星云棋牌官网下载

  • <tr id='39tv4'><strong id='39tv4'></strong><small id='39tv4'></small><button id='39tv4'></button><li id='39tv4'><noscript id='39tv4'><big id='39tv4'></big><dt id='39tv4'></dt></noscript></li></tr><ol id='39tv4'><option id='39tv4'><table id='39tv4'><blockquote id='39tv4'><tbody id='39tv4'></tbody></blockquote></table></option></ol><u id='39tv4'></u><kbd id='39tv4'><kbd id='39tv4'></kbd></kbd>

    <code id='39tv4'><strong id='39tv4'></strong></code>

    <fieldset id='39tv4'></fieldset>
          <span id='39tv4'></span>

              <ins id='39tv4'></ins>
              <acronym id='39tv4'><em id='39tv4'></em><td id='39tv4'><div id='39tv4'></div></td></acronym><address id='39tv4'><big id='39tv4'><big id='39tv4'></big><legend id='39tv4'></legend></big></address>

              <i id='39tv4'><div id='39tv4'><ins id='39tv4'></ins></div></i>
              <i id='39tv4'></i>
            1. <dl id='39tv4'></dl>
              1. 学术堂首页 | 文献求助论文范文 | 论文题目 | 参考文献 | 开题报告 | 论文格式 | 摘要提纲 | 论文致谢 | 论文查重 | 论文答辩 | 论文发表 | 期刊杂志 | 论文写作 | 论文PPT
                学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 历史论文 > 世界史论文

                分析锡金间谍事件与英国第二次侵略西藏战争间的关系

                时间:2018-12-10 来源:未知 作者:乐枫 本文字数:8584字

                英国史论文精心编辑范文10篇之第七篇:分析锡金间谍事件与英国第二次侵略西藏战争间的关系

                  摘要星云棋牌官网下载:1903年7月,英印政府派出的两名锡金间谍被西藏地方政府抓获,这件事本来对英国不利。但是,在英帝国强盗逻辑下,变理亏为"理直气壮",以此为借口之一来策动侵略西藏的战争。相对英帝国的咄咄逼人、颠倒黑白,清政府处理锡金间谍事件失当,庆亲王奕劻在没有调查情形下就下令放人,而前后两任驻藏大臣裕钢、有泰也没有将此事进行彻底的调查。带领英兵到达拉萨的侵略头目荣赫鹏,对两名锡金间谍被释放进行"美化"宣扬,这是强盗逻辑的表现。

                  关键词:锡金间谍事件; 英国第二次侵略西藏战争; 奕劻; 荣赫鹏

                星云棋牌官网下载   Abstract:

                星云棋牌官网下载   In July 1903, two Sikkim spies sent by the government of British India were arrested by the local government of Tibet. With the gangster logic of British Empire, the matter be used as one of the reasons for them to invade Tibet. The Qing government was not serious enough to deal with the incident of Sikkim spies. Without investigation, Qing infante Yi Kuang agreed to release the spies, and the two grand minister resident of Tibet.The behavior that Francis Younghusband led the invading army of British Empire arrived Lhasa and whitewashed the release of two Sikkim spies, was a manifestation of gangster logic.

                  Keyword:

                  The incident of Sikkim spies; The second war of British Empire invasion in Tibet; Yi Kuang; Francis Younghusband;

                英国历史

                星云棋牌官网下载   1903-1904NIANJIAN,YINGGUOFADONGLEDIERCIQINLVEXIZANGDEZHANZHENG。CICIZHANZHENGQIYINYULIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIAN(SHIWEIYINGGUOPAIWANGXIZANGDEJIANDIE)YOUJIAOWEIMIQIEDEGUANXI。1ZAIXIANGGUANCAILIAODEJICHUSHANG,BIZHESHULI、FENXIXIJINJIANDIESHIJIANYUYINGGUODIERCIQINLVEXIZANGZHANZHENGJIANDEGUANXI,YIJIQINGZHENGFUDUICISHIJIANDEYINGDUI,YIQIJIESHILISHIZHENXIANGBINGYISHIWEIJIAN。

                  一、英国以两名锡金人被西藏地方政府扣留为借口策动侵略战争

                  1903NIAN10YUE8RI,RONGHEPENGZHIDIANYINDUZHENGFU,DUIYUYINZANGBIANJIETANPANBIAOSHISHIWANG,"ZAIGUOQUSANGEYUELI,WOYECENGYIZUIDANAIXIN,RENZHIYOUREN。SUOYOUZHEIXIEKEZHITAIDUDEXIAOGUOSHILING,SUOYIWOYIBUNENGZAIXIANGZHENGFUZHANSHIHEPINGJIEJUEZHEIGEWENTIDERENHEXIWANG".[1]CIDIANBIAOMINGRONGHEPENGJIANYIYINDUZHENGFUSHISHIWULIQINLVEXIZANG。2TIANHOU,JI10YUE10RI,ZAIGANGBAZONGDERONGHEPENGXIANGYINDUZHENGFUZAICIZHIDIAN,SHENGCHENG:"JUNAJINDECHUANJIAOSHIMENSHUO,RENMENYINRIKAZEDERENZAISANGEYUEQIANZHUONALELIANGGERENERHEHUAILE。JUSHUOCIERRENSHOUDAOKAOWEN,BINGYISUISHI。CHUANJIAOSHISHUO,NAJINDIFANGRENMENDUOKAOTONGRIKAZEMAOYIWEIZHU,DANSHIXIANZAIBUGANGUOBIANJINGQU,RENMENSHIFENKUNAO;TAMENBUDEBUSUSHUORENMENDEXINQING。WOYIJIANGZHENGFUYIJINGCAIQUDEXINGDONGTONGZHILECHUANJIAOSHIMEN。"[1]RONGHEPENGBAOGAOZHONGSUOSHUOBEIZHUONADELIANGGEREN,JISHIXIJINREN,SHIJIANFASHENGZAI7YUECHU;RONGHEPENGCISHIDEHUIBAO,TONGGUOXIJINCHUANJIAOSHISUOSHUODEDANGDIKONGHUANGYIJI"SUISHI"CHUANYAN,"HUOSHANGJIAOYOU",MUDEZAIYUGUDONGYINDUZHENGFUSHISHIWULIQINLVEXIZANGJIHUA。

