星云棋牌官网下载

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                        研究20世纪英国对煤工尘肺认知与治理

                        时间:2018-12-10 来源:未知 作者:乐枫 本文字数:16335字

                        英国史论文精心编辑范文10篇之第三篇:研究20世纪英国对煤工尘肺认知与治理

                          摘要星云棋牌官网下载:煤工尘肺是20世纪英国职业健康历史上较为严重的疾病之一。英国对煤工尘肺的认知经历过偏差与曲折的复杂过程, 医学界的持续调研和认识深化, 确认了过量吸入煤矿粉尘是致病原因。依循发病机理和社会的不断追问, 英国逐渐找寻到该职业病的解决之道, 确立起较为完善的监管体系和实施机制。在煤工尘肺的预防与治理过程中, 矿工工会和国家煤炭局发挥了重要作用, 两者在粉尘防治、医学预防和尘肺病患者赔偿等方面通力合作, 有效地减缓并抑制了尘肺病的肆虐与蔓延。20世纪英国对煤工尘肺认知与治理的开创性及实践性, 为世界其他地区同类职业病的防治提供了有益的借鉴。

                          关键词:星云棋牌官网下载英国; 煤工尘肺; 尘肺病研究小组; 工业肺部疾病委员会; 国家煤炭局;

                          Abstract:

                          Coal workers' pneumoconiosis is one of the most serious diseases in British occupational health history in the 20th century. The cognition of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Britain has experienced a complicated process of deviation and twists and turns, and the continuous and deepened investigation by the medical field has identified the excessive inhalation of dust as the fatal cause. Based on pathological mechanism and driven by social inquiry, Britain has gradually found the solution to this occupational disease, establishing a sound framework of supervision and execution. In the process of prevention and treatment of the disease, the miners' union and the National Coal Bureau had played important roles. They have cooperated in the aspects of dust prevention, medical prevention and compensation for pneumoconiosis patients, effectively slowing down and restraining the spread of pneumoconiosis. As a manifestation of creativity and practicality, the cognition and management of British coal workers' pneumoconiosis in the 20th century provide effective experiences and lessons for the prevention and treatment of similar occupational diseases in other regions.

                        星云棋牌官网下载   Keyword:

                          Britain; coal workers' pneumoconiosis; Pneumoconiosis Research Unit; Industrial Pulmonary Diseases Committee; National Coal Board;

                        英国历史

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                          一、英国煤矿工人尘肺病的蔓延及成因

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                          二、英国社会对煤工尘肺的误读与正视

                          CHENFEIBINGSHIYIZHONGGULAODESHEHUIXIANXIANG,XILUODUODEZAOZAIGONGYUANQIAN4SHIJISHIJIUJIZAILEYIZHONGFASHENGZAIKUANGGONGSHENSHANGDEJIBING,ZHENGZHUANGLEISIYUQIANZHONGDU,ZHEIDAGAISHIZUIZAOGUANYUZHIYEBINGDEJILU。16SHIJIZHONGQI,DEGUOXUEZHEAGELIKELAYIJIRUISHILIANJINSHUSHIPALASAIERSUSIDOUMIAOSHUGUOYIZHONGCHUXIANZAIKUANGGONGSHENSHANGDEGUGUAIFEIBING。23GONGYEGEMINGZAOQI,YINGGUOYIZHIHUSHICHENFEIBINGYUCAIKUANGZHIJIANDEGUANXI。19SHIJIZHONGQI,YINGGUOYIXUEJIEKAISHIZHONGSHIGONGRENJIANKANGYUKUANGJINGKONGQIZHILIANGZHIJIANDEGUANXI,BINGJIANGQIZUOWEIYIZHONGBINGZHENGJINXINGYANJIU。1831NIAN,YUEKEJUNDENEIKEYISHENGCHAERSI·SAKELAZHUYIDAOHENDUOMEIKUANGGONGRENHUANYOUXIAOCHUAN;TONGNIAN,LINGYIMINGSUGELANYISHENGGELIGAOLIZAIWENZHANGZHONGYETIDAOZHEIZHONGXIAOCHUANBING,DANGSHIDABUFENYISHENGTUIDUANZHEISHIYOUYUXIRUSHOUDAOBAOZHAWURANDEKONGQIHUOSHIJINGCHANGBAOLUZAIYOUDENGXIACHANSHENGDEMEIYANSUOZHI。24CIHOU,YUELAIYUEDUODEHUANZHECHUXIANZAIYISHENGJILUDEBINGLIHEYIXUEWENXIANZHONG,YINGGUOSHEHUIYIPUBIANRENSHIDAOMEIKUANGGONGRENZHONGLIUXINGZHEYIZHONGYINGUOLIANGXIRUMEICHENERYOUFADEHUXIDAOJIBING,CIJIBINGCHUBANYOUKETANDENGZHENGZHUANGWAI,HUANZHEFEIBUZAIWANQIHAIHUICHENGXIANCHUHEISEBINGBIAN。25DANYOUYUYIXUESHUIPINGSUOXIAN,QUESHAOCHIXUDEDIAOCHAYANJIUYUXIANGGUANSHIYAN,YUSHICHUXIANDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDERENZHIPIANCHAYUWUDU。

