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                  学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 行政诉讼法论文

                  滥用行政诉权案件频发的成因与规制措施

                  时间:2018-12-24 来源:兰州教育学院学报 作者:徐菲 本文字数:6241字

                    摘    要: 我国行政诉讼中原告资格认定标准模糊、立法上程序失范、配套制度不完善等原因造成投诉举报人滥用诉权现象普遍存在,其主要表现在为解决民事纠纷纠缠诉讼,针对同类投诉举报事项的相同处理结果反复诉讼。为了避免投诉举报制度偏离其应有的功能轨道,我们应当从立法和司法两个层面对投诉举报人的滥诉行为进行规制,合理配置有限的公共资源。

                    关键词: 滥用诉权; 投诉举报制度; 原告资格; 规制路径;

                    TOUSUJUBAOZHIDUSHELIDECHUZHONGSHIWEILEJIEJUERIYIPENGZHANGDEXINGZHENGRENWUSUODAILAIDEZHIFAZIYUANYOUXIANXINGWENTI,ZUOWEISHEHUIGONGZHILINIANDETIXIANZHIYI,TACHONGFENDIAODONGLEGONGZHONGCANYUDEJIJIXING,TUOKUANLEXINGZHENGJIGUANHUOQUWEIFAXIANSUODEQUDAO,HENDACHENGDUSHANGHUANJIELEZHENGFUBUMENDEJIANGUANYALI。RANER,YOUYUPEITAOZHIDUDEBUWANSHAN,TOUSUJUBAOZHIDURIYIPIANLIQIGONGNENGGUIDAO,CHANSHENGLEZHIDUSHILINGDEXIANXIANG。HENDUOTOUSUJUBAORENWEIBEILIFAMUDE,TONGGUOEYIJUBAOBIANXIANGDUIXINGZHENGJIGUANSHIJIAYALI,YIBUFUTOUSUJUBAOCHULIJIEGUOWEIYOUJIANGXINGZHENGJIGUANSUZHIFAYUANDADAOMOUQIUGERENSIYIDEMUDE。ZHEIZHONGLANYONGSUQUANDEXINGWEIYANZHONGRAOLUANXINGZHENGJIGUANHESIFAJIGUANDEGONGZUOZHIXU,SHENZHIWEIHAILESHICHANGJINGJIZHIXUDEWENDING。12018NIAN2YUE8RISHIXINGDE《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG<ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGFA>DEJIESHI》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《JIESHI》)DI12TIAODI(WU)XIANGDUITOUSURENDEYUANGAOZIGEZUOCHULEYIDINGDEXIANDING,2DANBINGMEIYOUCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUESIFASHIJIANZHONGTOUSUJUBAORENLANYONGSUQUANDEWENTI。YINCI,RUHEZAIBAOHUTOUSUJUBAORENXINGZHENGSUQUANDETONGSHIYOUXIAOBIMIANLANSUXIANXIANGDEFASHENG,YIGENGHAODIFAHUITOUSUJUBAOZHIDUDEYINGYOUYOUSHISHIWOMENJIDAIJIEJUEDEWENTI。

                    一、投诉举报人滥用诉权之表现

                    JIYURENXINGDEBENZHI,CHONGSHANGQUANLIBIRANDAOZHIQUANLILANYONG。SUQUANZUOWEIYIXIANGJIBENQUANLI,BIYOUQUANLIDEGEZHONGSHUXING,GULANYONGSUQUANBUJINZAILUOJISHANGCHENGLI,ZAISHIWUZHONGYEBINGBUSHAOJIAN。[1]SIFASHIJIANZHONGTOUSUJUBAORENLANYONGSUQUANZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

