星云棋牌官网下载

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                  工业革命时期英国的经济发展的新范式研究

                  时间:2018-12-10 来源:未知 作者:乐枫 本文字数:9487字

                  英国史论文精心编辑范文10篇之第八篇:工业革命时期英国的经济发展的新范式研究

                    摘要星云棋牌官网下载:20世纪70年代后, 随着大量新资料的出现与整理、经济学研究方法在史学界的运用以及对旧史学思潮的批判, 学者对英国工业革命的研究产生了新的范式。不同于以往的"乐观派"与"悲观派", 新范式的领导者们经过对"工业革命"这个概念的艰深探索, 认可了工业革命时期英国的经济发展, 但又认为这时的发展非常缓慢。新范式取得了一定成果, 但其使用档案的先天不足, 研究者本身的思维漏洞, 研究方法单一等问题, 仍然值得后来的研究者警惕与反思。

                    关键词:星云棋牌官网下载英国; 工业革命; 新范式;

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Abstract:

                    After the 1970 s, new paradigm about the British Industrial Revolution has appeared along with the discovery and sorting out of the new primary sources, the use of economic research method in history and criticism of the old history trend. Other than the privious "the optimist" and "the pessimist", leaders of the new paradigm recognize the economic development of Britain during industrial revolution making many detailed and profound researches about the concept of "the industrial revolution", but it is quite slow. Although some achievements have been made, shortcomings, such as the natural deficiency in the use of achieves, the thinking loophole of researchers themselves, and the monotonous research methods still deserve the vigilance and reflection of later researchers.

                    Keyword:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Britain; industrial revolution; new paradigm;

                  英国历史

                  星云棋牌官网下载   1962NIAN, JIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAOKEJISHIJIATUOMASI·KUEN (Thomas Kuhn) ZAIQIXINZHU《KEXUEGEMINGDEJIEGOUZHONG》ZHONG, DUIQIZAI1959NIANBIANYITICHUDE"FANSHI" (Paradigm) GAINIANJINXINGLEZHUDUOFAHUI。SUIRANRENGRANMEIYOUDUIZHEIYIGAINIANJIYUYIGEQINGXIDEDINGWEI, DANKUENDEDATIYISISHIQINGXIDE:"FANSHI"JIUSHIKEJISHISHANGMOUXIEZHONGDADEKEJICHENGJIUSUOXINGCHENGDEMOUXIENEIZAIJIZHIHEWAIBUSHEHUITIAOJIAN, SHIYIZHONGXIANYUJUTIKEXUEYANJIUDEHEXINGOUJIA。DUIKUENLAISHUO, KEXUESHISHANGDESUOWEIGEMINGXINGTUPOHENDACHENGDUSHANGYILAIYUZHEIZHONGHEXINGOUJIA, JIFANSHIZHUANYI (Paradigm shift) .[1]HOULAI, ZHEIZHONG"FANSHI"GAINIANSUIRANBAOSHOUZHENGYIYIZHIYUKUENBENRENDOUBIMIANSHIYONG, DANTADEYINGXIANGQUERIYIZENGDA, SHOUDAOYUELAIYUEDUORENWENSHEKEXUEZHEDEREPENG。

                    ZI20SHIJI70NIANDAIYILAI, BANSUIZHEXINSHEHUIBEIJING、XINJISHU、XINSIXIANGERLAIDE, YI"HUANMANJIANJIN"SHUOWEIDAIBIAODEXINGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUFANSHIDUIZHIQIANDEYANJIUJINXINGLEXITONGDEFANSIHEPIBO, BINGZHUJIANCHENGWEILEYIZHONGZHULIUGUANDIAN。BENWENNIDUI20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUXINFANSHIJINXINGKAOCHA, BINGTICHUZIJIDEKANFAHEYIJIAN。