                          1861NIAN,YINGGUOBINGLIXUEJIAYUEHAN·XIMENGZAI《GONGGONGJIANKANGBAOGAO》ZHONGTIDAO,YINGGELANBEIBUCUNZAIXIONGQIANGBUSHIWENTIDEMEIKUANGGONGRENMINGXIANSHAOYUWEIERSHI,TAJIANGGAIXIANXIANGDEYUANYINGUIJIEWEIBUTONGDIQUTONGFENGSHEBEIBIAOZHUNDECHAYI。LINGYIWEIGELINHAOYISHENGDIAOCHALELIANGDI53MINGMEIKUANGGONGREN,FAXIANTAMENDANGZHONGDEDADUOSHUDOUHUANYOUMANXINGZHIQIGUANYAN。QIHOU,SUIZHEYINGGUOGEDISHANGBAODECHENFEIBINGLIYUKUANGGONGQICHUANBINGLIZHUJIANJIANSHAO,RENMENKAISHIXIANGXIN,NEIXIEFASHENGZAIMEIGONGSHENSHANGDEYANZHONGFEIBUSUNSHANGYISHUYULISHI。YINGGUOZHIYEBINGYIXUEJIATUOMASI·AOLIFUGENGSHIDADANPINGLUN,MEIGONGDELAODONGTIAOJIANYIJINGYOULEHENDAGAISHAN,RUGUOBUKAOLVKENENGDEBAOZHA,CAIMEIYISHIYIFENANQUANDEGONGZUO。261914NIAN,SITAFUDEJUNYIWEIYIXUEZHUANJIASHAFOBOTANGENJU1907NIANYIFENGONGYEJIBINGBUMENWEIYUANHUIDEBAOGAODECHUXIANGTONGJIELUN,RENWEIZAIYINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENFEIBUDEXIANWEIHUAZHENGZHUANGJIHUYIJINGJUEJI。27DANGSHIYIXUEJIEJIANGMEIGONGFEIBUJIBINGDEJIANSHAOGUIYINYUQITAYINSU,RUMEIKUANGTONGFENGSHEBEIDECHIXUGAIJINHEJINGXIAGONGZUOSHIJIANDESUOJIAN。28DANSHIJISHANG,19SHIJIHE20SHIJIQIANQICHENGQIANSHANGWANDEGONGRENYINCHENFEIBINGZHISI,BUGUOTAMENDESIYINBEIWUZHENWEIFEIJIEHE、MANXINGZHIQIGUANYANHUOXIAOCHUAN。ZHENGRUYUEHAN·ALIQIZAITADESHUZHONGXIEDAO:"ZHEIXIEJIBINGBEIRENWEISHIBUTONGXUNCHANGDE,NEISHIYINWEIRENMENBUQINGCHUKUANGGONGDEGONGZUOHUANJINGSHIZENYANGDE。HUANZHELAIDAOYIYUANYIZHIKESOU,KESHIQUEBEITIESHANGZHIQIGUANYANYUQICHUANDEBIAOQIAN,WUFAYINQIBINGLIXUEJIADEZHUYI。ERZHENGSHIYINWEIBINGLIXUEYANJIUDEQUEFA,DAOZHIWOMENDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIMEIYOUWANZHENGERQINGXIDERENSHI".29ZHEIZHONGMANGMULEGUANDAOZHILE20SHIJIYINGGUOZUIDADEZHIYEWEISHENGZAINAN。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   JINGUANZAI1882NIANDEGUOYIXUEJIALUOBOTE·KEHEFAXIANFEIJIEHESHIJISHANGSHIYOUYIZHONGBINGYUANJUNYINQIDE,30QIELUNQINFAXIANDEXSHEXIANYEYOUZHUYUYIXUEJIADUIFEIBUJIBINGDEYANJIUHERENSHI,DANQUFENFEIJIEHE、ZHIQIGUANYANYUCHENFEIBINGRENGRANFEICHANGKUNNAN。SUIHOUDEQINGXINGBIANDEGENGJIAFUZA,YINWEIDANGSHIYOUJIWEIZHIMINGYIXUEZHUANJIARENWEIMEICHENSHIJISHANGKEYIDUIKUANGGONGQIDAOBAOHUZUOYONG,SHITAMENYUANLIFEIJIEHEDEWEIHAI。31GUANYUMEIKUANGFENCHENDUIKUANGGONGJIANKANGYOULIDEGUANDIANKEYIZHUISUDAO18SHIJI。1763NIAN,YIWEIMINGJIAOKELAPIER (Clapier) DEFAGUOYISHENGCHENGGONGZHIYULEYIMINGFEIJIEHEHUANZHE,TARANGHUANZHEZAIMEIKUANGZHONGSHENGHUOYIDUANSHIJIANDEZHILIAOFANGFAQUDEXIANZHUCHENGGONG。KELAPIERFENXIZHIYUDEYUANYINSHIBINGRENZAIKUANGZHONGXIRULELIUHUANG,DANQITADADUOSHUYIXUEJIARENWEISHITANYUANSUQIDAOLEGUANJIANZUOYONG---DANGBINGRENFEIBUDEKUIYANGBEIMEICHENBAOGUODESHIHOU,TAMENJIUHUIMANMANQUANYU。3219SHIJI80NIANDAI,YINGGUODESIMATEYISHENGRENWEIFEIJIEHEZAIMEIKUANGGONGRENZHONGYOUJIAODIFABINGLVSHIYINWEITANYUANSUJUBEIKANGJUN、SHADUDEXIAOGUO。TAZAIJIAIDINGBAOWEISHENGXUEHUIDEXINZHONGXIEDAO:MEICHEN---HUOZHEGENGQUEQIEDISHUOSHITAN---YIQIXIANZHUDEKANGJUNZUOYONGHENHAODIBAOHULERENTIDEFEIBUQIGUAN。33YIXUEJIEZAIFEIJIEHEYUCHENFEIBINGGUANXIWENTISHANGCHONGMANZHENGYI,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYINGXIANGDAOZHIQIGUANYANYUCHENFEIBINGDEZHILIAO。1915NIAN,YIXUEJIAKELISILIYONGXGUANGJISHUDECHUJIELUN:ZAISUOYOUCHENFEIBINGJIQIBINGFAZHENGZHONG,WEIHAIZUIDADESHIZHIQIGUANYANERBUSHIMEIGONGCHENFEI。SUGELANSHENGLIXUEJIAYUEHAN·HUOERDANRENTONGZHEIYIGUANDIAN,TAPINGLUNSHUO:"ZAIMEIKUANGGONGRENDERICHANGGONGZUOZHONG,WOMENSHANGWEIFAXIANYINXIRUMEICHENHUOSHIXIEERDAOZHISHANGHAIDETONGJIXUEZHENGJU。YINERWODADANTUICE,KUANGGONGMENPINGSHIXIRUDEFENCHENKEYISHITAMENMIANYUZAOSHOUGENGDADEWEIXIAN。"3420SHIJI30NIANDAIQIANQI,SUIZHELINCHUANGXUE、FANGSHEXUEYANJIUDEJINBU,YIJIDUIMEIKUANGGONGRENSHITIJIEPOUSHULIANGDEZENGDUOHESIWANGLVTONGJISHUJUKEKAOXINGDEZENGQIANG,YOUGUANMEIKUANGGONGRENFEIBUJIBINGDEYANJIUDEYIGENGWEISHENRUHEXIZHI,ZHEISHIHUOERDANDENGRENDEGUANDIANYUELAIYUESHOUDAOZHIYI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   1913NIAN,YINGGUOCHENGLIYIXUEYANJIUHUI,YANJIUHUIDIYICIQUANTIHUIYIJIUQUEDINGTADEZHIQUANYINGBAOKUODUIMOUXIEGONGYEJIBINGDEDIAOCHAYANJIU。35YUCITONGSHI,JUNXUGONGCHANGGONGRENJIANKANGWEIYUANHUI (Health of Munitions Workers'Committee) CHENGLI,ZHEISHIYINGGUOWEIFANGZHIZHIYEBINGSUOCAIQUDEZUIJUKAITUOXINGDEGUOJIAGANYUCUOSHIZHIYI。"YIZHAN"JIESHUHOU,JIANKANGWEIYUANHUIXUANGAOJIESAN,DANYIXUEYANJIUHUIJIXULIUCUNBINGCHIXUGUANZHUGONGYEXIAOLVYUJIANKANGWENTI。361930NIAN,YIXUEYANJIUHUIYINGYINGGUONEIZHENGBUZHIQINGCHENGLIGONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUI (Industrial Pulmonary Diseases Committee) ,GAIWEIYUANHUIZAIYINGGUOMEIGONGCHENFEIDEZAIRENZHIGUOCHENGZHONGBANYANLEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。1935NIANCHUN,HUOERDANJIANGYIXUEZHUANJIAZAIYANCHENWENTISHANGDEBUTONGGUANDIANZHUANDAJILEGONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUI,ERCISHIBEIBOHUIDEFEIBUJIBINGPEICHANGSHENQINGZHANZONGSHENQINGSHUDEBILIYIJINGCONG1933NIANDE22%SHANGSHENGDAO1935NIANDE50%.37ZHENGSHIZAICIBEIJINGXIA,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUICAIJUEDINGDUIXIFEIBINGJINXINGYANJIU,BINGLIJIXIANGYIXUEYANJIUHUIHENEIZHENGBUBAOGAO。BUJIU,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUIWANCHENGLEYIXIANGZHENDUISUGELANJINLUOHELIWENLVKUANGGONGRENFENCHENXIRUDESHIYAN,CIHOUSUOYOUZHENDUIMEIKUANGGONGRENDEDAGUIMOLINCHUANGZHENDUANHEFANGSHEXINGYANJIU,DOUZAIQICHENGGONGJINGYANJICHUSHANGKAIZHAN。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZAISHENRUDIAOCHAQIAN,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUISHOUJILENANWEIERSHIMEIKUANGZHONGGUANYUXIFEIBINGFABINGLVDESHUJU,BINGYUDANGDIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUIQUDELIANXI,HOUZHEDEXIEZHUDUICHENGGONGDIAOYANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。1937NIAN12YUE,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUIBADIAOYANZHONGDIANFANGZAIDUI560MINGKUANGGONGDELINCHUANGZHENDUANYUFANGSHEXINGJIANCHASHANG,ZHEIXIEKUANGGONGLAIZIWEIERSHIAMANFUDEDEYIZUOWUYANMEIKUANG。6GEYUEHOU,MEIWEIKUANGGONGDOUJIESHOULEYIXUEJIANCHA,XIANGGUANJIEGUOBEIZHENGLIWEIXIANGXIDEZHIYEBINGSHIZILIAO。HOULAI,YIXUEYANJIUHUICHUBANLE3FENBAOGAO,BINGJIANGQIZUOWEIWEIYUANHUIXILIEZHUANTIBAODAODEYIBUFEN。38YIXUEYANJIUHUIDEGONGZUORENYUANXIANGXIN,CHENFEIBINGFABINGLVYUCHICUNXIAOYU5WEIMIDEMEICHENKELINONGDUZHIJIANYOUZHEHENQIANGDEXIANGGUANXING,TAMENHAIRENWEIMOUXIETESHULEIXINGDEFENCHENGENGWEIXIAN。LIRU,FEILIPU·HATEHEAIDEHUA·ASILITEZAIGUANYUAMANFUDEMEIKUANGDEYANJIUBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU,WUYANMEIFENCHENDEWEIHAIXINGZUIQIANG。39CHUQI,RENMENTUIDUANZHEISHIYOUYUMEITANPINJIDECHAYIERYINQIDE,YINWEICHENFEIBINGZAIWUYANMEICHANQUFABINGLVZUIGAO。DANSHI,YINGGUOCHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUSHOURENZUZHANGCHAERSI·FULAICHEQUEBURENTONGSHANGSHUGUANDIAN,TARENWEI:"WUYANMEIKUANGZHONGCHENFEIBINGDEFABINGLVZHISUOYIRUCIZHIGAO,BINGFEIYINWEIMEICHENLEIXINGTESHU,ERSHIYOUYUKONGQIZHONGFENBUZHEGENGDUOMEICHEN。"40