                  10YUE26RI,YINDUZHENGFUXIANGYINGGUOYINDUSHIWUBUDACHENZHIDIAN,SHENGCHENGYOULIUGEYUANYIN,BIXU"TINGJINXIZANG".QIZHONGZHIYIJIUSHILIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUKOULIU,DIANWENRUCIDAO:"TAMENZAIRIKAZEDAIBUBINGGUANYALELIANGWEIYINGGUOCHENMIN,DUIYUWOMENJIUCIZUOCHUDERENHEKANGYI,TAMENYIGAIBUYUDAFU。BINGQIE,XIANZAIYAOCHUAN,ZHEILIANGWEIYINGGUOCHENMINZAODAOLEKAODAHESHAHAI。"[2]XIANRAN,YINDUZHENGFUDIANWENCAIYONGRONGHEPENGDESHUOFA,ZHISHIJIANGBEIZHUALIANGMINGXIJINRENMINGQUEWEILIANGWEIYINGGUOCHENMIN,WEIQINLVEXIZANGXUNZHAOZHENGDANGLIYOU。

                星云棋牌官网下载   11YUE5RI,YINDUZONGDUKOUSONGDENGRENDAIBIAOYINDUZHENGFUZHIHANYINGGUOYINDUSHIWUBUDACHENBULUODELIKE,QIZHONGDAO:"WOMENDEZUIXINXIAOXISHUO,NIBOERNEIGESONGWANGGANGBAZONGYUANZHUWOMENZAIJIJIANGLAILINDEDONGJIYONGYUYUNSHUHEGONGJIDEYIPIMAONIU,XIZANGZHENGFUZAIXIZANGYUNIBOERJIAOJIECHUGONGJIHEQUSANLETAMEN。RANER,XIZANGZHENGFUDEDIYIHEAOMANDIMIESHIWENMINGDEGUANLIDEMINGZHENG,YEXUJIUSHIZAIRIKAZEKOULIULELAIZIXIJINDELIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMIN,TAMENCONGNEILIBEISONGDAOLASA,QUESHIKEYIDUANYAN,TAMENZAODAOLEKAOWENHESHAHAI。WOFANGLVCIXIANGZHONGGUOWEIYUANHEZHUZANGDACHENTICHUDEKANGYIWEIDEDAORENHEDAFU。YOUGUANZHEILIANGRENDEZAOYUHUOMINGYUNYIJIDUITAMENDEZUIHUAIDECHUAICEDEMEIYIGEQINGBAO,KANLAIQUESHISHIYOUDAOLIDE。"HANMOTAMENSHENGCHENG:"JIARUWOMENMOXUWOMENDESHITUANZAODAOBEIWEIPAILAITONGSHITUANHUIWUDENEIXIERENDEDIZHI,WOMENDEGUANYUANSHOUDAOLINGRU,WOMENDECHENMINBEIJUJINHENVEDAI,WOMENDEQUANLISHOUDAOYIGEXIAOXIAOZHENGQUANDEMIAOSHI,ZHEIGEXIAOXIAOZHENGQUANCUOBAWOMENDERENNAIDANGCHENGRUANRUO……XIANZAIWOMENRURUOHAIZHONGFANZHEIYANGDECUOWU,WOMENJIUHUISHIQUZHONGXINYINGDEDENIBOERNEIGEDEXINLAI,NIBOERNEIGEZAIDANGQIANSHIWUSHANGTONGQINGHEZHONGSHIDIZHICHIWOMEN;WOMENJIUHUISHIXIZANGZHENGFUGENGJIAYUWAN,WOMENJIUKENENGSHIBUDANRENCONGZHIYUANTAIDUZHUANBIANDAOXIANZAIDIDUIDEYIFANGQU;WOMENZHIHUIJIANGSHIQING,BUGAIGENGZHANGJIUDIDANGEJIEJUEDESHIQING,TUICHIDAOTIAOJIANGENGJIAKUNNANDE,GENGWANDESHIRI,HEGENGWEIXUANSHUDETIAOJIANXIAQUJIEJUE,ERSHIQINGDEJIEJUESHIBUNENGZAIXINGTUOYANLE。"[3]11YUE5RIDEZHEIFENGXINHANSHIYIDIANBAOFASONG,TADUIYUYINGGUOJUEDINGFADONGQINZANGZHANZHENGFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。211YUE6RI,YINDUSHIWUBUDACHENBULUODELIKEZHIDIANYINDUZHENGFU:"JIANYUXIZANGRENJINLAIDEXINGWEI,BIXIAZHENGFURENWEIBUNENGBUCAIQUXINGDONG,YINCIBIXIAZHENGFUPIZHUNSHITUANXIANGJIANGZIDETUIJIN。"[1]YEJIUSHISHUO,YINGGUOZHENGFUPIZHUNLEYINDUZHENGFUPAIBINGQINLVEXIZANGDEJUEDING。

