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                        工业化时期英国女性犯罪增高的原因研究

                        时间:2018-12-10 来源:未知 作者:乐枫 本文字数:10623字
                        英国史论文精心编辑范文10篇之第六篇:工业化时期英国女性犯罪增高的原因研究

                          摘要:工业化时期,英国社会整体犯罪率不断增高。虽然女性犯罪在整体犯罪中的比例不高,但是绝对数量却是逐年增多,而女性犯罪行为几乎涉及所有犯罪类型,其中最为典型的是偷窃、卖淫、暴力犯罪(主要是杀婴)。其主要原因是随着社会流动的加大,大量的妇女离开原来居住的地区,涌向城市,而新兴城市中社会监管和社会控制力皆不足,因此在陌生的城市环境中,没有家庭背景、缺少技术、社会经验不足的女性容易被引诱而走向犯罪;因为生活所迫,许多下层妇女走出厨房,走进工厂,或者进入雇主家做女仆,但是这一时期女工的工资难以养活自己和子女,不少妇女往往会沦为妓女,或者成为扒手;此时英国的女性观对女性的行为,特别是性道德要求极其严格,以至于许多妇女一旦失足,便难以回头,重复犯罪率高。

                          关键词:英国; 女性犯罪; 工业革命;

                        星云棋牌官网下载   Abstract:

                        星云棋牌官网下载   During the period of industrialization, the overall crime rate increased continuouslyin British society.Although the proportion of female crimes in the overall crimes was not high, the absolute number was increasing year by year.Female crimes involved almost all types of crimes, among which the most typical crimes are theft, prostitution, and violent crimes (mainly infanticide) .The main reason was that with the increase of social mobility, many women leave their original living areas and flock to cities.In the emerging cities, social supervision and social control are insufficient.Therefore, in the unfamiliar urban environment, women without family background, technology and social experience are easy to be tempted to commit crimes;Many women from laboring family compelled to walked out of the home and into the factories, or into the employer's house as maids.But during this period but it is difficult for women workers to support themselves and their children, Many worked as prostitutes, or became pickpockets;At this time, the demand of British conceptions of women on women's behavior, especially sexual morality was so strict that many women once slipped up, it was difficult to turn back, and the repeated crime rate was high.

                          Keyword:

                          Britain; Female crime; Industrial Revolution;

                        英国

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YINGGUOGONGYEHUASHIQI1,YOUYUSHEHUILIUDONGJIADAYIJIPINFUCHAJUZENGDA,SHEHUIZHENGTIFANZUILVZENGGAO。GENJUYINGGUONEIZHENGBUGONGBU1805NIANZHI1842NIANJIANDEFANZUITONGJI,JINZAIYINGGELANHEWEIERSHIYINXINGSHIFANZUIERBEIBUDERENSHU:"1805NIANWEI4605REN,1810NIANWEI5146REN,1815NIANWEI7898REN,1820NIANWEI13710REN,1825NIANWEI14437REN,1830NIANWEI18107REN,1835NIANWEI20731REN,1840NIANWEI27187REN,1841NIANWEI27260, 1842NIANWEI31309REN。"2ZHISHIZAI19SHIJIHOUBANQIDEBUFENFANZUITONGJIZHONG,FANZUIRENSHUYOUSUOJIANSHAO,DANSHIZHEIBINGBUNENGGAIBIANGONGYEHUASHIQIYINGGUOSHEHUIFANZUIXIANXIANGZENGDUODESHISHI。TONGCHANGRENMENPUBIANRENWEINVXINGDETEZHISHISHANLIANG、CHUNJIE、SHUNCONGHERENCI,FANZUIYINGGAIYUNVXINGWUYUAN。18-19SHIJIYINGGUOYOUGUANSIFASHENPANHEJIANYUDENGJIDETONGJIHEFANZUIXUSHUZHONG,JIAOZHIYUNANXINGFANZUI,NVXINGFANZUIQUESHIYEZHISHISHAOSHU。JUTONGJI,19SHIJIDEYINGGELANHEWEIERSHI,FUNVQIUFANZHANJIANYUQIUFANDE17%3.JINGUANNVXINGFANZUIDEBILIBUDA,DANSHIZAIBUDUANZENGDUODEFANZUIANJIANZHONG,NVXINGFANZUIDEJUEDUISHULIANGYEZAIZENGJIA,ERQIECHENGXIANZHUNIANZENGDUODEZHUANGKUANG,FANZUIXINGWEIYEDUOZHONGDUOYANG,JIHUSHEJIGEZHONGFANZUILEIXING。

                          一、工业化时期英国女性犯罪的数量

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                          二、工业化时期女性犯罪的类型

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                        星云棋牌官网下载   2.BAOLIFANZUI

