGXIANGYUBAOZHANGBUFUJUZHENGZERENYIFANG,CISHIJIYINGJIAOYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUSUOTIGAO,YIBULIYUFUJUZHENGZERENYIFANG,QIANSHUWOGUO《FANLONGDUANFA》DI28TIAODI2JUJISHICIZHONGQINGKUANG,WEIBAOZHANGXINGZHENGJIGUANSUODAIBIAODEGONGGONGLIYI,GAITIAOKUANTIGAOLEJINGYINGZHEDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。LINGWAI,FALVHAIKENENGJIYUZHENGMINGJULI、WUQIPINGDENG、CHENGXINYUANZEDENGSUSONGFAMUDETIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,XIANYUPIANFUBUZAIYIYIJULI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZHIDEZAICIQIANGDIAODESHI,JIYUXINGZHENGCHENGXUDEXIAOLVJIAZHIERDUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJINXINGDEJIANGDI,BUNENGJUSHUXINGZHENGSUSONG,BUZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGCHANSHENGJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALVXIAOGUO。QIANSHUGONGSHANGDENGJI“XINGSHISHENCHA”JIUFENZHONG,WOGUO《XINGZHENGXUKEFA》DI56TIAODENGGUIDINGDE“SHENQINGCAILIAOQIQUAN、FUHEFADINGXINGSHI”,YIJUYOUJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEYITU,DANGAIGUIDINGSHIDUIGONGSHANGDENGJIXINGZHENGCHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEJIANGDI,BINGQIEJUEDINGGAIJIANGDIDESHIXINGZHENGCHENGXUDEXIAOLVJIAZHI,YINCIGAIGUIDINGDUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEJIANGDIDUIXINGZHENGSUSONGMEIYOUJUSHULI,CIYILEI“XINGSHISHENCHA”ZHENGYIRENGYINGSHIYONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。

                                2.依特殊证明规则

                              星云棋牌官网下载   CHULEFALVDEMINGQUEGUIDING,RUOGANTESHUZHENGMINGGUIZEBEIPUBIANRENWEIBAOHANJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEGUIFANYIZHI,QIZHONGZHUYAOSHIZHENGMINGFANGAIGUIZEHEFAYUANZHUODINGPEICHANGEGUIZE。JIUZHENGMINGFANGAIGUIZEERYAN,DANGYOUYIFANGDANGSHIRENCUNZAIZHENGMINGFANGAIXINGWEISHI,ZHENGMINGFANGAIGUIZEDESHIYONGBEIRENWEIYOUJIANGDILINGYIFANGDANGSHIRENZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALVXIAOGUO。JIUFAYUANZHUODINGPEICHANGEGUIZEERYAN,DANGPEICHANGEZHENGMINGKUNNANSHI,FAYUANZHUODINGPEICHANGEGUIZEDESHIYONGBEIRENWEIKESHIFAYUANJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYIRENDINGPEICHANGE。WOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGJUNGUIDINGLEZHEILIANGXIANGTESHUZHENGMINGGUIZE,XIANYUZHUTIHEPIANFU,BIZHEBUZUOZHUISHU。

                                3.证明困境中的法院裁量

                                CHUQIANSHULIANGDIANYOUFALVYIJUHEFALIGENJU,NENGGOUJIANGDIHUOTIGAOYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQINGXINGWAI,SHIFOURONGXUFAGUANZHENDUIGEANCAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ZHIDEYANTAO。

                                DEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGLILUNSHANGJIBENRENKEFAYUANZAILIWAIQINGKUANGXIACAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QILIYOUZAIYUSIFATIANBUFALVLOUDONGZHIFALI,JIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZAIGEBIEQINGKUANGXIAJIANGDAOZHIBENYINGDEDAOZHENGMINGDESHISHIYINWUFADADAOJIAOGAOZHIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNERBUNENGSHIYONGSHITIFA,CONGERCUNZAIWEIBEISHITIFADIAOZHENGGAIDENGSHISHIDEMUDE,CIDENGQINGKUANGXIAYINGRONGXUFAYUANTIANBUYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALVLOUDONG。58SIFATIANBUFALVLOUDONGZHIFALIGUYOUDAOLI,KEYIZHICHENGSIFAZAIGEANZHONGJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,DANGUANJIANWENTIZAIYUHEDENGSHISHIZHIZHENGMINGKEYOUSIFAJIANGDIBIAOZHUN。RUOGUOYUKUANFAN,JIANGSHIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNXIANGDUIHUA,POHUAIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEANDINGXING。YINCI,ZAIDEGUOSHIJIANSHANG,JINYOUGEBIEANJIANFAYUANRENDINGKEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN:(1)SHOUNACUIPOHAIZHIRENHUOZHANZHENGSHOUHAIZHEDUISUNHAIDEZHENGMING;(2)XUNQIUBIHURENZUGUOFASHENGDEZHISHIQIXUNQIUBIHUDESHISHIZHIZHENGMING;(3)JUFUDAIWUQIBINGYIZHEDE“LIANGXINJUEDING”ZHIZHENGMING。KEJIAN,ZAIDEGUOPANLIZHONG,JINJIANGSIFACAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNXIANDINGZAIJISHAODETESHUANJIANZHONG,BINGQIEDEGUOLIANBANGXINGZHENGFAYUANMINGQUEFOURENDANGSHIRENWUZERENDEBUNENGZHENGMINGZHIGAIKUOQINGXING,BUSHIFAYUANJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELIYOU。59