                    一、新范式产生的条件

                    XUESHUFANSHIDEZHUANYIWUYISHIYOUFUZADEDUOZHONGYINSUHELITUIDONGDE。CONGSHIDAIBEIJINGLAISHUO, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOU, YINGGUOJIESHULEDIERCISHIJIEDAZHANJIESHUYILAIJINGJISHANGJIANGJIN20NIANDEGAOGEMENGJIN, YOUHAIWANZHANZHENGDENGYINSUZAOCHENGDEZHIZHANG (stagflation) XIANXIANGZHANGQICUNZAI, RANGDIERCISHIJIEDAZHANHOUBAISHIBAILINGDEKAIENSIZHUYIJINGJIXUEBAOSHOUZHIYI。[2]MINZHONGDUIJINGJIXINGSHIXINXINBUZU, JIULIANDABUFENXUEZHEYEZHUIZHUIBUAN。WOTE·LUOSITUO (Walt Rostow) JIUCENGYUYUDIGANTAN:"ZAI20SHIJI70NIANDAI, TURANZHIJIAN, SHEHUISHANGYIQIEDUIYUJINGJIZENGZHANGDEZHENGDANGXINGYIJIXINXINDOUYANXIAOYUNSANLE。"[3]SHOUDAODANGSHISHEHUIJINGJIZHUANGKUANGDEYINGXIANG, GONGYEGEMINGSHIJIAKAISHIKANSHUAIGONGYEGEMING, ZHIYIDANGSHIJINGJIZENGZHANGSUDUSHIWANQUANKEYILIJIEDE。1JINGUANRUCI, SHEHUIBEIJINGDUISHIXUEYANJIUDEYINGXIANGZHINENGSHUOSHIJIANJIEXINGDE, BIJINGBULUNSHIXUELILUNZENYANGJINBU, LIQIUSHIJIANZHONGSHIXUEYANJIUDEKEGUANHUASHISHIJIADEJIBENCAOSHOUZHIYI。YIBIZHEZHIJIAN, ZHIJIEYINGXIANGGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUFANSHIZHUANHUANDEYUANYINYOUSANTIAO:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIAN, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHIQIANDALIANGXINZILIAO、XINSHUJUDEFAXIANJIZHENGLI。DIERCISHIJIEDAZHANHOU, FAGUONIANJIANXUEPAIDESHIXUESIXIANGSHOUXIANSHOUDAOAIRUIKE·HUOBUSIBAOMU (Eric Hobsbawm) 、KELISITUOFU·XIER (Christopher Hill) YIJIE·P·TANGPUSEN (E.P.Thompson) DENGZUOPAISHIJIADEZHONGSHI。JINGGUOTAMENDEJIESHAOHECHUANBO, NIANJIANXUEPAIDEYINGXIANGJIANJIANDIZAIYINGGUOSHIXUEJIEMANYANKAILAI。SHOUDAONIANJIANXUEPAIYINGXIANGDEYINGGUOSHIJIARENWEI, YIDEGUOLANKEXUEPAI2WEISHOUDECHUANTONGSHIXUEGUOYUJIANGZHUYILIJIZHONGYUZHENGFUDANGANDENGCAILIAO, YANJIEXIAZHAI, ERDANGXIADEXINSHIXUEYINGGAIJIANLIZAIDALIANGSHOUJICHUGUANFANGWAIGEZHONGMINJIANJIFEIGUANFANGDESHEHUI、RENKOU、JINGJIDENGSHUJUDEJICHUSHANG。[4]22JIANYANZHI, XINSHIXUEXUYAOSOUJIYIQIEKENENGSOUJIDAODESHUJU, CONGERFAXIANBINGBAWOSHEHUIJIAOZHANGSHIDUANDEFAZHANGUILV。SHOUCIYINGXIANG, ZAI1964NIAN, YIPIRENKOUTONGJIXUEJIAHELISHIXUEZHEJIANLILEJIANQIAORENKOUYUSHEHUIJIEGOUYANJIUXIAOZU (the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure) , KAISHILEYIXIANGZHANGDA40NIANDEHUISUXINGYANJIUJIHUA, SHOUJIBINGZHENGLIBULIEDIAN400NIANDEJIAZUSHI。QIZHONG, ZHENGLICHUDE16-19SHIJIYOUGUANSHEHUIRENKOU、JIATING、JINGJIZHUANGKUANGDECAILIAOSHUZHANLEZONGCAILIAOSHUDE2/3, ZHEIXIECHENGGUOZUIHOUDOUYOULIDITUIDONGLEGONGYEGEMINGSHIDEYANJIU。[5]CHUCIZHIWAI, YIXIEXUEZHEYEYIJIANRENDEYILIKAISHIZHENGLIZIJISUONENGSHEJIDECAILIAO。