                          ZAIGONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUIDIAOYANJICHUSHANG,YIXUEYANJIUHUIJIANYIZAIPEICHANGFANGANZHONGYONG"MEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBING"DAITI"XIFEIBING".JIYUCI,WULUNSHI"GONGZUOMIANDEMEIKUANGGONGRENHAISHIYANSHIKAIZAOGONGREN,SHENZHISHIMATOUSHANGDEMEITANZHUANGXIEGONG",DOUKEYIHUODEPEICHANG。411943NIAN,ZHENGFUZHIDING《MEIKUANGYE (CHENFEI) PEICHANGJIHUA》,SUOYOUYINYANCHEN、SHIMIANCHENHUOQITAFENCHENDAOZHIFEIBUXIANWEIHUADEMEIKUANGGONGRENDOUZAIGAIFANGANDESHIYONGFANWEINEI。ZHICI,MEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGDEDAOZHENGFUCHENGREN,DANZHUDUOWENTIRENGBUQINGXI。

                          CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUZHENGSHIZAICIBEIJINGXIA,XIANGYINGYIXUEYANJIUHUIDETIYIERCHENGLIDE。YANJIUXIAOZUHUIJILEGEGELINGYUDEZHUANJIAXUEZHE,RUNEIKEYISHENG、SHENGLIXUEJIA、BINGLIXUEJIA、WULIXUEJIA、SHENGWUGONGCHENGXUEJIAHETONGJIXUEJIADENG,MUBIAOSHIQUEDINGBUTONGNONGDUHUOZHEBUTONGXINGZHIDEMEICHENYUHUANBINGLVDEGUANXI,YIJIQUEDINGSHIKUANGGONGKEYIANQUANGONGZUODECHENNONGDU。42