                                BIZHEZANTONGDEGUOFASHANGBURONGXUJIANG“DANGSHIRENWUZERENDEBUNENGZHENGMING”ZHIGAIKUOQINGXINGZUOWEIFAYUANCAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELIYOU,JICIZHONGQINGXINGBURENWEISHIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALVLOUDONG,YIBIMIANYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGAILIYOUDEFANHUASHIYONGERBEIJIAKONG。ZAIWUFALVYIJUDEQINGKUANGXIA,FAYUANCAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELIYOUYINGJIAOWEIYANGE,BIZHERENWEIZHISHAOYINGDANGTONGSHIMANZU“SHOUYINGXIANGQUANYIDEZHONGDAXING”HE“SHISHIJIUZISHENXINGZHIQUENANYIZHENGMING”ZHEILIANGGETIAOJIAN。QIANSHUDEGUODESANLEIANJIAN,JISHIYINLISHIJIUYUANNANYIZHENGMINGQIESHOUYINGXIANGQUANYIZHONGDA(SHOUNACUIPOHAIZHIRENHUOZHANZHENGSHOUHAIZHEDUISUNHAIDEZHENGMING),YINWUFAFANHUIZUGUOKEGUANSHANGWUFAZHENGMINGQIESHOUYINGXIANGQUANYIZHONGDA(XUNQIUBIHURENZUGUOFASHENGDEZHISHIQIXUNQIUBIHUDESHISHIZHIZHENGMING),HUOZHESHUNANYIZHENGMINGDEZHUGUANNEIXINDONGJIQIESHOUYINGXIANGQUANYIZHONGDA(JUFUDAIWUQIBINGYIZHEDE“LIANGXINJUEDING”ZHIZHENGMING),DUIWOGUOSIFASHIJIANJUYOULEIBICANKAODEJIAZHI。

                                (二)一元分层论的应用:重新审视廖宗荣案

                                YIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJIQITIGAOYUJIANGDIZHIFALI,JIANGSHIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUDUOYUANLUNZHUANXIANGYIYUANFENCENGLUN。GAIZHUANXIANGDEFALVYIYIJIUJINGWEIHE,BIZHENITONGGUOANLIFENXIYUYISHUOMING。LIAOZONGRONGANSHIZHICHIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGCAIDUOYUANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEZHONGYAOANLI,YISHIFAYUANMINGQUEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEANLI。BIZHERENWEI,GAIANYISHENPANJUEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNMEIYOUFALVYIJU,CONGBIZHETICHUDEYIYUANFENCENGLUNJIAODUKAN,GAIANBINGBUFUHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALIHETIAOJIAN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   LIAOZONGRONGANDEJIBENANQINGRUXIA。602005NIAN7YUE26RI8SHI30FEN,YUANGAOLIAOZONGRONGJIASHICHEXIAOJIAOCHE,BEIGAOJIAOJINGERZHIDUIDEZHIQINJIAOTONGJINGCHATAOZUKUNSHIYIYUANGAOKAOLUBIANTINGCHE,ZHICHULIAOZONGRONGZAIDAXIGOUJIALINGJIANGBINJIANGLUJIAYOUZHANDEDAOLUGELIDAIQUEKOUCHU,WUSHIJINZHIZUOZHUANWANJIAOTONGBIAOZHIWEIGUIZUOZHUANWAN。LIAOZONGRONGSHENBIANZIJIWEIZUOZHUANWAN,JINGCHAWEIKANQINGCHU。TAOZUKUNRENWEILIAOZONGRONGWEIFANJINLINGBIAOZHIXINGCHEDESHISHISHIQINGCHUDE,SUIXIANGLIAOZONGRONGCHUJU516HAOXINGZHENGCHUFAJUEDINGSHU。LIAOZONGRONGBUFU,TIQIXINGZHENGSUSONG,QINGQIUPANLINGCHEXIAO516HAOXINGZHENGCHUFAJUEDINGSHU,QILIYOUWEI:516HAOXINGZHENGCHUFAJUEDINGSHUSHIYIMINGJIAOTONGJINGCHAZAIJINPINGGERENZHUGUANYIDUANDEQINGKUANGXIAZUOCHUDE,SHISHIBUQINGQIEMEIYOUZHENGJU。