JIUGONGYEGEMINGSHIERYAN, FANSITAN (Feinstein) SHOUJILEGUANYUGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIZIBENXINGCHENGDEZILIAO, LINDETE (Lindert) HEWEILIANMUSEN (Williamson) SHOUJILEGUANYUSHEHUIYUGONGZUOJIEGOUDEZILIAO, RUIGELI (Wrigley) HESIKEFEIERDE (Schofield) SHOUJILEGUANYURENKOUBIANHUADEZILIAO, HALI (Harley) SHOUJILEGUANYUSHEHUISHENGCHANLVDEZILIAO, BOLADE (Pollard) SHOUJILEGUANYUMEITANXINGYESHOURUDEZILIAO……ZHEIXIEZILIAODESHOUJIHEZHENGLIDOUHAOWUYIWENWEICIHOUDEYANJIUZHETIGONGLEGENGDUOKEGONGSHIYONGDECAILIAO, NANGUAIYOUXUEZHEZHICHULEISIYUKELAFUCI (Crafts) 3ZHEIYANGXUEZHEDEYANJIUDOUSHIBA"QIANRENYIJINGZHAODAODEJIMUDAQILAI"[6].BUNANKANCHU, XINFANSHIDEZHUANBIANQUESHIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHOUDAOXINCAILIAO、XINSHUJUDEFAXIANYUZHENGLIZHIYINGXIANG, GENGDUODECAILIAORANG20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUDEXUEZHEYOUJIHUIZHONGXINSHENSHIGONGYEGEMINGDELISHI, DECHUYIGEBUTONGDEJIELUN。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   QICISHIJINGJIXUEYANJIUFANGFAZAIGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUZHONGDESHIYONG。XINSHUJUDEBUDUANKUODARANGSHIXUEJIAZAIYIGESHIDUANNEIGANDAOWUSUOSHICONG, BIJINGCHUANTONGSHIXUEFANGFABINGMEIYOUWEITAMENTIGONGXIANCHENGDEJIEJUEFANGAN。WEICI, ZUISHANZHANGCHULIHEFENXISHUJUDESHEHUIKEXUE---JINGJIXUEDEYANJIUFANGFABEIYINRULEGONGYEGEMINGSHIDEYANJIUZHONG, XINGCHENGLEYIGUFENGTOUQIANGJINGDELIANGHUASHIXUEFENGCHAO。20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOU, GONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUXINFANSHIDEZHINIUERZHEMENDADUODOUYOUJINGJIXUEYANJIUBEIJING, SHENZHIJIAN·DE·FULISI (Jan De Vries) DENGRENGENBENJIUSHIJINGJIXUEJIACHUSHEN, KUAJIEYANJIUGONGYEGEMINGSHI。TAMENSHIFENSHANYUBAYIXILIELISHISHIJIANJIANHUAWEISHUJUJIHEZHONGDEYUANSU, ZHIHOUZAIYONGLIXIANGXINGDESHUJUMOXINGJIANGKANSIZALUANWUZHANGDEYUANSUJINXINGPAILIEZUHE, ZUIZHONGZHENGHECHULISHIGUILV。[5]BUJINRUCI, TAMENHAITONGGUOSHELIYANJIUJIGOUNULIJIANGJILIANGFANGFACHUANJIXIAYIDAISHIXUEJIA。20SHIJI60NIANDAIHOUQI, MIXIEGENDAXUE、KANGNAIERDAXUE、HAFODAXUEXIANGJIKAISHELESHUQIJIANGXIBANJIANGXILIANGHUASHIXUEFANGFA, MEIGUOLISHIXUEHUIYEZHUANMENCHENGLILE"DINGLIANGZILIAOXIEHUI" (Quantitative Data Committee) , CHENGWEIZHICHILIANGHUASHIXUEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOXUESHUZHENDI。ZAIZHEIXIEXIEHUIHEJIANGXIBANZHONG, ZUOWEIJINGJISHIYANJIUDEZHONGTOUXI, GONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUBEINALAIZUOLIANGHUASHIXUEFANLIJINXINGJIANGJIEDESHIHOUBUZAISHAOSHU。[5]DAOLEXINSHIJI, J·D·KELAKE (J.D.Clark) , ZHEIWEIFENGTOUBUJIANDANGNIANDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUXINFANSHIDEDAIBIAORENWUZHIYI, DAIZHEZIJIDEGUANDIANHELIANGHUAFANGFALAIDAOBEIJINGDAXUEKAITANJIANGXUE, CHENGWEILEDIYIQIBEIJINGDAXUELIANGHUALISHIJIANGXIBANDEZHONGYAODAOSHIZHIYI, KAIKEDEDIYIGEZHUTIJIUSHILIANGHUAGONGYEGEMING。[7]KEJIAN, DANGXIALIANGHUASHIXUEDEFAZHANHEYINGXIANGYIJINGCHAOCHULEXIFANGXUEJIE, ZUOWEISHIJIEJINGJISHIDEZUIZHONGYAOYANJIULINGYUZHIYI, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUDEXINFANSHIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHOUDAOLIANGHUAFANGFAHEJINGJIXUEYANJIUFANGFADEYINGXIANG。