                          1950NIANDAICHU,YIXUEJIETICHULEXYINGXIANGDE"LIANGBINGLUN" (Two diseases theory) ,QUERENCHENFEIBINGFENWEILIANGZHONGLEIXING:YILEICHENGZUODANCHUNXINGCHENFEI (simple pneumoconiosis) ,XINGTAITEZHENGSHIXIAODIANZHUANGDAZHICHENGYUANXINGDEYINYING,QISHULIANGYUXIRUFENCHENZONGLIANGYOUGUAN,TUOLIFENCHENGONGZUOCHANGSUOHOUYINYINGSHULIANGBUZAIZENGJIA;LINGYILEICHENGZUOHEBINGZHENGXINGCHENFEI (Complicated pneumoconiosis) , XXIANYINGXIANGXINGTAISHIXINGZHUANGBUGUIZHENGDEDATUANKUAIYINYING,DUOZAIYOUXIANGDANGSHULIANGDEXIAODIANZHUANGYINYINGDEBEIJINGXIACHUXIAN。TADEBINGLIJICHUSHIDAKUAIXIANWEIHUATUANKUAI,TEDIANSHITUOLIFENCHENGONGZUOCHANGHOUBINGQINGRENGJIXUJINZHAN,CHENGYINSHIFENCHENYIWAIDEYUANYINSUOZHI,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYUJIEHEGANRANSUOZAOCHENG。WEIJINGQUEMEIGONGCHENFEIDEHUANBINGCHENGDU,CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUBAFANGSHEPIANFENCHENGSIJI,CONG0JI (ZHENGCHANGDE) ,DAO1JI、2JI、3JICHENFEI。1950NIAN,GUOJILAOGONGZUZHIZAIAODALIYAXINIZHAOKAIDEDISANJIEGUOJICHENFEIBINGZHUANJIAHUIYISHANGCAIYONGLE"SIJI"FENLEIFA。CONG1952NIANDAO1963NIAN,CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZURENGYOUXIANGUANZHUMEIGONGCHENFEI,DANYANJIUFANWEIZHUJIANKUOZHANDAOMANXINGFEIBINGBINGRENDEFEIJINGMAIXUEYA、DONGMAIXUEYA、JIANPILIUZHONGDEYICHUANYINSUHEYINGXIANGDONGMAIXUEYADEYINSU。70NIANDAIHOU,YANJIUFANWEIGENGJIAGUANGFAN,BAOKUOSHIMIANFEI、JIANPILIUYIJILANKAIXIAMIANFANGCHANGGONGRENDEHUXIKUNNANDENG。1985NIAN,CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUJIESAN,CONGJIANLIZHICHU,TAYIZHISHIYINGGUOGONGYECHENFEIBINGZUIZHONGYAODEZHINANGTUAN,GAOSHUIPINGDEYANJIUGONGZUOSHIYIXUEJIEHEQUANSHIJIEDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDOUYOULEKEXUEDERENZHI,YEWEIYINGGUOYUFANGBINGZHILICHENFEIBINGZUOCHULEJUDAGONGXIAN。

                          三、英国对煤工尘肺的预防与治理

                          MEIGONGCHENFEIZAIYINGGUOGEDIDESINVEYUMANYAN,YANZHONGYINGXIANGLEGONGRENDESHENTIJIANKANGYUZHENGCHANGSHENGHUO。MEICHENDEWEIXIEJIHUSHISUOYOUMEIKUANGGONGRENZAIGONGZUOJINIANHOUCHANSHENGHUXIJICU、KESOU、HEITANDENGZHENGZHUANG,YANZHONGZHEKEDAOZHICANJIHUOSIWANG。WEICI,YINGGUOKUANGGONGGONGHUIYUYIMEITANJUWEIDAIBIAODEZHENGFUZUZHIDUICHENFEIBINGZHANKAILEZHANGQIDEYUFANGYUZHILI。GONGHUIZHANZAIMEIKUANGGONGRENDEJIAODUDUCUZHENGFUHEQIYESHISHIFANGCHENCUOSHI,POSHIZHENGFULIFAHEQIYEZHIXINGXIANGGUANFAAN;GUOJIAMEITANJUZEYILIFASHOUDUANMINGQUEFANGCHENDEYIWUHEZEREN,LIANGZHETONGLIHEZUOQUDELEXIANZHUCHENGXIAO。ZI20SHIJI70NIANDAIQI,CHENFEIBINGZAIYINGGUOSHEHUIKAISHIBEIYOUXIAOYIZHI,MEIQIANMINGSHOUGUGONGRENDECHENFEIBINGFABINGLVBUDUANXIAJIANG,ZAIZHIHOU10NIANYIJIGENGZHANGSHIJIANLI,XINFAXIANDEMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGLISHUCHIXUJIANSHAO。ZUIZHONGZAISAQIEERSHIDAISHISHIDENENGYUANJIEGOUDIAOZHENGZHONG,YIJINKOUMEITANTIDAIMEITANKAICAIDENGZHENGCE,SHIYINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGDEYICONGGENYUANSHANGDUJUE。

                          DUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDEYUFANGYUZHILI,ZHENGFUHEYIXUEJIEWANGWANGZHIHOUYUGONGHUIZUZHISUOZUODENULI。ZUOWEIGONGRENWEIHUZISHENLIYIZUCHENGDETUANTI,GONGHUIHENZAOGUANZHUMEIGONGCHENFEIWENTI。1863NIAN,NUOSENBOLANKUANGGONGXIEHUICHENGLISHI,TAMENJIUZHUNBEISHELIJIUZHUJIJIN。43TAMENWEIGONGRENSHANGCANPEICHANG、HUANBINGDENGTIGONGJINGJIHEFALVDENGDUOFANGMIANZHICHI。1937NIAN,YIXUEYANJIUWEIYUANHUIZAIWEIERSHIDIQUJINXINGMEIGONGCHENFEIDIAOCHAYANJIUSHI,YINGGUOMEITANGONGHUIJIJIPEIHE、TIGONGGELEIZILIAO。YINGGUOMEITANGONGHUIHAINULIKUODA《XIFEIBINGPEICHANGFAAN》DESHIYONGFANWEI。1919NIAN,DANGXIFEIBINGBEIDINGWEIZHIYEBINGSHI,ZHENGFUBANBU《XIFEIBINGPEICHANGFAAN》,DANPEICHANGJINXIANYUCAIGUIGONGYEDEGONGREN。NANWEIERSHIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUITONGGUOKAIZHANDUOFANGXIEDIAOYUKANGYI,1928NIANDELIFACAIKUODADAOMEITANKUANGGONG。38DANSHI,FAANBINGMEINENGBAOKUOSUOYOUCHENFEIBINGHUANZHE,TAGUIDINGLEMEIKUANGHUANBINGGONGRENHUODEPEICHANGDETIAOJIAN,BIXUTIGONGDANGDIFATINGCHUSHIDEBAOLUZAIERYANGHUAGUIFENCHENZHONGDEZHENGMINGHEZAICHAOGUO80%ERYANGHUAGUINONGDUCHANGSUOGONGZUODEHETONG。GAIGUIDINGSHIDALIANGCHENFEIBINGHUANZHEBEIPAICHUYUPEICHANGZHIWAI。YINCI,MEIKUANGGONGHUIJIXUWEIPEICHANGFAANERDOUZHENG,JUXINGJIHUIYOUXING,XIANGZHENGFUKANGYISHIYA,ZUIZHONGZAI1934NIANGEXINGYE (XIFEI) XIUDINGJIHUAZHONG,QUXIAOLEGUANYUYUERYANGHUAGUIJIECHUDEZHENGMINGTIAOKUAN。GONGHUIHAIWEIMEIGEKUANGGONGZUZHISHELIPEICHANGMISHU,ZHUANMENFUZEHUANZHEDEPEICHANGWENTI。JUTONGJI,20SHIJI50NIANDAIQUANYINGGUOGONGYOU5WANMINGGONGRENYIJU《GONGRENPEICHANGFA》HUODEPEICHANG,QIZHONG60%JIZHONGZAIMEITANKAICAIYE,DAYUEYOU1WANMINGSHIZAINANWEIERSHIDEMEIKUANGGONGREN,ZHANZONGSHUDE20%.44