                                GAIANYISHENPANJUERENWEI:“SUIRANZHIYOUTAOZUKUNYIRENDECHENSHUZHENGSHI,DANZHIYAOTAOZUKUNSHIYIFAZHIXINGGONGWUDERENYUAN,QICHENSHUDEKEGUANZHENSHIXINGDEDAOZHENGSHI,YEMEIYOUZHENGJUZHENGMINGTAOZUKUNYULIAOZONGRONGZHIJIANCUNZAILIHAIGUANXI,TAOZUKUNYIRENDECHENSHUJIUSHIZHENGMINGLIAOZONGRONGYOUWEIFANJINLINGZUOZHUANWANXINGWEIDEYOUSHIZHENGJU,YINGDANGZUOWEIRENDINGSHISHIDEGENJU。”YISHENXUANPANHOU,SHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENJUNWEITICHUSHANGSU,YISHENPANJUEFASHENGFALVXIAOLI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   GAIANZHONG,YISHENPANJUEMINGQUEYIYOUSHIZHENGJUZUOWEIGAIANDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QILIYOUSHIDAOLUSHANGDEJIAOTONGWEIFAZHISHUNSHIXINGZAOCHENGQUZHENGKUNNAN,YINCIBIXUJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,FOUZEBULIYUWEIHUDAOLUJIAOTONGANQUANZHIXU。GAIANDECIYICAIPANYAOZHIYEDEDAOLELILUNSHANGDEZHICHI:“LIAOZONGRONGANPANJUEWEIDAOLUJIAOTONGXINGZHENGCHUFAJIANYICHENGXUANJIANDESIFASHENCHA,YINRULEYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUN。TONGSHIZHENDUIWEIZHANGGUAIWAN、YAHUANGXIAN、MINGLABA、CHAOSUJIASHIDENGDENGWEIFANJIAOTONGXINHAODENG、JIAOTONGBIAOZHI、JIAOTONGBIAOXIANHEJIAOTONGJINGCHADEZHIHUIDENGSHULIANGZHONGDUO、QINGJIEQINGWEIDEXINGWEI,XINGZHENGZHIFAJIGUANHERENYUANZAISHIYONGJIANYICHENGXUSHI,YEKEZUNXUNYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUN。”61SHENZHIYOURENZHUZHANGZAIJIANYICHENGXUZHONGXINGZHENGJIGUANBUYONGSHOUJIZHENGJU:“ZAILIAOZONGRONGYIANZHONG,FAYUANFANGQIDUIXINGZHENGJIGUANRENDINGSHISHIDEZHENGJUDESHENCHA,SHISHISHANGKENDINGLEZAIJIANYICHENGXUZHONG,XINGZHENGZHUTIZAIBUSHOUJIZHENGJUQINGKUANGXIA,DANGCHANGZUOCHUCHUFAJUEDINGDEZHIFASHIJIAN。”62BIZHERENWEI,GAIANYISHENPANJUEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNMEIYOUFALVYIJU,CONGBIZHETICHUDEYIYUANFENCENGLUNJIAODUKAN,GAIANBINGBUFUHEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALIHETIAOJIAN。

                                1.一审判决降低证明标准没有法律依据

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ANQIANSHUYIYUANFENCENGLUNDENEIHAN,YIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNXIFADING,DUIQITIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIYINGYOUFALVYIJU。JIULIAOZONGRONGANERYAN,YIJUWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI33TIAO,SHIYONGJIANYICHENGXUFANERYINGDANGTIGAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。WOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI33TIAOGUIDING,“WEIFASHISHIQUEZAO”CAINENGSHIYONGJIANYICHENGXU,XIANGDUIYUWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI30TIAOGUIDINGYIBANCHENGXUZHONGWEIFASHISHIQINGCHUJIKECHUFADEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,“WEIFASHISHIQUEZAO”XIANRANYAOQIUGENGGAO。BINGQIE,ANZHAOJIANYICHENGXUDANGCHANGCHUFADE,XINGZHENGJIGUANRENGXUSHOUJIZHENGJU,ZHISHIFALVWEIDUIZHENGJUDEXINGSHITICHUYANGEYAOQIU,XINGZHENGJIGUANGONGZUORENYUANPINGJIE“YANJIANWEISHI”YIKEZUOWEIQIXINGCHENGNEIXINQUEXINDEZHENGJU。RANERCISHIXINGZHENGJIGUANGONGZUORENYUANXINGCHENGNEIXINQUEXINDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGWEIJIANGDI,YIWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI33TIAODEGUIDING,YINGDADAOWEIFASHISHI“QUEZAO”DECHENGDU,FANGKEDANGCHANGRENDINGCUNZAIWEIFAXINGWEI,BINGQIEXIANERYIJIANDESHI,XINGZHENGJIGUANGONGZUORENYUANDUIQI“YANJIANWEISHI”DEWEIFASHISHIXINGCHENGNEIXINQUEXIN,CISHIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIFEICHANGGAODE,MINGXIANDADAOLEZHENGJUQUEZAODEXINZHENGZHUANGTAI。YINCI,JIANYICHENGXUDEZHENGMINGFALVGUIZEZAIYIYISHANGBINGFEIJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ERSHIZAIZHENGMINGFANGSHIHEZHENGJUXINGSHISHANGYUNXUXINGZHENGJIGUANCAIZIYOUZHENGMING,WUXUYANGEZHENGMING,BINGQIEYOUYUDUIZHENGMINGFANGSHIHEZHENGJUXINGSHIYAOQIUDEJIANGDI,DANGCHANGCHUFACHENGXUDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNFANERJIAOYIBANCHENGXUYOUSUOTIGAO。ZHEICAISHIANZHAO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》SHANGSHUDEMINGQUEGUIDING,DUIDANGCHANGCHUFACHENGXUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEZHENGQUELIJIE。