                  1903NIAN11YUE7RI,YINGGUOWAIJIAOBULANSIDUOENHOUJUEYUEGUOZHUYINGDASHIBENKENDUOFUBOJUEHUIMIAN,LANSIDUOENLIYONGZHEIYIJIHUI,XIANGEGUOTONGBAOYINGGUOYIJINGJUEDINGQINLVEXIZANG:"YOUYUXIZANGRENBUKELIYUDEXINGWEI,POHUAILEWOFANGDAIBIAODETANPAN,ZHUABULEYINGGUOCHENMIN,BINGQIANGZOULEYIGEYOUHAOLINBANGDEYUNSHUDONGWU,YINGGUOJUEDINGPAICHUZHUANYUAN,BINGPEIBEIYIDINGSHULIANGDEHUWEIDUI,JINYIBUSHENRUXIZANGLINGTU,DANYINGGUOCAIQUZHEIYICUOSHIJUEBUYIWEIZHEYINGFANGDASUANTUNBINGHUOZHANGQIZHANLINGXIZANGLINGTU。"[4](P29)YINGGUOPAIBINGRUQINXIZANGZAIEGUOYINQIFANXIANG,11YUE17RIEGUOZHUYINGDASHIBENKENDUOFUMIANJIANYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHENLANSIDUOENHOUJUE,BIAOMINGEGUOZHENGFUDELICHANG,"EGUOZHENGFUBUDEBURENWEIYINGJUNRUQINXIZANGLINGTUSHIYOUYISHIZHONGYAJUSHIXIANRUYANZHONGHUNLUAN;FEICHANGYIHANDESHIWOMENXIANZAIJIJIANGYOUHAODIJINXINGYINGELIANGGUOLIYIXIANGGUANSUOZAIZHICHUDEGUANXIZHIJI,HUIFASHENGRUCIYOUYIYINQIEGUOFANGMIANYIHUODEZHEIZHONGSHIQING".DUICI,LANSIDUOENHUIYINGDAO:"WOTIQINGBENKENDUOFUBOJUEZHUYIWOYIXIANGTASHUOMING,WOMENLINGSHOULEXIZANGRENFACHUDEZUIWEIYANZHONGDETIAOXIN,XIZANGRENBUZHIBULVXINGZUNSHOUQITIAOYUEDEYIWU,ERSHISHISHANGJUJUETONGWOMENTANPAN。TAMENSHENZHITUIHUIWOMENXIEJILASADANGJUDEXINHAN;GENGYOUSHENZHE,TAMENZUIJINZHUAZOULIANGGEYINGGUOCHENMIN,WOMENXIANGXINYIJIANGQICANRENSHASI;BINGQIEQIANGZOUGONGSHITUANSHIYONGDEYUNCHU。WOMENSHIZHONGBUYUANXIANRUTONGXIZANGRENDEZHENGCHAO,RANER,KONGPAWOMENDEKEZHISHITAMENYIWEIWOMENSHOUDAOWURUERHUITAIRANZIRUO。WOQUEXINEGUOZHENGFUBUHUIYOUWOMENNEIYANGDERENNAI,KONGPAXIANZAITAMENYIJINGZAILASALE。"[3]CONGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,LIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIYINGGUOQINLVEXIZANGDEZHONGYAOJIEKOU。

                  RONGHEPENGHOULAIZAIQIHUIYIZHUZUOZHONGRUCIXIELIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIAN:"SHIYOULIANGXIJINGUOREN,SUCHANGWANGLAIRIKAZE,CIFANQIANQUBEIBU,WENSHANGWEIJIALINGNVEHUOSHAHAI。WEIZANGRENJINGWOFANGQINGQIU,RENGJUBUYINDU,WEIBAOFUJI,WURENYIWEIJINJUEZANGRENZHICHUQUN,BINGJINZHUJIAGANGZHIZANGREN,CIBEIZANGREN,XIYUMAOJUEDAWEIXIANTEYUNLIUJUJIAGANGZHEYE。"[5](P105)

                星云棋牌官网下载   BEIZHUALIANGMINGXIJINRENSHIJISHENFENSHIYINGGUOJIANDIE。1903NIAN11YUE16RI,YINGGUOYINDUSHIWUBUSONGYINGGUOWAIJIAOBUDEHANJIANZHONG,FUJIANYOUNIBOERZHULASADAIBIAODEXINHAN,QIZHONGYOU"NAJINDESANGEYINGGUOJIANDIEYIBEIRIKAZEZONGZHENGFUDAIBU"[6];FUJIANHAIYOUDITA·FAERMAN·GULONGDEXINHAN,NEIRONGYOU"JINTIANWODEDAOXIAOXI:ZHUZAIGANGBADEYINGGUOGUANYUANPAICHULEWUMINGYINGGUOJIANDIEXIJINREN,QIZHONGSANRENCHULAIZAIZHEILIDEJISHISHANGYOUGUANGSHIBEIDAIBU,DAISHANGSHOUKAO,BINGSONGWANGRIKAZEZONGZHENGFU"[6].SUIRANYISHANGCAILIAONONGCUOLEBEIBUXIJINRENDESHUZI,DANMINGQUEZHICHUTAMENDESHENFENSHIYINGGUOJIANDIE。1961NIAN,YINGGUOXUEZHEBIDE·FEILAIMINGCHAYUEYINGGUODANGANCAILIAOJIQITAZILIAOJICHUSHANG,XIECHENGYIBEN1904NIANYINGGUODIERCIRUQINXIZANGDEZHUZUO。TARENWEI:BEIZHUADELIANGMINGXIJINRENSHIWEIAOKANGNA3GONGZUODEDIJIJIANDIE,RONGHEPENGSUIRANZHIDAOLIANGMINGXIJINRENDEJIANDIESHENFEN,DANQIZAIYIFENGBAOGAOZHIHOU"ZHUIJIALELIANGFENJIANDIEQINSHUDESHENQING,TAMENQIANBEIDIQINGQIUYINGGUOZHENGFUWEILETAMENSHIZONGDEQINRENERJINXINGGANYU".BIDE·FEILAIMINGPINGLUNDAO:"ZHEILIANGFENWENJIANDECUOCIRUCIDILEITONGHEJIANDAN,YIZHISHIRENMENHUAIYITAMENBUSHIYOUDANGSHIRENZIJIXIEDE。LIANGGELACHONG(JINAJIN,LIANGMINGXIJINRENJUZHUDIFANG)RENBEISHUOCHENGSHI'WEILESHANGYEMUDE'DAORIKAZEQUDE。YINGGUOSUOYOUSHEJITAMENDEGUANFANGXINJIANDOUZHICHILEZHEIZHONGXUGOU。"[7](P69-70)