                        星云棋牌官网下载   WEIBAOHUMEIKUANGGONGRENDEJIANKANGYUANQUAN,GONGHUIZHUZHANGSHELIYIGONGRENWEIDAIBIAODEKUANGQUJIANDUYUAN。ZHEIYIGEMINGXINGDEJIANYI,SHIJISHANGSHIGONGRENZIJIFUZEKUANGJINGANQUAN。45ZAIFANGCHENJIANGCHENZHONG,GONGHUIRENWEIXIAOCHUMEITANGONGRENJIECHUMEICHENSHIKONGZHIJIBINGDEGENBENSHOUDUAN,TAKEYITONGGUOSHIDANGDEJIANGCHENFANGFALAIJIANDIJIBINGDEFASHENG。46WEICI,GONGHUIYIZHIHUYUTONGGUOXINDELIFACUOSHI,ZAIKUANGJINGZHONGQUANMIANQIANGZHIJIANGCHEN。"《MEIKUANGFA》ZAILAOGONGBAOHUFANGMIANDEGUIDINGGENGJIAJUTI:MEIYIGEKUANGCHANGDOUBIXUTIGONGCHONGZUDETONGFENG,BINGSHIMEIKUANGDEKONGQI、DAOLUDENGYIQIESHESHISHIHEYUZHENGCHANGGONGZUO".431935NIAN,NANWEIERSHIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUIZAIFANGCHENJIANGCHENFANGMIANXIANGZHENGFUTICHULIUXIANGJIANYI:XIANGMEIKUANGZHUSHUI、SHIZUAN、PENTU、FANGCHENQIXIE、DAOLUQINGJIEJIXIANZHIBAOPO。TONGGUOZHEIXIECUOSHI,JIANGDIGONGRENGONGZUOHUANJINGZHONGDEFENCHEN。NANWEIERSHIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUIHAIHEMEIKUANGZHUYITONGCHUZI,BIANZUANYIZHIFENCHENDEZILIAO,WEIJIANGCHENTIGONGZHILIZHICHI。GUOJIAMEITANJUCHENGLIHOU,YEXISHOULEZHEIXIEYIZHIFENCHENDEJINGYAN。KEYISHUO,"YINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGHUIZAIZHIYEWEISHENGZHENGCEFANGMIANQIDAOLEFEICHANGJIJIDEZUOYONG,TABUJINZAIZHENGQUBUCHANGFAANSHANG,ERQIEZAICHENFEIBINGDEYUFANGHEKANGFUDENGFANGMIANYEFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG".47CIWAI,YINGGUOGONGHUI,TEBIESHIMEIKUANGGONGHUIDEBUDUANKANGYI、SHIYA、TUIDONGHEJIANDU,POSHIGUOJIAMEITANJUSHIYINGXINGSHI,BUDUANTUIJINXIANGGUANFAANDEBANBUHECUOSHILUOSHI,GONGTONGYUFANGYUZHILIYUYIYANZHONGDECHENFEIBINGWENTI。

                          WEIJIEJUE"ERZHAN"HOUYINGGUOMEITANGONGYECHUXIANDEWENTI,YINGGUOZHENGFUZAI1946NIANKAISHIDUIMEITANGONGYESHIXINGGUOYOUHUA,BINGZUJIANGUOJIAMEITANJU,FUZEGUANXIADANGSHIYINGGUOSUOYOUDEMEIKUANG、KUANGJINGYIJIXIANGGUANDEGONGZUORENYUANHESHEBEI。MIANDUIRIYIYANJUNDEMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGXINGSHI,MEITANJUXUANCHENG,ZAIQISUOYOUZHIZEZHONGMEIYOUSHENMEBIMEIKUANGGONGRENDEJIANKANGHEFULIGENGWEIZHONGYAO。48YINCI,CHONGFENFAHUIZISHENZHINENG,FUCHUDALIANGNULI,CHENGWEIKANGJIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDEZHONGYAOLILIANG。

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                        星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,JIJICAIYANG、CEDINGKUANGJINGZHONGDEFENCHENNONGDU,WEIMEIKUANGGONGRENYINGZAOANQUANDEGONGZUOHUANJING。GUOJIAMEITANJUCHENGLIFENCHENCAIYANGHEFENXIWEIYUANHUI,BUDUANGENGXINFENCHENCAIYANGYIQI,YONGRELIJICHENQISHOUJIGENGJIAXIWEIDEFENCHENKELI,YISHOUDONGBENGMIBUQIZAIXIANCHANGGUSUANZHONGDIEDEQUEXIAN,SHIHANCHENKONGQILIUJINGYIGEZHIZHIYUANPANBINGZAISHANGMIANLIUXIAWUZI,YIBIANCAIYANGGENGJIAZHUNQUE。53JINZAI1949NIANJIEZHUXINSHIGONGJUJIUCAIJILE40WANFENFENCHENYANGBEN。CIWAI,TUIXINGXINDEFENCHENCAIYANGFANGFA、SHELIFENCHENNONGDUDEYANGEBIAOZHUN。ZAITIANYEDIAOCHAXIANGMUSHANG,1969NIANKAIZHANLINSHIXINGBIAOZHUNYANJIUHOU,MEITANJUZHUDONGCAIQULEYIZHONGGENGWEIYANGEDEJIYUJILIANGDEFENCHENBIAOZHUN,ZHEIYIBIAOZHUNSHIYOUYAGEBUSENDENGRENZAI1970NIANFABIAODELUNWENZHONGTUIJIANDE。GAIBIAOZHUNGUIDING,MEIKUANGKONGQIZHONGDEFENCHENHANLIANGBIXUJIANGDIZHI8mg/m3.541971NIAN,MEITANJUFAXINGDE《ZHENGFUPIZHUNDEMEIKUANGKONGQIFENCHENTIAOJIAN:CAIYANGDEBIAOZHUNYUCHENGXU》BAOHANDUIFENCHENZHENGCEDEYIXIANGSHENGMING:JI"YINGGUOMEITANJUDEMUBIAOJIUSHIYAOJIANGFENCHENJIANZHIZUIDIXIANDU,BINGRANG'ZHENGFUPIZHUNDEFENCHENTIAOJIAN'ZAIMEIYICHUGONGZUOCHANGSUODEDAOGUANCHE。"55XINZHIDINGDE《MEIKUANGHUXIXINGFENCHENTIAOLI》YU1975NIANZHENGSHISHENGXIAO,TAJIANG1970NIANTICHUDETUIJIANXINGBIAOZHUNSHEZHIWEIHENGLIANGGONGZUOCHANGSUOFENCHENTIAOJIANSHIFOUANQUANDEBIAOZHUN。1977NIANCHUTAIDETIAOLIZEGENGWEIYANGE,BAMEIKUANGZHONGYUNXUDEMEICHENZUIDANONGDUCONG8mg/m3JIANGWEI7mg/m3.54JINGUAN《MEIKUANGHUXIXINGFENCHENTIAOLI》RENGYOUBUSHAOQUEXIAN,DANTADEZHIDINGHETUIXINGFANKAILEYINGGUODUIMEIKUANGSHIXINGGUOJIAGANYUDEXINPIANZHANG,SHIBAOHUMEIKUANGGONGRENMIANZAOCHENFEIBINGZHEMODEYIDAJINBU。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,JIADACUOSHIYIZHIKUANGJINGZHONGDEMEICHEN。ZHUSHUISHIZAISITAFUDEJUNSHIYANZHONGHUODEDECHENGGONGFANGCHENCUOSHI,BUJINKEYIJIANGDIFENCHENNONGDU,ERQIEKEYISHIMEITANKAICAIBIANDEQINGSONG。ZHENGRUYIWEIFENCHENYIZHIGUANYUANSUOSHUO:"KUANGGONGMENZONGSHILEYUJIANDAOWO,YINWEIZHUSHUIHOUDESHUIYAHUISHIMEITANJIANJIANSONGDONG,RANGTAMENDEGONGZUOBIANDEQINGSONG。ZHEIYESHITAMENWEISHENMEHUIBUDAISIHAOPIANJIANHEYUANYANJIESHOUZHUSHUICUOSHIDEYUANYIN。"56RUGUOSHUOZHUSHUIMIAOZHUNDESHIYINMEICENGJIAYAERCHANSHENGDEMEICHEN,NEIMEANZHUANGZAIMEITANQIEGEJISHANGDESHUIPENZUIZESHIWEILEXIAOCHUMEITANZAIFENJIESHISUOCHANSHENGDEMEICHEN。20SHIJI60NIANDAI,MEITANJUJIANCHIYAOQIUCAIMEIJIQIZHIZAOSHANGANZHUANGYOUXIAOYIZHIFENCHENDESHEBEI。GUOJIAMEITANJUHAIYANFAXINDECAIMEIJISHU,SHITUSHIGONGRENBUJINRUCAIMEIGONGZUOMIANJINXINGCAOZUO,RUYAOKONGZHANGBIGONGZUOMIANJISHU;KAIFAFANGCHENKOUZHAOBINGGULIGONGRENYANGCHENGPEIDAIDEXIGUAN,BIJIAOLIUXINGDEYOUDEERGEFANGCHENKOUZHAO、MADINGDAIERZHONGXINGFANGCHENKOUZHAOHEYICIXINGKOUZHAODENG,YONG"ZUIHOUDEFANGXIAN"YIZHIKUANGJINGZHONGDEMEICHEN,BAOHUMEIKUANGGONGRENSHENTIJIANKANG。JINGUANZAIFANGCHENCUOSHIDESHISHIGUOCHENGZHONGYUDAOLEHENDUOKUNNAN,DANMEITANJUDENULISHIMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDEDAOKONGZHI,FABINGLVKAISHICHUXIANXIAJIANGQUSHI。MEITANJUZAI1955NIANDENIANDUBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU:"SUIZHEMEITANJUFANGCHENCUOSHIDEBUDUANJINBU,CHENFEIBINGDEMANYANCHENGDUJIHUKEYIQUEDINGZAIJIANSHAO。"57

                        星云棋牌官网下载   MEIGONGCHENFEISHIXIANDAIYINGGUOKAICAIYEDAILAIDEZHIYEXINGZAINANZHIYI,JINGGUOGONGHUIYUMEITANJUDEYUFANGHEZHILI,ZAI20SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAIHOU,FABINGLVYUXINZENGBINGLIJUNMINGXIANXIAJIANG。JUTONGJI,ZAI1959-1963NIANYINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGPINGJUNHUANBINGLVWEI12.2%,1969-1973NIANJIANGZHI10%,1978-1981NIANZEJIANGZHI4%.581979NIAN,SAQIEERFURENLINGDAODEBAOSHOUDANGSHANGTAI,ZHENDUIMEITANGONGYE+SUODAILAIDECHENFEIBING,SHISHILECONGGENBENSHANGDUJUECHENFEIBINGCHUXIANDEZHENGCE,JIYIJINKOUMEITANTIDAICIQIANDEMEITANKAICAI;DALIANGGUANBIMEIKUANGZUOYE,CAIJIANMEIKUANGGONGREN,XUNZHAOTIDAIXINGQINGJIENENGYUAN,JIANSHAOMEITANZAIGUOJIANENGYUANJIEGOUZHONGDEBILI。1979NIANSHI,ZHENGGEYINGGUORENGYOU223GEMEIKUANGKUANGJING,MEIKUANGGONGRENYUE23WANREN。CONG1985NIAN3YUEDAO1991NIAN3YUE,YINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENJIANSHAOLE114 000REN。1992NIANSHI,QUANGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENSHULIANGJINYIBUJIANSHAO,ZHISHENGXIA44 000REN,KUANGJINGJINCUN50GE。59DAO1994NIAN,YINGGUOZAICIGUANBIDALIANGKUANGJING,JINYUXIA16GEMEIKUANG,8000DUOMINGMEIKUANGGONGREN。60DAO2006NIANSHI,JINCUN6GEKUANGJING,MEIKUANGGONGREN3000REN。61MEITANCHANLIANGDEBUDUANXIAJIANGYUMEIKUANGGONGRENDECHIXUJIANSHAO,SHICHENFEIBINGXINZENGBINGLIJIANGZHILING。2015NIAN12YUE18RI,YINGGUOGUANBILEZUIHOUYIJIASHENCENGMEIKUANG---KAILINGLIMEIKUANG。ZHEIYIWEIZHEYINGGUOMEITANSHIDAIDEZHONGJIE,YECONGGENBENSHANGZUZHILEMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGZAICIMANYANDEKENENG。

                          结语

                          YINGGUODECHIXUGONGYEHUATUIDONGQIJINGJIYUSHEHUIXUNSUFAZHAN,DANZAIMEITANGONGYELINGYUYEDAILAIMEIGONGCHENFEIZHEIYIYANZHONGHOUGUO,SHIZHICHENGWEIYINGGUOZHIYEWEISHENGLISHISHANGZUIDADEZAINANZHIYI。CHENFEIBINGDECHUXIANJIQIMANYANSHIKUANGJINGZHONGELIEHUANJING、YIXUEJIERENSHIDEZHIHOUXING、CAIMEIJIXIEHUAYIJIMEIKUANGGONGRENGONGZITIZHIDENGYINSUGONGTONGZUOYONGDEJIEGUO。YINGGUOSHEHUIDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDERENZHIJINGLIGUOPIANCHAHEQUZHE,YIXUEJIEDEGENJINDIAOYANHEQINGXIJIEDING,SHIQIZAI1943NIANBEICHENGRENWEIZHIYEBING。MEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDEYOUXIAOZHILISHIYINGGUOZHENGFU、GUOJIAMEITANJUHEKUANGGONGGONGHUIDENGGEFANGBOYIYUHEZUODEJIEGUO。ZHENGFUYONGLIFASHOUDUANMINGQUEFANGCHENYIWUHEZEREN,MEITANJUJUTIFUZEMEIKUANG、KUANGJINGHEGONGZUORENYUANDENGSHIWU,SHIZHILICHENFEIBINGDEZHONGYAOLILIANG;GONGHUIZECONGGONGRENJIANKANGCHUFA,DUNCUZHENGFUHEQIYESHISHIFANGCHENCUOSHI,POSHIZHENGFULIFAHEQIYEZHIXINGXIANGGUANFAAN。

                          YINGGUODUIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDERENZHIYUZHILIJUYOUKAICHUANGXINGJISHIJIANXING。TAMENZAIGUANZHU、JIEDINGHECHENGRENMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDETONGSHI,YEJIANGOULETADEGAINIANHEDENGJIFENLEI,RENZHIDEZHUBUSHENRUTIXIANZHEKEXUEYINGDUIDEGUOCHENG,BINGLIDEGONGTONGXINGWEIGUOJISHEHUIZHONGDEMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGQUELILEGAINIANDEBIAOZHUNHUA;YINGGUORENCHENGRENMEIGONGCHENFEIWEIZHIYEBING,CONGDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDEQIANXIANGANZHIDAODAODEHUYU,CONGJINGJIXUQIUZAIDAODUIMEIKUANGGONGRENSHENGMINGJIANKANGDEGUANZHU,TIXIANZHESHEHUIGUANNIANDEJINBU。20SHIJI,YINGGUODUIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDEZHILIQUJUEYUSUOCHUDELISHI、ZHENGZHIHUANJINGHEGONGHUI、ZHENGFUSUONENGKONGZHIDEZIYUAN,YOUYUYINGGUOJINGJI、SHEHUIHEZHENGZHISHENGHUODETEDIAN,QIZHILIGUOCHENGJUYOUDIANXINGXING;TONGSHI,YINGGUOZAIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGZHILIZHONGSUOQUDEDEXIANZHUCHENGGUO,SUOJIANLIDEBIJIAOWANSHANDEWANGLUOHUAJIANGUANTIXIHESHISHIJIZHI,JUYOUJIDADEQIANYANXING,KEYIWEISHIJIEQITADIQUTONGLEIZHIYEBINGDEFANGZHITIGONGYOUYIJIEJIAN,CUJINRENLEIJIBINGFANGKONGDEFUZHI。