                    (一)为解决民事纠纷纠缠诉讼

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,XINGZHENGSUSONGHEMINSHISUSONGFENGONGBUTONG,DANSHIHENDUOTOUSUJUBAORENJIWANGTONGGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGLAIFUSHEHEJIEJUEMINSHIJIUFEN,NIUQUGONGFAJIBENGEJU,ZAOCHENGDALIANG“GONGQISIYONG”DEXIANXIANGFASHENG。[2]ZAIGUOMOUMOUXILIEANZHONG,GUOMOUMOUYUSHANGHAIJIAFUKOUQIANGMENZHENBU(YIXIACHENGJIAFUMENZHENBU)ZHIJIANFASHENGYIHUANJIUFEN,XIANHOUDUOCIXIANGPUTUOQUWEIJIWEITOUSUJUBAOZHANGMOU、NIEMOUSHEXIANFEIFAXINGYI,YAOQIUDUIQILIANCHACHUBINGCHEXIAOJIAFUMENZHENBUDE《FANGSHEZHENLIAOXUKEZHENG》,YINDUIPUTUOQUWEIJIWEIDECHULIXINGWEIBUFU,XIANHOUXIANGPUTUOQUFAYUAN、PUDONGXINQUFAYUANTICHUDUOQIXINGZHENGSUSONG。JUBUWANQUANTONGJI,GUOMOUMOUJINXIANGPUTUOQURENMINFAYUANTIQIDEXINGZHENGSUSONGJIUYIDA20YUQI3,BINGQIEZAIDUOQISUSONGZHONGWUZHENGDANGLIYOUJUBUDAOTING。WEIBIMIANSONGLEI,SHIZHIJIEJUEZHENGYI,RENMINFAYUANDUOCIZUZHIANWAIXIEDIAOWEIGUO,BINGQIEDUOCIXIANGQISHIMINGJIEJUEYIHUANJIUFENDEZHENGQUEQUDAOSHITIQIMINSHISUSONG,DANGUOMOUMOURENGLANYONGQUANLI,DALIANGTOUSUJUBAO、JIUCHANSUSONG。TOUSUJUBAORENCIZHONGXINGWEIBEIHOUYINZANGDESHIYIZHONG“BAOFUXINLI”,YITUTONGGUOXINGZHENGJIGUANDUIJIAFUMENZHENBUXINGZHENGCHUFASHIZIJINEIXINDEDAOWEIJIE,DANBINGBUNENGCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUERENSHENQUANYISHOUQINHAIDEWENTI。ZHEIZHONGXINGWEIMUDEBUZHENGDANG,JUYOUZIRAOXINGZHI,YANZHONGLANGFEIXINGZHENGZIYUANHEFANGAIFAYUANZHENGCHANGGONGZUOZHIXUDEXINGWEI,YINGRENDINGWEILANSUXINGWEI。

                    (二)针对同类投诉举报事项的相同处理结果反复诉讼

                    此种现象一般多发生于食药监领域的职业打假人身上,所谓的职业打假人是指以投诉举报为职业,通过向行政机关提供违法线索,在行政机关核查处理后,期望获取举报奖励或达到特定非法目的以及获取某种利益的个人或者机构。[3]这些职业打假人具有较强的逐利性,购买商品前就已经知道所购商品存在质量问题,并且大多数情形下商品仅存在微小瑕疵,使用或者食用并不会对消费者人身安全产生威胁。目前比较常见的是商品包装存在的瑕疵,例如在潘某某与上海市普陀区市场监督管理局投诉举报答复案中,4潘某某向普陀区市管局投诉举报称所购巧克力系列商品存在以巴旦木冒充杏仁、标签中未标注巧克力类型的情况,不符合《巧克力及巧克力制品》(GB/T19343-2003)的标准,违反《食品安全法》第七十一条有关食品标签的规定,要求普陀市管局依法查处。当被告知食品标签仅存在瑕疵,不会对消费者造成误导,不影响食品安全,仅要求责令改正后,潘某某仍然于不同时间不同地点反复购买类似商品进行投诉举报,以不服处理结果为由提起行政诉讼。这些职业打假人巧搭“消费者为维护自身合法权益”这一便车,抓住标签这一微小瑕疵炮火连天,其诉讼目的是为了向企业施压,以满足自己的无理赔偿要求,已明显偏离行政诉讼本应具有的救济权利和解决实质争议的功能轨道。当然主观动机是人的内在思想,无法通过外在表现行为予以准确界定,对于职业打假人滥用诉权的判断,应当结合主客观要件以及结果要件谨慎判断,毕竟我国的社会主义市场经济仍处于不成熟的阶段,商家不诚信经营行为仍较为常见,我们不能为减轻司法负担而阻碍真正消费者的维权之路。
                   