                  二、清政府处理两名锡金间谍事件之失当

                星云棋牌官网下载   1903NIAN9YUE23RI,YINGGUOZHUHUAGONGSHISADAOYIZHIHANQINGQINWANGYIKUANGCHENG:"GUANYUXIANQIANJIUXIZANG-XIJINBIANWUTANPANWENTIWANGLAIDEHANDIAN,JINTONGZHIDIANXIA,WOJINTIANSHOUDAOBIXIADACHENFALAIDEYIFENGDIANBAO,NEICHENGJINGUANDALAILAMATONGYIZAIGANGBAZONGJINXINGTANPAN,DANSHIXIZANGDAIBIAOJUJUEZAINEILITANPAN。BUJINRUCI,XIZANGDANGJUJINGRANHAIZAIRIKAZEJIANJINLELIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMIN,BINGQIEJUJUESHIFANGZHEIXIEREN,TAMENHAIZAIZHENGJIJUNDUI,ZHENGZAIJINXINGBEIZHANHUODONG。BIXIAZHENGFUJUEBUNENGYUNXUYINGGUOCHENMINBEIJIANJIN,YEBUNENGYUNXUBIXIAZHENGFURENMINGDEWEIYUANSHOUDAOXIZANGRENNEIYANGWULIDEDUIDAI。BIXIAZHENGFUDEWEIYIYUANWANGSHITONGXIZANGJIANLIGENGYOUHAODEGUANXI,TAMENZHISHIWOXIANGDIANXIAXUANBUBIXIAZHENGFUQIWANGZHONGGUOZHENGFULIJIDUIDALAILAMASHIJIAYALI,YIBIANCUSHIXIANZAIBEIJIANJINDELIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMINDEDAOSHIFANG,BINGNENGSHIXIZANGDAIBIAOKAISHITONGYINGGUOWEIYUANTANPANERBUZAITUOYAN。WOQUEXINWOBUXUYAOJINYIBUXIANGDIANXIAQIANGDIAOSHUOMINGXIZANGRENRUGUOJIANCHIMUQIANZUOFAJIANGHUIZAOCHENGDEJUSHIDEYANZHONGXING。"[3]

                星云棋牌官网下载   SITIANHOU,JI9YUE27RI,QINGQINWANGYIKUANGHUIHANSADAOYIYUN:"JINGAOZHISHOUDAOGEXIABENYUE23RIGUANYUXIZANG-XIJINBIANWUTANPANDEZHAOHUI,QIZHONGTONGZHIWOXIZANGDAIBIAOJUJUEZAIGANGBAZONGJINXINGTANPAN,LIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMINZAIRIKAZEBEIJIANJIN,XIZANGDANGJUCAIQUDETAIDUZONGDELAISHUOSHIDIDUIDE。……BENBUYIJINGDADIANBAOJIZHUZANGQINCHABANSHIDACHEN,ZHISHITAMINGLINGXIZANGDANGJULIJISHIFANGLIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMIN,BINGZECHENGTAMENKAISHIZAIGANGBAZONGTONGYINGGUOWEIYUANJINXINGTANPAN,ERBUZAITUOYAN。ZAIJIEDAOBANSHIDACHENDEFUWENYIHOU,WOJIANGLIJITONGGEXIALIANXI。"[3](P66)YOUQINGQINWANGYIKUANGDEHUIHANNEIRONGLAIKAN,"XIZANGDANGJUCAIQUDETAIDUZONGDELAISHUOSHIDIDUIDE"QINGCHUDIBAOLULEQINGZHENGFUMIANLINYINGGUOQINLVEXIZANGDIFANGSHIDETAIDU,ZUOWEIZHUGUANQINGCHAOWAIWUDEQINWANG,SHISHIDANGDEYANCI;BUSHENMINGXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUZHUONAXIJINRENDEYUANYOUJIHELIXING(CONGHUIHANZHONG"SHIFANGLIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMIN"LAIKAN,QINGQINWANGDUIBEIZHUAHUOZHEWEIXIJINRENSIHUBINGBUQINGCHU),ZHIQIANGDIAOANZHAOYINGGUORENZHUZHANGFANGREN,ZHEIWUYISHIDEZUIXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUDEHUNYONGLICHANG。

                  DUIYUQINGQINWANGYIKUANGZHEIYANGDETAIDUHELICHANG,SADAOYIXIANGYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHENHUIBAODAO:"WOQINGXIANGYURENWEIZHONGGUOZHENGFUZHENZHENGXIWANGJIANDAOYINDUHEXIZANGZHIJIANDEWENTINENGDEDAOYUANMANSHANGDING,DANSHIJIANYUQINGQINWANGYIZAITIDAOXIZANGRENXINGQINGGENGWAN,BANSHIDACHENZAITONGZHEIXIERENDAJIAODAOFANGMIANYUDAOKUNNAN,TAMENDUIYOUTAINENGXUNSUJINXINGTANPANDEKENENGXINGBUBAOLEGUANTAIDU。TAMENWEICHANGBUYUANYIKANDAOYINDUZHENGFUJITAMENDEBUTINGHUADECHENSHUYANSEKAN,LIANZHEIYIDIANSIHUYEBUSHIBUKENENGDE。"[3]YINCI,QINGQINWANGZAICHULIXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIANSUOLIUCHUDETAIDU,ZHUZHANGLEYINGGUODUIXIZANGDIQUDEQINLVE。