                    DISAN, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUZHEPUBIANDUIZHIQIANZAISHIXUEJIEQILILUNZHIDAOZUOYONGDEHUIGEZHUYISHIXUEHEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEBUMAN。HUIGESHIXUEHEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUESHIYINGGUOSHIXUEJIE20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHIQIANZHINIUERCHAOGUOYIGEDUOSHIJIDELIANGZHONGXUESHUSICHAO。HUIGESHIXUESHIYIZHONG"TONGSHIGAIGUAN", ZHEIZHONGGAIGUANYI"DANGXIAWEICANZHAOWUYANJIUGUOQU", BINGQIERENWEISUOYOUDELISHISHIJIAN"DOUXIANSHILESHUGESHIDAIYILAIYOUYIGEMINGXIANDEJINBUYUANZEZAIQIZUOYONG, XINJIAOTUHEHUIGEDANGRENSHIJINBUYUANZEYONGYUANDEMENGYOU, ERTIANZHUJIAOTUHETUOLIDANGRENZEYONGYUANDUIZHEIYIYUANZECHANSHENGZHANGAI"[8]10-11.JUTIDAOGONGYEGEMINGSHI, HUIGESHIXUEJIARENWEIGONGYEGEMINGSHILISHIXIANXINGJINBUDEYIGEDIANXINGBIAOZHI, SHILISHICHELUNGUNGUNXIANGQIANDEYIGEZHONGYAOBUFEN, SHIHUIGEDANGRENHEXINJIAOTUSONGJISHIJIEDEYIFENDALI。MAKESIZHUYISHIXUEHEHUIGESHIXUEYOUSUOBUTONG, TAZHEZHONGQIANGDIAODESHIGEMINGSHIGUAN, QIANGDIAOGONGYEGEMINGQIANHOUSHIJIEDEFEILIANXUXING (Discontinuity) .20SHIJI60NIANDAIMOQIKAISHI, ZAIFUKEDENGHOUXIANDAISHIJIADEYINGXIANGXIA, DANGSHIDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIXUEZHEJIELIBAITUOHUIGESHIXUEHEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEDEKONGZHI, LITUZAIZHONGDUOXINSHUJUDEZHICHIXIAZHAOCHUGONGYEGEMINGQIANHOUDESHEHUILIANXIYIJIJIEJUESHEHUIJINBUDEFUDUDENGWENTI, YIKEGUANDESHIXUESHILIJIYUHUIGESHIXUEHEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEYIZHONGJI。[9]