                  滥用行政诉权案件频发的成因与规制措施
                   

                    二、滥用诉权案件频发之成因分析

                    (一)原告资格认定标准模糊

                    WUYONGZHIYI,XINGZHENGSUSONGYUANGAOZIGEWENTISHIZUIJISHOUDEFALVWENTIZHIYI。MUQIANWOGUOXINGZHENGSUSONGFAZHONGDUIYUANGAOZIGERENDINGCAIYONGDESHI“LIHAIGUANXIBIAOZHUN”。DANSHI“LIHAIGUANXI”SHIYIGEJIWEICHOUXIANGHUADEGAINIAN,KECAOZUOXINGBUQIANG,ZAIJIASHANGTOUSUJUBAOANJIANSHEJIDUOMIANFALVGUANXI,SIFASHIJIANZHONGYUNYONG“LIHAIGUANXIBIAOZHUN”LAIQUEDINGYUANGAOZIGEGENGXIANJINGJICONGSHENG。LIRUTOUSUJUBAORENZHUZHANGSHOUQINHAIDEMINSHIQUANYISHIDISANFANGSUOWEI,BINGFEISHIXINGZHENGJIGUANDEXINGZHENGXINGWEIBUHEFAZHIJIEDAOZHIDE,YINCITABINGBUMANZU“LIHAIGUANXI”ZHONGDEYINGUOGUANXIYAOJIAN,DANRUGUOSHUOXINGZHENGJIGUANCHULIXINGWEIDEJIERUSHIMINSHIQUANYIZHUANHUAWEIXINGZHENGFASHANGDEQUANYI,NEIMEMINSHISUSONGYUXINGZHENGSUSONGDEFENGONGYOUYINGDANGRUHEJIEFEN?ZHEIRANGRENMINFAYUANZAIRENDINGCILEITOUSUJUBAORENDEYUANGAOZIGESHIBEIGANTOUTENG。2018NIANZUIGAOYUANFABUDE《JIESHI》DI12TIAODI(WU)XIANGWEITOUSUJUBAORENDEYUANGAOZIGESHEZHILE“WEIWEIHUZISHENHEFAQUANYI”DEMENJIAN,DANSHIDUIYUXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGPUBIANCUNZAIDE“ZHIYEDAJIA”XIANXIANG,ZHEIYIBIAOZHUNBINGMEIYOUTAIDADEJIAZHI,YINWEIZAIGOUMAISHANGPINZHEIYI“WEIHUZISHENHEFAQUANYI”DELIANJIEDIANSHANG,ZHIYEDAJIARENYUYIBANXIAOFEIZHEWUYI,CHUFEISHEZHIYIGERENXIAOFEIWEIMUDEDEXIANZHIYAOJIAN。[1]DUITOUSUJUBAORENYUANGAOZIGEDEPANDUAN,HAIYAOHUIGUIDAOGAINIANSHANGMOHUBUQING、PINGPANBIAOZHUNZALUANWUXUDE“LIHAIGUANXIBIAOZHUN”。YINCI,YUANGAOZIGERENDINGMOHUWEITOUSUJUBAORENLANYONGSUQUANDAKAILEFANGBIANZHIMEN,YANZHONGRAOLUANSIFAZHIXU。

                    (二)立法上程序失范

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                    (三)配套制度不完善

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                    三、投诉举报人滥用诉权之规制路径

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                    (一)立法层面

                    1.行政法领域的规制

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                    2.诉讼法领域的规制