                  JIUZAIQINGQINWANGYIKUANGMINGLINGSHIFANGXIJINRENDEZHISHIHAIZAITUZHONGZHIJI,GUANGXUERSHIJIUNIANBAYUEERSHIYIRI(1903NIAN10YUE11RI),ZHUZANGDACHENYUGANGZHIDIANWAIWUBU,DIANWENZHONGSHUO"YOUZHEBUNAJINMINRENERMINGSIFUHOUZANGBEIZHI",YINGYUANLVLVYAOQIUFANGREN,XIZANGDIFANGZHENGFU"BUKENSHIFANG""YIJINGKAIDAO,SHANGWEIZUNCONG".[8](P1151)ZHEISHIYUGANGZHUDONGXIANGWAIWUBUHUIBAOXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIAN,TASUIJIANGDAOCIERRENWEI"MINREN""SIFUHOUZANG",DANDUITAMENWEIHESIFUHOUZANG,SHICAIJIQINGBAODEJIANDIEXINGWEIYIHUOQITA,YUGANGMEIYOUZAIDIANBAOZHONGMINGYAN。YUGANGDEZHEIFENGDIANBAONEIRONG,YOUZHONGGUOZHUYINGGONGSHIZHANGDEYIZHAOHUIYINGGUOWAIJIAOBUDACHENLANSIDUOEN,YIJINGZAIYIGEYUEZHIHOU,JI11YUE19RI,ZHANGSHUO:"GUANYUJUSHUOYIBEIXIZANGRENSHAHAIDELIANGMINGXIJINTUZHU,WOFENGLINGSHUOMING,XIANZAILASADEZHUZANGDACHENYUZAI10YUE11RILAIDIANTIDAOLIANGGERENBEIDAIBUHEJULIU,DANSIHAOMEITIDAOTAMENYIJINGBEICHUSI,WAIWUBUYEMEIYOUTINGDAOGUOGUANYUNEIZHONGYISIDERENHEXINXI。"[3]11YUE23RI,LANSIDUOENHUIFUZHANGDEYIDAO:"RANERGUANYUXIZANGDACHENYUDEDIANBAOZHONGTIDAOLELIANGGEXIJINRENBEIDAIBUHEJULIU,DANSHIGUANYUTAMENBEICHUSIDESHI,TASHENMEYEMEISHUO,WOXIANGZHICHULIJIBAZHEIXIERENJIAOJIYINGGUODANGJUJIANGSHIZHENGMINGTAMENMEIYOUXIANGRENMENPUBIANRENWEIDENEIYANGBEIXIZANGRENCHUSIDEZUIHAOZHENGMING。"[3]LANSIDUOENDEHUIFUBIAOMINGTABUXIANGDUDONGZHANGDEYIZHAOHUIDEZHENZHENGYISI--LIANGMINGXIJINRENBEISHABUSHIQUESHIDEXIAOXI,ERSHIQIANGCIDUOLIDITICHULEJIANGLIANGMINGXIJINRENLIJIJIAOJIYINGGUODANGJUDEGENGWEIKEKETIAOJIAN,JIANYUYINGGUOZHENGFUCIQIAN11YUE6RIYIJINGJUEDINGPAIBINGRUQINXIZANG,ZHEIQINGCHUDIBIAOMINGYINGGUOZHENGFUZAILIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIANSHANGDEZHENSHITAIDU,JILIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUAZHISHIQINLVEDEJIEKOU。

                  QINGCHAOWAIWUBUDUIYINGGUOZAILIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIANDETAIDUFEICHANGZHONGSHI。GUANGXUERSHIJIUNIANSHIYUESHIQIRI(1903NIAN12YUE5RI),WAIWUBUZHIDIANYUGANG:"QIANJIEZHUYINGZHANGSHIXIAODIAN,JUYINGWAIBULANHOUYUN:ZANGRENBUWEIYINZHENGFUDISONGGONGWEN,QIESHAHAIYINRENLIANGMING,YINGBINGNIFUJUZANGDOUBAIYUYINGLIZHU(ZHA)[ZHA]JIEWEN。"[8](P1158)XIANRANZHEIFENGDIANBAONEIRONGFANYINGSHIZHANGDEYI11YUEXIAXUNJIAOSHEQIANDEXINXI。SHIYUEERSHIRI(12YUE8RI),WAIWUBUYOUZHIDIANYUGANG:"QINGJIEZHUYINGZHANGSHIDIANCHENGLANHOUFUCHENG,TINGZHIJINBINGWANNANYUNCONG,YOUDACHENDAORENXUSHI,JIDAORENHOUYIWEIBIGUONENGKAIDAO,SUOSHUKOULIUNAJINERMINGRUJIJIAOCHU,FANGWEIBINGWEIBEIQIANGZHISHIJUDENGYU。YINGRENRUIYUJINBING,ZONGYIZANGYUANBUTINGKAIDAO,BINGSHAHAIYINRENERMINGWEIJIEKOU,RUGUOGAIYINRENBEIQIANGBUQUE,YULINGZANGYUANXUNJIJIAOCHUSHANGKEWEIZHUANYUANZHIJI,YINGYOUGUIDACHENCHAMING,ANZHAOBENBUQIANDIANTUOCHOUBANLI,BINGDIANFU。"[8](P1159)ZHEIFENGDIANBAOSHIZHANGDEYIJIAOSHEZHIHOUDEXINXI。SHIYUEERSHIYIRI(12YUE9RI),WAIWUBUZAICIZHIDIANYUGANGCHENG,"JINYINGTINGYINYINRENBEIQIANG,PAIBINGJIN(ZHA)[ZHA],SHIJIYIPO",TANGRUOXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFU"RENGQIANWANGENG",ZE"XINDUANYIKAI,BIANSHIYUNANSHOUSHU",XIWANGYUGANG"QIESHICHUANYUZANGYUANWUZAILUMANGZISHI,ZHINIANGJUXIN""BINGJIANGYINRENBEIHAIQINGYOUJIYINGBINGXIANDIHECHU,CHAMINGDIANFU".[8](P1159)WAIWUBUJIELIANSANFENGJIZHUZANGDACHENYUGANGDEDIANBAO,YUTONGGUOJIAOCHULIANGMINGXIJINREN,LAIZUZHIYINGGUODEQINLVE。RANER,CISHIYINGGUOZHENGFUGENJUQIZHANLVELIYI,YIJINGJUEDINGPAIBINGQINLVEXIZANG,SHIFANGLIANGMINGXIJINRENZHISHIJIEKOU。1903NIAN11YUE16RI,SADAOYIZHIDIANYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHENLANSIDUOENDAO:"WOKEYISHUOXIZANGRENJUJUEYINDUBEIZHUADELIANGMINGYINGGUOCHENMIN,YIJILVEDUONIBOERDEYUNCHU,SHIDEYINDUZHENGFURENWUKEREN;CHUFEIZHONGGUOZHENGFUNENGGOULIJIXIANGLASADANGJUSHIJIABIYAODEYALI,FOUZEYINDUZHENGFUJIANGCAIQUCUOSHISUOQUPEICHANG。"[6]LANSIDUOENHUIFUSADAOYICHENG:"WOMENDUIDAIXIZANGRENJIWEIKEZHI,DANTAMENMUQIANDEXINGWEIPOSHIWOMENQIANGSUOPEICHANG。……WOQINGQIUNIWUBIDUIZHONGGUOZHENGFUBAOCHIYIZHIDEKOUJING。"[6]