                                WOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI33TIAODUIJIANYICHENGXUTIGAOZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,YOUQIZHENGDANGXING。YIJUYIFAXINGZHENGYUANZE,XINGZHENGJIGUANBENYINGXIANQUZHENG,HOUCAIJUE,BINGQIEQUZHENGFANGSHIHEZHENGJUXINGSHIYINGCAIYONGYANGEZHENGMING,YIBEIRIHOUYIZHAOFALVDUIQIJINXINGJIANDU。YOUYUJIAOTONGWEIFAZHISHUNSHIXINGZAOCHENGQUZHENGKUNNAN,GUWUFAKEQIUXINGZHENGJIGUANANZHAOYANGEZHENGMINGHEFADINGZHENGJUXINGSHISHOUJIZHENGJU,DANCISHIBINGFEIYIWEIZHEXINGZHENGJIGUANKEYIBUQUZHENG,XINGZHENGJIGUANRENGXUQUZHENG,DANGCHANGCHUFADEJIANYICHENGXUGUIZEZHISHIYUNXUXINGZHENGJIGUANCAIQUFADINGZHENGJUXINGSHIZHIWAIDEZHENGMINGFANGSHI,GAIANCHACHUJIAOTONGWEIFAGUOCHENGZHONGJISHIRONGXUXINGZHENGJIGUANZHIFARENYUAN“YANJIANWEISHI”。YOUYUZHENGMINGFANGSHIHEZHENGJUXINGSHIYUESHUSHANGDEFANGSONG,WOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI33TIAODUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUYITIGAO,XINGZHENGJIGUANGONGZUORENYUANZHIYOUZAIRENWEIZHENGJUQUEZAOSHIFANGNENGDANGCHANGCHUFA,BAOZHANGLECHAMINGSHISHI、YIFAXINGZHENGDESHITIZHENGYI,ZHEIYILIFAYOUQIZHENGDANGXING,FUHEQIANSHUTIGAOYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALI。YINCI,YIJUWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DI33TIAODEGUIDING,JIANYICHENGXUDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGDANGJIAOYIBANCHENGXUGENGGAO,BINGQIEGAIZUOFASHICHUYUSHITIFAMUDEDEKAOLV,DUIXINGZHENGSUSONGJUYOUJUSHULI,GULIAOZONGRONGANYISHENPANJUEJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNMEIYOUFALVYIJU。

                                ZAIMEIYOUFALVYIJUDEQINGKUANGXIAJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,BIYOUQIBULIYINGXIANG。DUIJIANYICHENGXUSHIYONGYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUNDEBULIANGHOUGUOSHI:BENYINGZUNXUNWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》MINGQUEGUIDINGDEZHENGJUQUEZAOBIAOZHUN,DANQUERONGXUXINGZHENGJIGUANANYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUNZUOCHUDANGCHANGCHUFA,CONGERDADAKUOZHANGLEDANGCHANGCHUFADESHIYONGFANWEI,JINYOUYOUSHIZHENGJUJIKEDANGCHANGCHUFA,CONGERSHIJISHANGGULIXINGZHENGJIGUANSHUYUDIAOCHAQUZHENG,ZAIDUIWEIFASHISHIWEIXINGCHENGNEIXINQUEXINSHIJIKEZUOCHUCHUFA,ZHEIMINGXIANBULIYUDUCUXINGZHENGJIGUANYIFAXINGZHENG。LILUNSHANGDUIGAICAIPANYAOZHIDEZHICHIJIANGZHEIZHONGBULIYINGXIANGFANGDA,“ZAICIANDEZHIDAOXIA,JIAOTONGANQUANGUANLI、ZHIANGUANLIYIJIQITAJUYOUXIANGSIXINGZHIDEGUANLIHUODONGZHONG,ZHIFARENYUANKEYIZAIBUXIANXINGSHOUJIZHENGJUDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIJIESHIYONGJIANYICHENGXUDUIWEIFAXINGWEIZUOCHUCHUFA,ERWUXUDANXINQIXINGWEIHUIYIN‘ZHENGJUBUZU’ERBEIFAYUANCHEXIAO”。63KEJIAN,YOUDELILUNGONGZUOZHEYEXINGCHENGLEDANGCHANGCHUFAYINGDANGFANGSONG,SHENZHIQUXIAODUIXINGZHENGJIGUANDIAOCHAQUZHENGDEYAOQIUZHIWUJIE。QISHI,BUCONGSHANGSHUWOGUO《XINGZHENGCHUFAFA》DEMINGQUEGUIDING,DANCONGYIBANRENDEPUBIANLIXINGYIKEDEZHI,YIBANCHENGXUSHANGQIEYAOQIUCHAMINGSHISHIHOUZAIZUOCHUFAJUEDING,DANGCHANGZUOCHUCHUFAJUEDINGZHIJIANYICHENGXUBIDINGSHIZAIWEIFAXINGWEIZHICUNZAIYIWUXUZHIYIZHIQINGKUANGCAIJUYOUZHENGDANGXING。CIDENGWUXUZHIYIDENEIXINQUEXINZHUANGTAI,BUSHIJIAODIZHIYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUNSUONENGDAZHIDE。

                                2.廖宗荣案不属于需要法院填补一般证明标准漏洞的情形

                              星云棋牌官网下载   CHENGRUQIANSHUYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNFENCENGHUAZHIFALI,RUGUOCUNZAIFALVLOUDONG,FAYUANKEZAIGEANZHONGCAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。NEIMEDUILIAOZONGRONGAN,FAYUANJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNNENGFOUCONGSIFATIANBUFALVLOUDONGDEJIAODUYUYILIJIENI?SHIFOUBUJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJIUHUIDAOZHIJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEIDEBUDAOCHACHUDEBUGONGZHENGJIEGUONI?QISHIBINGFEIRUCI。BIZHERENWEI,ZAIDAOLUJIAOTONGZHIFAZHONG“YIDUIYIZHENGJU”DEQINGKUANGXIA,TONGGUOYINRUBIAOJIANZHENGMING(Anscheinsbeweis),JINENGSHIJIAOJINGYIJU“YANJIANWEISHI”RENDINGDEJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEIDADAOZHENGJUQUEZAODEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   BIAOJIANZHENGMINGGUIZE,SHIDEGUOFATONGGUOPANLIJIANLIQILAIDEYIXIANGTESHUZHENGMINGGUIZE,64SHIZHIFAYUANJIYUYOUYIBANSHENGHUOJINGYANJINGTUILISUODEDEDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,JICONGYICUNZAIDESHISHI,TUIDUANLINGYIDUIYUCAIPANJUYOUZHONGYAOXINGDAIZHENGSHISHIDEZHENGMINGFANGFA。65YILIAOZONGRONGYIANWEILIKEYISHUOMINGBIAOJIANZHENGMINGGUIZEDESHIYONG。DIYI,YOUYUNANYIKEQIUJIAOJINGYOUGENGHAODEZHENGMINGZHUANSHUNJISHIWEIFAXINGWEIDEFANGFA,GUCUNZAIYIGEKEYOUYIBANSHENGHUOJINGYANTUIDEDEDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,JIJIAOJINGZAIRICHANGJIAOTONGZHIFAZHONG,DUIZHUANSHUNJISHIZHIJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEI,YIJIAOJING“YANJIANWEISHI”ZUOWEIRENDINGCUNZAIJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEIDEYIJU,DUIBEICHUFARENDANGCHANGLANTINGYUYICHUFADE,SHIYINBEICHUFARENQUESHICUNZAIGAIJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEI。DIER,YOUYUCUNZAIJIAOJINGTAOZUKUNYI“YANJIANWEISHI”ZUOWEIRENDINGLIAOZONGRONGYOUJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEIDEYIJUZHEIYISHISHI,CIYISHISHIXIANRANSHUYUQIANSHUDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUODEBIAOXIANXINGSHI,GUJIYUQIANSHUDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,ZUYIZHENGMINGLIAOZONGRONGQUESHICUNZAITAOZUKUNSUOZHIJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   BIAOJIANZHENGMINGSHIJISHANGSHUYUYIZHONGTESHUDETUIDING,QISHIZAIZIYOUXINZHENGDEFANWEINEI,YOUJIYURICHANGSHENGHUOJINGYANDECHUDEDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,TUIDINGDAIZHENGSHISHICUNZAI。GU《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGJURUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》DI68TIAODI1KUANDI5XIANGGUIDING,GENJURICHANGSHENGHUOJINGYANFAZETUIDINGDESHISHIFATINGKEYIZHIJIERENDING,JIKEYIZUOWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGBIAOJIANZHENGMINGDEFALVYIJU。LILUNSHANGYIYOUZHUZHANGRENWEIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGYINRUBIAOJIANZHENGMINGBINGBUWEIFA,“WEILEJIANQINGXINGZHENGJIGUANYUTEDINGSHIJIANJUZHENGSHANGZHIFUDANYUKUNNAN,FAYUANTOUGUOSHISHISHANGTUIDING、BIAOJIANZHENGMINGHUODANGSHIRENXIELIYIWUDENGLIFAMINGDINGFAZEZHIYUNYONG,SHICHUFENYAOJIANSHISHIBUZHIXIANYUZHENWEIBUMING,BIMIANJUZHENGZERENCAIPANGUODUFULAN,RENGBUWEIFANJUZHENGZERENFENPEIYINGCHOUXIANGYUDINGZHIFAZHIGUOYUANZEYAOQIU。”66BIAOJIANZHENGMINGDEGONGNENGZAIYUJIANQINGFUJUZHENGZERENDANGSHIRENTICHUZHENGJUZHENGMINGDEFUDAN,BEIRENWEIDUINANYIZHIJIEZHENGMINGDEDAIZHENGSHISHI,ZAIZIYOUXINZHENGDEFANWEINEI,NENGTONGGUOYINRUDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,TONGYANGSHIFAGUANXINGCHENGDAIZHENGSHISHIWEIZHENSHIDENEIXINQUEXIN。