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                    (二)司法层面

                    1.正确解读立案登记制的实质内涵

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2014NIAN《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》JIANG“LIANSHENCHAZHI”GAIWEI“LIANDENGJIZHI”,WUYONGZHIYI,GAIZHIDUDENARUDUIYOUXIAOBAOZHANGDANGSHIRENSUQUAN,JIANSHEFAZHIZHENGFUJUYOUZHONGDAYIYI。DANSHIBUFENFAYUANZAIJUTISHISHIDEGUOCHENGZHONGQUEWUDULEGAIZHIDUDESHIZHIYIHAN,WEILANYONGSUQUANDETOUSUJUBAORENDAKAILEXINGZHENGSUSONGDEFAMEN,SHISIFASHIJIANZHONGXINGZHENGANJIANDESHULIANGCHENGJINGPENSHIZENGZHANG。GENJU《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》DI51TIAOZHIGUIDING,“RENMINFAYUANZAIJIEDAOQISUZHUANGSHIDUIFUHEBENFAGUIDINGDEQISUTIAOJIAN,YINGDANGDENGJILIAN。”YOUCIKEJIAN,LIANDENGJIZHIBINGFEIYIWEIZHEDUIANJIANBUYUSHENCHA,YOUANBILI,YUYIDENGJIDEXINGZHENGANJIANHAISHIXUYAOFUHEDI49TIAOGUIDINGDEQISUTIAOJIAN。7DANGRAN,YUXIANQIANLIANSHENCHAZHIXIANGQUBIEDESHI,RENMINFAYUANDUIQISUTIAOJIANDESHENCHAYINGDANGYI“XINGSHISHENCHAWEIZHU、SHITISHENCHAWEIFU”,BINGQIECICHUDESHITISHENCHAZHISHIQIANCHENGDUDESHENCHA,ZHUYAOBAOKUODUIYUANGAOZIGEHESHOUANFANWEIDESHENCHA。LIRU,GONGYIXINGTOUSUJUBAOANJIANZHONG,TOUSUJUBAORENYUJUBAOCHULIXINGWEIBUCUNZAILIHAIGUANXI,BUJUYOUYUANGAOZIGE;TONGSHIJUBAODAFUXINGWEIYEBUHUIDUITOUSUJUBAORENDEQUANLIYIWUCHANSHENGSHIZHIXINGDEYINGXIANG,BUSHUYUSHOUANFANWEIZHILIE,RENMINFAYUANYINGCAIDINGBUYULIAN。

                    2.保护规范理论的引入

                    BAOHUGUIFANLILUNSHIDEGUOGONGFALINGYUDEHEXINLILUNZHIYI,QIHEXINYIZHISHITONGGUODUIFALVGUIFANDEMUDEJINXINGJIESHI,JIANGYOUWUGERENLIYIBAOHUZHIXIANGZUOWEIQUFENZHUGUANGONGQUANLIHEFANSHELIYIDEGUANJIAN。ZHENGRUSHANGWENSUOSHU,SHIWUZHONGHENDUOTOUSUJUBAORENYITUTONGGUOTOUSUJUBAOXINGWEIRANGXINGZHENGJIGUANJIERUMINSHIJIUFENZHIZHONG,RUOXINGZHENGJIGUANDECHULIJIEGUOWEIDADAOHELIYUQI,MEIYOUMANZUZIJINEIXINDE“BAOFUGAN”,TOUSUJUBAORENBIANYIHEFAQUANYISHOUSUNHAIWEIYOUJIUCHANLANSU,ZHEIRANGXINGZHENGJIGUANHERENMINFAYUANWUSUOSHICONG。DANSHITONGGUOYUNYONGBAOHUGUIFANLILUN,JIANGDUILIHAIGUANXIZHEIYIBUQUEDINGFALVGAINIANDEPANDUANZHUANYIDAOJIAOYIBAWODEGUIFANMUDEJIESHISHANG。JISHITOUSUJUBAORENZHUZHANGZIJIDEHEFAQUANYISHOUDAOQINHAI,DANSHIXINGZHENGFALVGUIFANZHONGBINGBUJUYOUBAOHUSIRENLIYIDEZHIXIANG,BINGBUYAOQIUXINGZHENGJIGUANZAIZUOCHUXINGZHENGXINGWEISHIDUIYUANGAOSUOZHUZHANGDEQUANYIYUYIKAOLVHEBAOHU,ZETOUSUJUBAORENBUJUYOUYUANGAOZIGE。YINCI,YU“LIHAIGUANXIBIAOZHUN”XIANGBIJIAO,GAILILUNNENGGOUJIANGDIFAGUANDUILIHAIGUANXIDEZIYICAILIANG,WEIYUANGAOZIGEDERENDINGTIGONGXIANGDUITONGYIDESIFACAILIANGBIAOZHUN,DUITOUSUJUBAORENDELANSUXINGWEIDADAOYIDINGDEGUIZHIXIAOGUO。