                  QINGCHAOWAIWUBUTONGGUOSHIFANGLIANGMINGXIJINRENLAIZUZHIYINGGUOQINLVEDEXIANGFA,YOUYUXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUFANDUIERLUOKONG。SHIYUEERSHIYIRI(12YUE9RI),YUGANGZHIDIANWAIWUBU:"NAJINRENERMING,XIANZAISHANGSHANGGUANJIN,BINGWULINGNVEQIANGHAIQINGSHI。QIANYINZANGJUNAREN,YINGYUANDUOQUBIANJIENIUZHIERBAIYUTOU,GANGDIEYUZANGFANSHIFANGNAREN,ZEYINIUZHIDIHUANWEICI,XIANRENGJIELIKAIDAO,NENGFOUSHIFANG,DEFULINGDA。"[8](P1159)JIEHEBAYUEERSHIYIRIYUGANGZHIWAIWUBUDEDIANWENSUOYAN,LIANGMINGXIJINRENSHIYINSIFUHOUZANGBEIZHUA,ZAIXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUKANLAI,CIERRENJIUSHIYINGGUOJIANDIE4,GENGHEKUANGYINGGUORENDANGSHIJIUCAIQULVEDUOXIZANGERBAIYUTOUNIUZHISUOWEIBAOFUXINGWEI。

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANG,ZAILIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIANCHULISHANG,QINGZHENGFUSHISHIDANGDE。QINGZHENGFUWANQUANKEYITONGGUOZHUZANGDACHENDEXIANGXIDIAOCHA,ZAILEJIESHIJIANLAILONGQUMAIDEQINGXINGXIA,LIYONGLIANGMINGXIJINRENCONGSHIJIANDIEXINGWEI,ZHANJUDAOYIDEGAODIAN,JIELUYINGGUOQINLVEXIZANGDETUMOU。KEXIDESHI,QINGQINWANGZAIMEIYOUTINGQUZHUZANGDACHENBAOGAOYIJIXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUZHUZHANGDEQINGXINGXIA,JIURENTONGYINGGUODEZHUZHANG,ZHILINGZHUZANGDACHENSHIYAXIZANGDANGJUFANGREN,CONGERJISHIXINYUZANGREN,YIYANZHONGSUNHAILEGUOJIAZHUQUANYULIYI。

                  三、强盗逻辑:荣赫鹏对两名锡金间谍释放的"美化"

                星云棋牌官网下载   1904NIAN8YUE16RI,LIANGMINGXIJINRENBEISHIFANG。RONGHEPENGZAIQIHUIYIZHUZUOZHONGDUIYOUGUANLIANGMINGXIJINRENBEISHIFANGRUCIXIEDAO:"YICHEN,YUZHAOJIYUBURENYUANJUXINGSHOUFUSHI,ZANGFANGPAILIANGXIEBAIJILIANGLAMADAITONGLIANGXIJINRENQIANLAI。CILIANGRENJIHUODEZIYOU,JIBIAOXINYUE,YUGAOBIDENG,YUFENGYINGHUANGMINGLINGXIANGZANGFANGSHIFANGBIDENG,BIDENGJINDEZIYOUYI。YINGHUANGSHANGYOUHOUMING,TANGBIDENGZAOSHOUNVEDAI,XUXIANGZANGFANGYAOQIUPEICHANG。BIDENGJIUHUIZAOSHOUNVEDAIYE?BIDENGDAYANZAIRIKAZESHISHOUBIANPU,WEIZIYIJIECIJIANHOU,DAIYULIANGHAO,YIWEIZAOSHOUBIANPUYUN。YUWEICISHIXUJINGYISHENGJIANYAN,YIZIZHENGMING。YUNAIXIANGXIEBAISHENGYAN,YINGHUANGDUIYULIANGYINGMINBEIJUJINBIANPUZHISHIRENWEIZHONGDAZHIWURU。SHIJIEZHISUOYIYOUGANBAJINBIJIANGZI,CIJIZHUYAOYUANYINZHIYIDUAN,YUFENGMINGLAIZHILASADIJIETIAOYUE,QIZHUYAOTIAOKUANZHIYI,JIWEICILIANGYINGMINZHISHIFANG。……ZIJINYIWANG,ZANGRENYINGZHIYINGGUOCHENMINBUKERENYINVEDAI,ERDUIYUYIQIELIUJUZANGJINGZHIYINGREN,SIHOUYOUXUFUZESHANYUZHIYE。"[5](P227)JIANGXIJINLIANGJIANDIEDEBIANPUSHIWEIDUIYINGGUODEZHONGDAWURU,YICIWEIJIEKOUQINLVEXIZANGDIFANG,RONGHEPENGDIANDAOHEIBAI,"MEIHUA"YINGGUOQINLVE。