                                YOUYUBIAOJIANZHENGMINGSHUYUZIYOUXINZHENGFANWEINEIDETESHUTUIDING,YINCIKEYITONGGUOFANZHENGTUIFANBIAOJIANZHENGMING。RENGYILIAOZONGRONGANWEILI,RUGUODANGRIJIAOJINGTAOZUKUNBINGFEIRICHANGJIAOTONGZHIFA,ERSHIZHENDUIMOUYIZHUANSHUNJISHIWEIFAXINGWEIDEZHUANXIANGCHACHUXINGDONG,LIRUZHUANWEICHACHUMOUYILUKOUDEWEIGUIDIAOTOUWEIFAXINGWEI,ZEJIAOJINGBUMENYINGSHIXIANZHUNBEIHAOSHEXIANGDENGBIYAODESOUZHENGCUOSHI,CISHIZAIYINANYUSOUZHENGWEIYOUZHUZHANG“YANJIANWEISHI”,ZEBINGFEISHIRICHANGJIAOTONGZHIFAZHONGCHACHUZHUANSHUNJISHIWEIFAXINGWEIDEDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,BUDESHIYONGBIAOJIANZHENGMINGGUIZE。YOURU,YOUZHENGJUZHENGMINGTAOZUKUNYULIAOZONGRONGZHIJIANCUNZAILIHAIGUANXI,CICICHUFASHITAOZUKUNDAJIBAOFULIAOZONGRONG,ZECISHIYIBINGFEIRICHANGJIAOTONGZHIFAZHONGCHACHUZHUANSHUNJISHIWEIFAXINGWEIDEDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO,BUDESHIYONGBIAOJIANZHENGMINGGUIZE。

                                YOUSHANGSHUJIYUBIAOJIANZHENGJUDEFENXI,ZAILAIFANGUANLIAOZONGRONGANDECAIPANLIYOU,HUIFAXIANSHIJISHANGFAYUANBINGWEIYIJUHUOZHEZHISHAOBINGWEIWANQUANYIJUYOUSHIZHENGJUGUIZE,ERSHIYIDINGCHENGDUDICAIYONGLEBIAOJIANZHENGMING,JIBINGFEIDANCHUNYIYOUSHIZHENGJUGUIZEYI“TAOZUKUNCHENSHUDEZHENGMINGLIDAYULIAOZONGRONGCHENSHUDEZHENGMINGLI”ZUOWEISHISHIRENDINGLIYOU,ERSHIYI“TAOZUKUNCHENSHUDEZHENGMINGLIJIASHANGWULIHAIGUANXIDAYULIAOZONGRONGCHENSHUDEZHENGMINGLI”ZUOWEIRENDINGLIAOZONGRONGCUNZAIWEIFAXINGWEIDELUOJI,CI“WULIHAIGUANXI”YAOSUZAIGAIANSHISHIRENDINGZHONGDEZUOYONG,SHIJISHIBIAOMINGBINGWUFANZHENGTUIFANGAIANSHUYUCHACHUZHUANSHUNJISHIWEIFAXINGWEIDEDIANXINGSHISHIJINGGUO。KEJIAN,FAYUANDUILIAOZONGRONGANSHIJICAIYONGLEBIAOJIANZHENGMING,BINGQIEYOUSHANGSHULUNSHUOKEZHI,BUYONGCAIYONGJIAODIDEYOUSHIZHENGJUBIAOZHUN,YIBIAOJIANZHENGMINGJINENGSHIJIAOJINGYIJU“YANJIANWEISHI”RENDINGDEJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEIDADAOZHENGJUQUEZAODEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。YINCI,BINGFEIBUJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJIUHUIDAOZHIJIAOTONGWEIFAXINGWEIDEBUDAOCHACHUDEBUGONGZHENGJIEGUO,ZAIFALVMEIYOUGUIDINGXINGZHENGCHUFAJIANYICHENGXUYAOJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEQINGKUANGXIA,FAYUANBUYINGDANGCAILIANGJIANGDIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZHIYOUSHIZHENGJU。

                                3.启示:一元分层论对一般证明标准拘束力的强调

                                YOUSHANGSHUDUILIAOZONGRONGANDEFENXIKEZHI,BIZHETICHUDEYIYUANFENCENGLUNSHIJISHANGQIANGDIAODEBUSHIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGHUOXING,ERSHIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEGUIFANXINGHEJUSHULI,JIBUNENGSUIYIDIYIZHENGMINGKUNNANWEIYOUERBUSHIYONGYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,ZHIYOUZAIYOUFALVYIJUDEQINGKUANGXIA,CAIYUNXULIWAIDITIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,CIYUZUOWEIWOGUOTONGSHUODEDUOYUANLUNJIANGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDAOXIANGFAGUANZIYOUCAILIANGCUNZAIGENBENQUBIE。

                                六、结论

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZUOWEIWOGUOMUQIANTONGSHUODEDUOYUANLUN,PIANMIANDIQIANGDIAOLEXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGHUOXING,HULVELEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHUYUFALVWENTIDEBENZHI,ZAOCHENGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIYONGHUNLUAN、NEIHANBUQING、NANYIJIANDUDENGBIDUAN。YINGDANGJIANGOUWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,YIBAOZHANGXINGZHENGSHITIFADEZHENGQUESHIYONGHEXINGZHENGSUSONGDEGONGPINGGONGZHENG。YIWOGUO《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》DI69TIAOGUIDINGDEZHENGJUQUEZAOBIAOZHUNWEIZHIDUZIYUAN,JIANGZUOWEIDALUFAXITONGSHUODEZHENSHIQUEXINLILUNZUOWEIQIFALIJICHU,WEIQIZHURUYINZIDEGUOFADE“FAGUANXINZHENGDADAOSHIJISHENGHUOZHONGBIYAOCHENGDUDEQUEXIN,SHIXINZHONGHUAIYICHENMO,DANWUXUWANQUANPAICHU”DEZHENSHIQUEXINNEIHAN,NENGWEIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGTIGONGNEIHANQINGXIDEYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。ZAICIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNJICHUSHANG,FUYITIGAOHUOZHEJIANGDIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFALI,CONGERXINGCHENGYIYIBANZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWEIZHONGXINDEFENCENGSHIDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,SHIWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUDUOYUANLUNZHUANXIANGYIYUANFENCENGLUN,NENGGOUZAIBAOZHENGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFAZHIANDINGXINGJICHUSHANG,YUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDELINGHUOXINGXINGCHENGPINGHENG。