                          注释
                          1 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung:A History of Dust Disease in British Coal Mining, Aldershot:Ashgate, 2007.
                          2 John Benson, British Coalminers in the Nineteenth Century:A Social History, Dublin:Gill and Macmillan, 1980; Arthur McI vor, A History of Work in Britain, 1880-1950, London:Palgrave, 2001; Hywel Francis and David Smith, The Fed:A History of the South Wales Miners in the Twentieth Century, London:Lawrence and Wishart, 1980; B. G. Miller and M. Jacobsen,"Dust Exposure, Pneumoconiosis, and Mortality of Coalminers,"British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 11 (Nov. 1985) , pp. 723-733; Michael Bloor,"The South Wales Miners Federation, Miners'Lung and the Instrumental Use of Expertise, 1900-1950," Social Studies of Science, Vol. 30, No. 1 (2000) , pp. 125-140.
                          3 John M. Rogan, ed., Medicine in the Mining Industries, London:Heinemann, 1972.
                          4 何凤生:《英国、瑞典、芬兰三国职业病预防与科研考察见闻》,《中华劳动卫生职业病杂志》,1983年第1期;康金城:《英国的职业健康与安全管理系统》,《世界安全卫生信息》,2001年第2期;董维武:《英国采煤业职业健康与安全立法综述》,《中国煤炭》,2009年第2期;高麦爱:《煤矿工人尘肺病与英国福利国家政策》,《南京大学学报》 (哲学·人文科学·社会科学版) ,2011年第6期。
                          5 Paul Rutter and James Keirstead,"A Brief History and the Possible Future of Urban Energy Systems,"Energy Policy, Vol.3, No.72 (2012) , p.75.
                          6 [法]保尔·芒图著,杨人楩等译:《十八世纪产业革命》,商务印书馆2012年版,第252页。
                          7 [英]克拉潘著,姚曾廙译:《现代英国经济史》上卷,商务印书馆1986年版,第66页。
                          8 Michael Walter Flinn, The History of the British Coal Industry:1700-1830, Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1984, p.27.
                          9 Michael Walter Flinn, The History of the British Coal Industry:1700-1830, p.290.
                          10 邱建群:《生态危机与能源转换---英国首先发生工业革命原因之新解》,《辽宁大学学报》 (哲学社会科学版) ,2010年第2期,第104页。
                          11 Neil Buxton, The Economic Development of the British Coal Industry:From Industrial Revolution to the Present Day, London:Batsford, 1978, p.166.1913年,英国共有3179座煤矿处于运转之中。
                          12 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.28.
                          13 Roy Church, The History of the British Coal Industry, 1830-1913:Victorian Pre-Eminence, Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.303, 306.
                          14 Ferdinand Zweig, Men in the Pits, London:Gollancz, 1948, p.6.
                          15 Mark Bufton and Joseph Melling,"Coming Up for Air:Experts, Employers and Workers in Campaigns to Compensate Silicosis Sufferers in Britain, 1918-1939,"Social History of Medicine, Vol.18, No.1 (2005) , pp.82-83.
                          16 Health and Safety Commission, Health and Safety Statistics, 1995-1996, Norwich:Health Safety Executive Books, 1996, p.76;Health and Safety Commission, Health and Safety Statistics, 1998-1999, Norwich:Health Safety Executive Books, 1999, pp.86-87.
                          17 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.54.
                          18 Health and Safety Commission, Health and Safety Statistics, 1999-2000, Norwich:Health Safety Executive Books, 2000, pp.82-83.
                          19 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.57.
                          20 Neil K.Buxton, The Economic Development of the British Coal Industry, London:Batsford, 1978, p.248.
                          21 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.151.
                          22 Bert Coombes, These Poor Hands:The Autobiography of a Miner Working in South Wales, London:Left Book Club, 1939, p.87.
                          23 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.265.
                          24 George Rosen, A History of Public Health, New York:MD Publication, 1958, pp.22-23.
                          25 Alan Derickson, Black Lung, Anatomy of a Public Health Disaster, Ithaca:Cornell University Press, 1998, p.5.
                          26 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, pp.65-66.
                          27 Medical Research Council, Chronic Pulmonary Disease in South Wales Coal Miners, Vol.1, Medical Studies, London:His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1942, p.141.
                          28 Medical Research Council, Chronic Pulmonary Disease in South Wales Coal Miners, pp.140-141.
                          29 Donald Hunter, ed., The Diseases of Occupation, London:English University Press Limited, 1969, p.994.
                          30 John T.Arlidge, The Hygiene Diseases and Mortality of Occupation, New York:Percival, 1892, p.265.
                          31 Alan Derickson, Black Lung, Anatomy of a Public Health Disaster, p.44.
                          32 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, pp.67-68.
                          33 John C.Gilson,"Is Coal Dust Harmful to Man?,"PRU Collected Papers, Vol.4 (1955) , p.245.
                          34 Andrew Smar, t"Note on Anthracosis,"The British Medical Journal, Vol.2, No.1288 (Sep.1885) , p.493.
                          35 Medical Research Council, Chronic Pulmonary Disease in South Wales Coal Miners, p.141.
                          36 Philip D.Hart and Edward M.Aslet, t"Chronic Pulmonary Disease in South Wales Coal Mines:An Eye Witness Account of the MRCSurveys (1937-1942) ,"Society for the Social History of Medicine, Vol.11, No.3 (1998) , pp.459-460.
                          37 Arthur McI vor,"Manual Work, Technology, and Industrial Health, 1918-1939,"Medical History, Vol.31 (1987) , pp.163-179.
                          38 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.83.
                          39 Donald Hunter, The Diseases of Occupation, p.999.
                          40 Philip D.Hart and Edward M.Aslet, t"Chronic Pulmonary Disease in South Wales Coal Mines:An Eye Witness Account of the MRCSurveys (1937-1942) ,"Society for the Social History of Medicine, Vol.11, No.3 (1998) , p.459.
                          41 Charles M.Fletcher,"Epidemiological Studies of Coal Miners'Pneumoconiosis in Great Britain,"Archives of Industrial Health, Vol.11, No.1 (1955) , p.30.
                          42 Philip D.Hart and E.M.Aslet, t"Chronic Pulmonary Disease in South Wales Coal Mines:An Eye Witness Account of the MRC Surveys (1937-1942) ,"p.464.
                          43 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, pp.86, 97.
                          44 John Benson,"English Coal-Miners Trade-Union Accident Funds, 1850-1900,"The Economic History Review, Vol.28, No.3 (Aug.1975) , p.406.
                          45 Andrew Perchard and Keith Gildar, t"Buying Brains and Experts:British Coal Owners, Regulatory Capture and Miners'Health, 1918-1946,"Labor History, Vol.56, No.4 (2015) , p.459.
                          46 NUM, South Wales Area Council, Annual Conference for 1947-1948, 1953, p.69,转引自Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.154.
                          47 Michael Bloor,"No Longer Dying for a Living:Collective Responses to Injury Risks in South Wales Mining Communities, 1900-1947,"Sociology, Vol.36, No.1 (2002) , p.97.
                          48 Jamie L.Lancaster, Coal Mine Characteristics Associated with Progressive Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis, Minneapolis:Walden University Press, 2011, p.2.
                          49 丁建定:《英国社会制度保障史》,人民出版社2015年版,第306页。
                          50 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miners'Lung, p.203.
                          51 National Coal Board, Annual Report and Statement of Accounts for the Year Ended 31st December 1947, in 20th Century House of Commons Sessional Papers, 1947-48, Vol.X, 1947, p.387.
                          52 J.C.Gilson and G.S.Kilpatrick,"Management and Treatment of Patients With Coal Workers'Pneumoconiosis,"The British Medical Journal, Vol.1, No.4920 (Apr.1955) , p.997.
                          53 Report of a Committee of Enquiry on Industrial Health Services, in 20th Century House of Commons Sessional Papers, 1950-51, Vol.XV, p.57.
                          54 National Coal Board, Annual Report and Statement of Accounts for the Year Ended 31st December 1946, in 20th Century House of Commons Sessional Papers, 1947-48, Vol.X, p.351.
                          55 J.C.Gilson and G.S.Kilpatrick,"Management and Treatment of Patients With Coal Workers'Pneumoconiosis,"p.997.
                          56 R.J.Hamilton,"A Portable Instrument for Respirable Dust Sampling,"Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol.33, No.10 (1956) , p.396.
                          57 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, pp.153-154, 159.
                          58 National Coal Board, Approved Conditions for Airborne Dust, Standards and Procedures for Sampling, 1970, pp.1-4,转引自Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.160.
                          59 Robin Rudd,"Coal Miners'Respiratory Disease Litigation,"Thorax, Vol.53, No.5 (1998) , p.338.
                          60 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.168.
                          61 National Coal Board, Annual Report and Statement of Accounts for the Year Ended 31st December 1955, in 20th Century House of Commons Sessional Papers, 1955-56, Vol.XII, p.209.
                          62 Arthur McI vor and Ronald Johnston, Miner's Lung, p.119.
                          63 Mike Parker and John Surry, Unequal Treatment:British Policies for Goal and Nuclear Power, 1979-1992, Brighton:Science Policy Research Unit, 1992, p.16.
                          64 Royce Turner, The British Economy in Transition:From the Old to the New?London:Routledge, 1995, p.24.
                          65 Francis Beckett and David Hencke, Marching to the Fault Line:The 1984 Miners'Strike and the Death of Industrial Britain, London:Constable, 2009, p.238.

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