                    四、结语

                    CONGYOUHUAXINGZHENGZIYUANPEIZHI,MINGQUEXINGZHENGSUSONGHEMINSHISUSONGFENGONGJIEXIAN,WEIHUSHICHANGJINGJIZHIXUDEJIAODUCHUFA,DUITOUSUJUBAORENLANYONGSUQUANDEGUIZHIYINGDANGYINQIZHONGSHI。MUQIAN,WOGUODUICIWENTIDEYANJIUSHANGCHUYUCHUJIJIEDUAN,BIZHEZHISHIDUIGUIZHILUJINGTICHULEJIDIANSHIDANGDEJIANYI,RUHEJIEHETOUSUJUBAODEZHIDUBEIJINGYIJIWOGUODESIFAHUANJINGJIANLIQIJIAOWEICHENGSHUDEGUIZHITIXIRENGRENZHONGERDAOYUAN。

                    参考文献

                    [1]章剑生.行政诉讼中滥用诉权的判定——陆红霞诉南通市发展和改革委员会政府信息公开答复案评释[J].交大法学,2017,(2):174.
                    [2]赵宏.保护规范理论在投诉举报人原告资格中的适用[J].北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版),2018,(5):14.
                    [3]姜鹏.我国投诉举报制度的隐患、成因及解决对策——以专业维权现象的治理为视角[J].河北青年管理干部学院学报,2017,(5):69-71.
                    [4]霍振宇.举报投诉人行政诉讼原告资格探讨——兼论行政诉讼原告资格的判断方法[J].法律适用(司法案例),2019,(6):111.
                    [5][美]弗里德曼.法律制度[M].李琼英,等译.北京:中国政法大学出版社,1994:207.
                  星云棋牌官网下载   [6] 张丽.依法登记立案、规制诉权滥用——天津市和平区法院关于行政审判工作情况的调研报告[N].人民法院报,2015-01-28(8).

                    注释

                    1投诉举报人滥用诉权分为滥用民事诉权和滥用行政诉权两种,本文的研究对象为滥用行政诉权,如不作特殊说明,滥用诉权皆指滥用行政诉权。
                    2《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国行政诉讼法>的解释》第12条第(五)项规定:“为维护自身合法权益向行政机关投诉,具有处理投诉职责的行政机关做出或者未做出处理的”,属于与行政行为有利害关系的情形,起诉人具有原告资格。
                    3参见上海市高级人民法院(2018)沪行申第733号行政裁定书;上海市高级人民法院(2018)沪行申第623号行政裁定书;上海市高级人民法院(2018)沪行申第622号行政裁定书;上海市高级人民法院(2018)沪行申第273号行政裁定书;上海市第三中级人民法院(2017)沪03行申第4号行政裁定书;上海市第三中级人民法院(2017)沪03行终第558号行政裁定书;上海市第三中级人民法院(2017)沪03行终第289号行政裁定书;上海铁路运输法院(2016)沪7101行初第583号行政裁定书;上海铁路运输法院(2017)沪7101行初第224号行政裁定书;上海市普陀区人民法院(2015)普行初字第106号行政判决书。
                    4参见上海铁路运输法院(2016)沪7101行初第598号行政判决书;上海铁路运输法院(2016)沪7101行初第599号行政判决书;上海铁路运输法院(2017)沪7101行初第440号行政判决书;上海市第三中级人民法院(2017)沪03行终第458号行政判决书;上海市第三中级人民法院(2017)沪03行终第495号行政判决书;上海市第三中级人民法院(2018)沪03行终第76号行政判决书。
                    5http://www.pkulaw.cn/cluster_call_form.aspx?menu_item=law&EncodingName=&key_word=,数据来源北大法宝,最后访问日期为2019年9月18日。
                    6参见广州市天河区人民法院(2011)穗天法行初字第68号行政判决书;北京市第三中级人民法院(2018)京03行终第337号行政判决书。
                  星云棋牌官网下载   7《行政诉讼法》第49条规定,提起诉讼应当符合下列条件:(一)原告是符合本法第二十五条规定的公民、法人或者其他组织;(二)有明确的被告;(三)有具体的诉讼请求和事实根据;(四)属于人民法院受案范围和受诉人民法院管辖。

                    徐菲.投诉举报人滥用行政诉权之规制路径探究[J].兰州教育学院学报,2019,35(11):169-171+174.
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