                  RONGHEPENGHAIXIEDAO:"BEIBUZHIYINGRENDANGJIYOUHUAITEJILIANGZANGGUANDUTONGYIYIGUANJIAJIANYAN。YIGUANBAOCHENGBIDENGSHENTIJIANZHUANG,BINGWUSHANGHEN。YUDEBAOJIBIAOSHIMANYI……SHIHOUCHAXI,CILIANGYINGRENYUANXIGEBIEJUJINYUZHONG,YUJUDIMIANFANERSHIYIBU,BIDENGBUJIANTIANRIZHEYINIANYUZI。WEIBIDENGYINSHISHANGFENG,SHENTIYIJIAN,ERWURENZAIGANBAZHUANGSHIYOUCENGBUDEZANGFANGMAONIUERBAIYIWEIBAOFU,GUYUDUIYUCISHIGENGBUSHENJIU。CISHIZUIZUXINWEIZHE,JILIANGYINGRENZHIKAISHI,QUANXIZHUZANGDACHENZHUDONGYE。"[5](P228)BUGUO,YOUSHIRENZHUZANGDACHENYOUTAIDERIJILAIKAN,SHIFANGLIANGMINGXIJINRENSIYOUXIZANGDIFANGSHOUXIANTICHULAI,"SICHUBAN,HUICHEN、XIANGMEI、HESUN、SHAOHAN、HUACHENTONGDAOYANGYING,YINZUORIFANRENLAI,NIJIANGZHUOLIANGYANGRENJIAOHAIZHEMENGXIONGNAJINDIFANG,SHIYIWUWEILINGSHISHANGZHUOYIQIE".[9](P333)1904NIAN8YUE16RI,YOUTAIZAIRIJIZHONGDAO:"ZAOJIANFANGUANLAIHUI,JIANGQIANZHUOZHEMENGXIONGLIANGRENDANGMIANYIJIAOYANGGUAN,XUNZHIBENREN,FANBIANBINGWEILINGNVE,YANGRENJIANGQIHUNSHENYANZHI,BINGWUBIESHUO。XIANGCAOYUENEIKEQUYITIAO,DANGCHIFANBIANJISUJUBING,YIBEICUNAN。"[9](P333-334)CONGRIJINEIRONGLAIKAN,YOUTAIRENWEISHIFANGLIANGMINGXIJINRENKEYIRANGCAONIDETIAOYUEZHONGJIANQUYITIAO,YOU"SHIRAN"ZHIGAN。DUIYUXIANQIYINGGUOQINLVEXIZANGDEZHUYAOJIEKOUZHIYI--LIANGMINGXIJINRENBEIZHUASHIJIAN,YOUTAIDAOZANGHOUSIHUMEIYOUJINXINGXIANGXIDIAOCHAYULEJIE,YINWEIFANYUECISHIQIYOUTAIRIJI,DUILIANGMINGBEIZHUAXIJINRENDEJIZAIZHIYOUYISHANGLIANGTIAO,ZHEIYENANGUAIRONGHEPENGYIJIYINGGUOZHENGFUHENQINGSONGJIUWEIQINLVEZHAODAOSUOWEIZHENGDANGDELIYOU。

                星云棋牌官网下载   MUDUSHIFANGLIANGMINGXIJINRENSHIFANGDEYINGGUOJIZHEAIDEMENG·KANDELE,ZAITA1905NIANCHUBANDEZHUZUOZHONGDAO:"ZANGRENFANGMIANZUOCHUDEDIYIGERANGBUSHISHIFANGLELIANGGELAQIONGREN,TAMENSHIXIJINREN,SHIYINGGUODECHENMIN。1903NIAN7YUE,DANGRONGHEPENGYUANZHENGJUNZAIGANGBAZONGDENGHOUSHI,TAMENBEIFU,ZAIZHASHENLUNBUSIZAODAOLEDUDA,SHIFANGTAMENSHITIAOYUEZHONGTIAOJIANZHIYI。TAMENSHIFANGSHI,RONGHEPENGSHANGXIAODAZHANGQIGUDIZHENGSHIJIEJIANLETAMEN,BINGJIANGLEHUA,JINGGAOZANGRENYINGGUOCHENMINSHISHENSHENGBUKEQINFANDE。RONGHEPENGSHANGXIAOSHUO,QIUJINZHEILIANGGEXIJINREN,SHIZANGRENFANXIAZUIYANZHONGZUIXING。ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGJIUSHIYINWEIZHEIYIDIAN,YINDUZHENGFUCAIZUOCHULEXIANGJIANGZIJINJUNDEJUEDING。ZHEILIANGMINGFANRENCONGJIANYUBEIZHIJIEDAIDAOLEJIEJIANTING。TAMENZAIHEIANDEDILAOZHONGBEIJIANJINLEYINIANDUO,ZHIDAONEITIANSHANGWUDANGRONGHEPENGSHANGXIAOGAOSUTAMEN,GENJUYINGWANGDEMINGLINGTAMENYIJINGHUOSHISHI,TAMENGENBENJIUBUZHIDAOYINGGUORENYIJINGDADAOLELASA。WOJUEBUHUIWANGJIZHEIYICHANGMIAN--ZHEILIANGMINGFANRENYOUJINGYOUXI,TAMENLAZHANGLEDELIANPANGCANBAICANBAIDE,ERZANGRENZESHIYILIANDEBUGAOXING。ZHEIXIEZANGRENDIYICILEJIEDAOLELUOMAYIJUDEZIHAOSUYUDEHANYI,'WOMENSHILUOMAGONGMIN'."[10](P221-222)YOUYISHANGDEJISHULAIKAN,ZUOZHEAIDEMENG·KANDELESIHUBUZHIDAOLIANGMINGXIJINRENWEIYINGGUOJIANDIE,TAWANQUANCHENJINZAISUOWEISHENWEIDAYINGDIGUOZIMINDEZIHAOYIJIRONGYAOZHIZHONG。RUGUOTAZHIDAOYINGGUOZHENGFUGUYIDIANDAOHEIBAI,XUNZHAOJIEKOUQINLVE,HAIHUIRUCI"ZIHAO"MA?