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIYANG, KEGUANSHANGXINSHUJU、XINCAILIAODEFAXIANHEZHENGLI, JIEHEZHUGUANSHANGJINGJIXUEFANGFADESHIYONGHEFANMAKESIZHUYISHIGUAN、HUIGESHIGUANDESHIXUESIXIANG, ZHIJIETUIDONGLE20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUGONGYEGEMINGSHIJIADUIGONGYEGEMINGRENSHIFANSHIDEZHUANBIAN。

                    二、新范式的主要特点

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZI1884NIANANUODE·TANGYINBI (Arnold Toynbee) YIZUO《GONGYEGEMINGYANJIANGJI》CHUBANDAO20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHIQIAN, XUEZHEDUIGONGYEGEMINGSHIDEYANJIUDATIKEYIFENWEILEGUANPAIHEBEIGUANPAILIANGGEXUEPAI。[10]422BEIGUANPAIYITANGYINBI、HAMENGDEFUFU (Hammonds) HEWEIBOFUFU (Webbs) WEISHOU, TAMENDETONGNIANSHIDAIJIUSHENGHUOZAIGONGYEGEMINGDEDACHAOZHONG, DUIDANGSHIRENMENDEKUNKUSHENGHUOGANTONGSHENSHOU, YINCIZAIXUESHUSHANGDUIGONGYEGEMINGDAILAIDESUOWEI"JINBUXING"CHIPIPINGTAIDU。BICUISI·WEIBO (Beatrice Webb) RENWEI, "GONGYEGEMINGSHIQIJIRENYIJUDADE, CANKUDE, DAOTUIDETIYAN, RENMENWEICIERSHENGHUOJIONGPO, LIULISHISUO, SHENXINJIAOCUI, XINGFUBUZAI。GONGYEGEMING……BEIZHENGMINGSHIYIGECHETOUCHEWEIDESHIBAI"[11]343-344.WEIBOFURENDEKANFAKEYISHUOSHIZHUNQUEDIDAOCHULEDIYIDAIGONGYEGEMINGYANJIUZHEDEXINSHENG。DIERCISHIJIEDAZHANHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIXUEZHEZEHETAMENDEQIANBEIKANFADAXIANGJINGTING。TAMENDUIGONGYEGEMINGMEIYOUZHIJIEDETIYAN, QUEGANSHOUZHEZHANHOUXIFANGJINGJIDETENGFEIYUFULI, ZHEIYISHIQIDEXUEZHEBAFAXIANDEXINCAILIAOHETAMENDEZHUGUANGANSHOUJIEHEZAIYIQI, DECHULEGONGYEGEMINGSHIXIANDAIJINGJITENGFEIDEQIDIANZHEIYANGDELEGUANJIELUN。TAMENDEDAIBIAORENWUSHILUOSITUO (Walt Rostow) , TARENWEI"GONGYEGEMINGSHIYICHANGQIFEI (take-off) , TAZHIJIEGUANXIDAOSHENGCHANFANGSHIBIANHUA".QIFEISHIWENDINGZENGZHANGDEZHANGAIHEZULIDEYIZUIZHONGKEFUDESHIQI, QIFEICUJINLEJUDADEJINGJIJINBU, BINGKAISHIDUIZHENGGESHEHUICHANSHENGZHIPEIXINGDEYINGXIANG。[12]