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                          3.MAIYINZUI

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                          三、工业化时期女性犯罪现象增多的原因

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                          2.FUNVWAICHUMOUSHENG,SHIQULEJIATINGDEJIANGUANHEBIHU

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                          3.PINQIONGSHINVXINGFANZUIDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN

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                          4.QIANGDIAOZHENJIEDEFUNVGUANJIADALEZHONGFUFANZUILV

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                          注释
                          1有关英国工业化时期时间节点的划分,国内学术界意见并不统一。鉴于工业化本身是一个长期的动态过程,而工业化引发的社会问题---例如犯罪也存在着时间滞后性,因此本文所指的工业化时期即指18-19世纪。
                          2Friedrich Engels.The Condition of the Working Class in England.London:Penguin Books Lid, 2005, p.75.
                          3Shani D'cruze and Louise A.Jackson.Women, Crime and Justice in England since 1660, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p.15.
                          4Shani D'cruze and Louise A.Jackson.Women, Crime and Justice in England since 1660, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p.18.
                          5Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.96.
                          6William Sanger, The History of Prostitution:Its Extent, Causes and Effects Throughout the World, Harper&Brothers Publishers, 1858, p.347.
                          7Judith R.Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, Women, class, and the state, Cambridge University Press, 1983.P.14.
                          8指伦敦城市中心大约一平方英里的伦敦金融中心,位于伦敦城墙内的城区部分,自13世纪晚期爱德华一世禁止伦敦城内设立妓院以来,伦敦城内对妓女的打击力度就更大。
                          9数字来源于Tony Henderson, Disorderly Women in Eighteenth-Century London, Prostitution and Control in the Metropolis 1730-1830, Longman, 1999, p.131.
                          10Shani D'cruze and Louise A.Jackson.Women, Crime and Justice in England since 1660, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p.17.
                          11Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.99.
                          12Robert O.Bucholz, Joseph P.Ward, London:A Social and cultural History, 1550-1750, Cambridge University Press.2012, p.247.
                          13Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.100.
                          14Frank McLynn, Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth-century England, Oxford University Press, 1991, p.126.
                          15Shani D'cruze and Louise A.Jackson.Women, Crime and Justice in England since 1660, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p.47.
                          16Frank McLynn, Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth-century England, Oxford University Press, 1991, p.117.
                          17Robert O.Bucholz, Joseph P.Ward, London:A Social and cultural History, 1550-1750, Cambridge University Press.2012, p.274.
                          18Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.104.
                          19Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.104.
                          20Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.100.
                          21Lucia Zedner, Women, Crime, and Custody in Victorian England, Clarendon Press, 1994.P.22.
                          22Robert O.Bucholz and Joseph P.Ward, London:A Social and Cultural History1550-1750.Cambridge University Press, 2012, p.76.
                          23Tony Henderson, Disorderly Women in Eighteenth-Century London, Prostitution and Control in the Metropolis 1730-1830, Longman, 1999.p.77.
                          24Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, p.100.
                          25E.P.汤普森,《共有的习惯》,沈汉、王加丰译,上海人民版社,2002年版,第234页。
                          26Janet Roebuck, The Making of Modern English Society From 1850.Routledge&Kegan Paul, 1973, p.1.
                          27Robert O.Bucholz and Joseph P.Ward, London:A Social and Cultural History1550-1750.Cambridge University Press, 2012, p.65.
                          28Lucia Zedner, Women, Crime, and Custody in Victorian England, Clarendon Press, 1994.P.67.
                          29Shani D'cruze and Louise A.Jackson.Women, Crime and Justice in England since 1660, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p.15.
                          30Lucia Zedner, Women, Crime, and Custody in Victorian England, Clarendon Press, 1994, p.62.
                          31根据盖瑟·沃克的研究,近代早期英国乡村的盗窃犯罪基本是以家庭为单位组成的团伙,成员多是自己家庭成员和亲戚,尤其以妻子儿女为主,因此法庭审理时,女性犯罪经常不记录在案。参见Garthine Walker:Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England, 2003, pp.75-112.
                          32Lucia Zedner, Women, Crime, and Custody in Victorian England, Clarendon Press, 1994.P.321.
                          33Bonnie S.Anderson and Judith P.Zinsser, A History of Their Own:Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present, vol.2, Harper&Row, Publishers, New York, 1989, p.249.
                          34Judith R.Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, Women, class, and the state, Cambridge University Press, 1983.P.15.
                          35Bonnie S.Anderson Judith P.Zinsser, A history of Their Own:Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present, vol.2, p.169.
                          36Sandra Clark, Women and Crime in the Street Literature of Early Modern England, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pi.x.
                        星云棋牌官网下载   37Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900, Longman, 2010, pp.98-99.

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