                  四、结语

                星云棋牌官网下载   CONG《YINGGUOWAIJIAOBUYOUGUANZHONGGUOXIZANGDANGAN》DENGZILIAOLAIKAN,YINGGUOFADONGDIERCIQINLVEXIZANGZHANZHENGSHI,DUIXIZANGDIFANGYIJIQINGCHAOZHUZANGDACHENJINXINGLEXUDUOQINGBAOCITANHEJIANDIEGONGZUO。[11](P186-196)PAICHUXIJINJIANDIEZHISHIQIZHONGYIBUFEN。YINGGUOPAICHUDELIANGMINGXIJINJIANDIEBEIXIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUZHUAHUO,CISHIDUIYINGGUOPOWEIBULI。RANER,YINGDIGUOZIYOUYITAOQIANGDAOLUOJI,"LIZHIQIZHUANG"YIQIWEIZHUYAOJIEKOUZHIYI,LAICEDONGQINLVEXIZANGDEZHANZHENG。XIANGDUIYINGDIGUODEBUBUJINBI,QINGZHENGFUCHULIXIJINJIANDIESHIJIANSHIDANG,ZHANGGUANWAIJIAODEQINGQINWANGYIKUANGMEIYOUDIAOCHAJIUXIALINGFANGREN,ERQIANHOULIANGRENZHUZANGDACHENYUGANG、YOUTAIYEMEIYOUJIUCISHIZHANKAICHEDIDEDIAOCHA,WEIDECHULIANGMINGBEIZHUAXIJINRENSHIWEIJIANDIE,CONGERSANGSHIYICIYUYINGGUOCEHUADEQINLVEZHANZHENGJINXINGDOUZHENGDESHIJI,TAMENSIHUGENGRENKEYINGGUODELUOJI。XIZANGDIFANGZHENGFUSUIRANQICHUDINGZHULEQINGCHAOWAIWUBUTONGGUOZHUZANGDACHENXIALINGFANGRENDEYALI,DANSHIZAIYINGJUNBINGLINLASASHIDEJUNSHIWEIXIEMIANQIAN,ZHIDESHIFANGLIANGMINGXIJINJIANDIE。DIANDAOHEIBAIDEQINLVEZHEQUDELEZANSHIDESHENGLI。

                星云棋牌官网下载   DANSHI,QINLVEZHEDEQIANGDAOLUOJIZUIZHONGNANTAOLISHIDEFAYAN,TAMENZIMINGDEYIDEBAOGAO、XINHAN、ZHUZUOQIAHAOGOUCHENGLEZIGONGZHUANG,BENWENSHULILIANGMINGXIJINJIANDIEYUYINGGUOFADONGDIERCIQINLVEXIZANGZHANZHENGGUANXIDEZHUYAOMUDE,JIZAIYUCI。CIWAI,DUIYUQINGZHENGFUYINGDUILIANGMINGXIJINJIANDIESHIJIANYUYINGGUOFADONGDIERCIQINLVEXIZANGZHANZHENGZHIMANHANYUTUOXIE,ZHEIYILISHIJIAOXUNZHIDEYONGYUANXIQU。

                  参考文献
                  [1]王远大译。英国外交部有关中国西藏档案(二)F.O.535(1903-1908)[J].西藏民族大学学报,2016(3)。
                  [2]王远大译。英国外交部有关中国西藏档案F.O.535(1903-1908)[J].西藏民族大学学报,2016(2)。
                  [3]王远大译。英国外交部有关中国西藏档案(四)F.O.535(1903-1908)[J].西藏民族大学学报,2016(5)。
                  [4](英)阿拉斯泰尔·兰姆著,梁俊艳译。中印涉藏关系史(1904-1914)--以"麦克马洪线"问题为中心[M].北京:社会科学文献出版社,2017.
                  [5] 荣赫鹏著,孙煦初译。英国侵略西藏史[M].上海:商务印书馆,1934.
                  [6]王远大译。英国外交部有关中国西藏档案(三)F.O.535(1903-1908)[J].西藏民族大学学报,2016(4)。
                  [7] 彼德·费莱明著,向红笳,胡岩译。刺刀指向拉萨[M].拉萨:西藏人民出版社,1987.
                  [8]吴丰培辑。清代藏事奏牍·裕钢驻藏奏稿[M].北京:中国藏学出版社,1994.
                  [9] 有泰。有泰日记[A].俞冰,杨光辉编辑。稿本有泰文集(第8册)[C].北京:全国图书馆文献缩微复制中心,2005.
                  [10]埃德蒙·坎德勒著,尹建新、苏平译。拉萨真面目[M].拉萨:西藏人民出版社,1989.
                星云棋牌官网下载   [11] 梁忠翠。论英国对驻藏大臣有泰的间谍工作[A].暨南史学(12辑)[C].桂林:广西师范大学出版社,2016.

                  注释
                  1学界关于英国第二次侵略西藏战争的论著颇为丰富,而对于锡金间谍事件与英国第二次侵略西藏战争关系研究似乎关注不够,具体研究尚属阙如。
                  21903年11月10日,兰斯多恩致电萨道义,告诉其英国政府决定派兵入藏,提到了印度政府11月5日这封电函(兰斯多恩电文中时间误写为11月4日)与英国入侵西藏决定的关系。参见王远大译:《英国外交部有关西藏档案(三)》,《西藏民族大学学报》2016年第4期,第71页。
                  3奥康纳即弗罗得里克·奥康纳,当时为少校,为荣赫鹏入侵西藏"使团"的成员。参见彼德·费莱明著,向红笳、胡岩译:《刺刀指向拉萨》,西藏人民出版社1987年版,第57页。
                  4当时西藏地方官员认定两名锡金认为英国间谍,此可根据尼泊尔驻拉萨代表一封致英国赴西藏使团的函件佐证,函中道:"他们(指西藏噶伦)还说,如果英国人拒绝撤离而采取强暴手段,那么,他们到那里去则不会有什么好的结果,英国间谍也不会得到释放。他们召开了全藏会议商讨此事。"参见王远大译:《英国外交部有关中国西藏档案(九)》,《西藏民族大学学报》2017年第4期,第51页。

                点击查看英国史论文(推荐8篇)其他文章
                    相关内容推荐
                  相近分类:
                  • 成都网络警察报警平台
                  • 公共信息安全网络监察
                  • 经营性网站备案信息
                  • 不良信息举报中心
                  • 中国文明网传播文明
                  • 学术堂_诚信网站

                  百胜棋牌---首页_欢迎您 百灵拼三张-Welcome 蓝洞棋牌官网送3金币---首页_Welcome 035棋牌手游官网 亲朋棋牌官方下载完整版-首页