                                注释

                                1我国持多元论的见解,有二层标准说、三层标准说、四层标准说等。参见邓楚开:《行政诉讼证明标准再思考》,《法治论丛》2010年第3期。
                                2章剑生:《行政诉讼法修改的基本立场》,《广东社会科学》2013年第1期。
                                3马怀德、刘东亮:《行政诉讼证据问题研究》,载何家弘主编:《证据学论坛》(第四卷),中国检察出版社2002年版,第220~221页。
                                4同前注(3),马怀德、刘东亮文。
                                5高秦伟:《论行政诉讼的证明标准》《,证据科学》2008年第4期。
                                6同上注,高秦伟文。
                                7最高人民法院行政审判庭编着:《最高人民法院<关于行政诉讼证据若干问题的规定>释义与适用》,人民法院出版社2015年版,第170页。
                                8李国光:《努力开创行政审判工作新局面,为全面建设小康社会提供司法保障》《,最高人民法院公报》2003年第2期。
                                9同前注(5),高秦伟文。
                                10孔祥俊:《行政诉讼证据规则与法律适用》,人民法院出版社2005年版,第226页。
                                11同前注(7),最高人民法院行政审判庭编着书,第173页。
                                12罗重海、禹楚丹、石瑞婷:《反思与重构:论行政诉讼证明标准的类型化构建---以255份裁判文书为研究样本》,载《全国法院第28届学术讨论会获奖论文集》,第1446页。
                                13同上注,罗重海、禹楚丹、石瑞婷文。
                                14张力:《行政诉讼中“排除合理怀疑”的适用语境和路径》《,证据科学》2015年第5期。
                                15曹恒民:《行政诉讼中证明标准的重构》《,法学杂志》2012年第8期。
                                16参见前注(12),罗重海、禹楚丹、石瑞婷文,载《全国法院第28届学术讨论会获奖论文集》,第1444页。
                                17同前注(15),曹恒民文
                                18姜世明:《举证责任与证明度》,厦门大学出版社2017年版,第95页。
                                19吴东都:《行政诉讼之举证责任---以德国法为中心》,学林文化事业有限公司2001年版(台北),第47页。
                                20吴振宇:《行政诉讼中的证据评价与证明标准》《,行政法学研究》2004年第3期。
                                21解志勇、崔晓靖:《行政诉讼证明标准研究》《,证据科学》2008年第4期。
                                22姬亚平:《论行政证据与行政诉讼证据关系之重构》《,行政法学研究》2008年第4期。
                                23江必新:《完善行政诉讼制度的若干思考》《,中国法学》2013年第1期。
                                24同前注(14),张力文。
                                25同前注(22),姬亚平文。
                                26参见山东省高级人民法院(2015)鲁行再终字第5号行政判决书。
                                27中华人民共和国最高人民法院(2016)最高法行申1286号行政裁定书。
                                28参见樊崇义:《客观真实管见---兼论刑事诉讼证明标准》《,中国法学》2000年第1期。
                                29同前注(3),马怀德、刘东亮文。
                                30同前注(18),姜世明书,第114页。
                                31参见黄国昌:《民事诉讼理论之新展开》,北京大学出版社2008年版,第86页。
                                32同前注(31),黄国昌书。
                                33[德]罗森贝克、施瓦布、戈特瓦尔德:《德国民事诉讼法(下)》,李大雪译,中国法制出版社2007年版,第837页。
                                34[德]尧厄尼希:《民事诉讼法》,周翠译,法律出版社2003年版,第262页。
                                35BGHZ 53,245.
                                36[德]穆泽拉克:《德国民事诉讼法基础教程》,周翠译,中国政法大学出版社2005年版,第268页。
                                37参见前注(19),吴东都书,第42页。
                                38[日]中村英郎:《新民事诉讼法讲义》,陈刚林剑锋郭美松译,法律出版社2001年版,第199页。
                                39陈清秀:《行政诉讼法》,法律出版社2016年版,第534页。
                                40参见[美]约翰·亨利·梅利曼:《大陆法系》,顾培东、禄正平译,法律出版社2004年版,第26~33页。
                                41[德]茨威格特、克茨:《比较法总论(上)》,潘汉典、米健、高鸿钧、贺卫方译,中国法制出版社2017年版,第464页。
                                42关于英美法系中判例法和制定法的关系,可参见前注(40),[美]约翰·亨利·梅利曼书,第32页。
                                43同前注(41),茨威格特、克茨书,第474页。
                                44[日]中村英郎:《新民事诉讼法讲义》,陈刚、林剑锋、郭美松译,法律出版社2001年版,第20页。
                                45同上注,中村英郎书,第200页。
                                46参见前注(41),茨威格特、克茨书,第472~473页。
                                47同前注(44),中村英郎书,第199页。
                                48同前注(31),黄国昌书,第87页。
                                49同前注(7),最高人民法院行政审判庭编着书,第170页。
                                50同前注(18),姜世明书,第118页。
                                51BVerwG NVwZ 1985.658.转引自刘建宏:《行政争讼证明度之研究---交通裁决实践诉讼程序中法院裁判证明度问题之检讨》《,中原财经法学》(台北)总第31期(2013)。
                                52[德]穆泽拉克:《德国民事诉讼法基础教程》,周翠译,中国政法大学出版社2005年版,第267页。
                                53参见上注,穆泽拉克书,第267页;前注(19),吴东都书,第48~49页。
                                54同前注(15),曹恒民文。
                                55同前注(14),张力文。
                                56周翠:《从事实推定走向表见证明》《,现代法学》2014年第6期。
                                57[日]高桥宏志:《民事诉讼法:制度与理论的深层分析》,林剑锋译,法律出版社2004年版,第476页。
                                58陈清秀:《行政诉讼法》,法律出版社2016年版,第534页。
                                59参见前注(19),吴东都书,第54页。
                                60参见前注(19),吴东都书,第57~59页。
                                61参见《最高人民法院公报》2007年第1期。
                                62宋华琳:《当场行政处罚中的证明标准及法律适用》《,交大法学》第1卷(2010年)。
                                63周欣:《从廖宗荣案论法院对行政行为的审查》《,黑龙江省政法管理干部学院学报》2008年第2期。
                                64同前注(63),周欣文。
                                65表见证明由判例发展而来,最初由德国帝国法院在十九世纪的海洋冲突法中为“过错推定”创设,后由联邦最高法院继承。自2005年4月1日起,表见证明还被规定在《德国民事诉讼法典》第371a条第1款第二句中。参见前注(56),周翠文。
                                66参见毕玉谦:《试论表见证明的基本属性与应用功能之界定》《,证据科学》2007年第15卷。
                                67李建良:《道路交通违规举发通知单之法律性质、生效与效力》《,兴大法学》(台北)总第19期(2016年)。

                                徐庭祥.论建构我国行政诉讼的一般证明标准[J].政治与法律,2019(12):124-139.
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