                    20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIDUISHANGSHULIANGZHONGGONGYEGEMINGDEZHULIUKANFADOUCHIPIPANTAIDU。SHOUXIAN, TAMENBUTONGYUTANGYINBIHEWEIBOFUFUDEBEIGUANLUN, ERSHIRENWEIGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIQUESHISHIYIGEJINGJIZENGZHANGDESHIQI。ZHEISHIXINFANSHIDEDIYIGETEDIAN。XINFANSHIDEZHUDAORENWUKELAFUCI (Crafts) RENWEI, "WUYONGZHIYI……DAO1840NIAN, YINGGUODEJIUYETIZHI (employment structure) YIJINGHEJISHINIANQIANFASHENGLEBIANHUA, YEYOUBIEYUOUZHOUQITAGUOJIA", " (HEQITAOUZHOUGUOJIAXIANGBI) GONGYEZHONGZUIGAODESHENGCHANLVHEGAOCHUKOULV, NONGYEZHONGZUIDIDELAODONGLIBILI, ZUIGAODECHENGSHIHUASHUIPING……SHIJISHANG, YINGGUOQUDELEZHANGZUDEFAZHAN"[9].KELAFUCICONGHONGGUANDEJIAODUKANDAIGONGYEGEMINGDEJINBUWENTI, ERZHEIYISHIQIDEQITAXUEZHEYECONGGEZIDEYANJIUFANGXIANGCHUFA, LAICHANSHUGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIDEJINGJIZENGZHANG。RUIGELI (Wrigley) RENWEI, GONGYEGEMINGSHIQIDEGONGCHANGZHIDU, JISHIMEIYOUWANQUANQUDAIJIUDEZHIDU, YEZAI"DAGUIMOSHENGCHAN, XINCHANPINKAIFA, QIANGHUADUISHENGCHANHEXIAOFEIZHEDEBOXUEFANGMIANYINRENZHUMU"[2].XIMENG·KUZINIECI (Simon Kuznets) RENWEI:"LAODONGSHENGCHANLVDEDAFUTIGAO, BUDUANTIGAODELAODONGTOURUZHILIANGHEZIBENTOURUZHILIANG……SHIMINGXIANDE。"[2]LANDESI (Landes) ZUIQIANGDIAODESHIGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIDEJISHUBIANHUA, TAXIEDAO:"JISHUBIANHUAJIDADIZENGJIALECHUKOUHECHANPINYUFUWUDEZHONGLEI, DANDANZHEIYIBIANHUAJIUJIDADIGAIBIANLERENLEIDESHENGHUO。"[13]JISHIXIANGJIAN·DE·FULISI (Jan De Vries) ZHEIYANGZHIJIEDUIGONGYEGEMINGGAINIANTICHUZHIYIDEXUEZHE, YERENWEITASUOGUANZHUDEJIAODIANSHIZHEIYISHIDUANJINGJIZENGZHANGBEIHOUDEYUANYIN---SHENGCHANLIDEGEMINGXINGTUPOHAISHIJINJINZENGJIALELAODONGLIANG---ERBUSHIZENGZHANGBENSHEN。[14]YOUCIKEJIAN, DUI20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHIHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIJIALAISHUO, JINGJIZENGZHANGLUNDEDAOLETAMENJUEDADUOSHUDERENTONG。

                    XINFANSHIDEZHICHIZHEMENBUTONGYIBEIGUANPAIDELUNDIAO, QUEYEMEIYOUDUILEGUANPAIDELUNDIAOJIAYIRENKE。XIANGFAN, TAMENRENWEIGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIDESUOWEIJINGJITENGFEIZHISHILEGUANPAIDEYIXIANGQINGYUAN。SUIRANJINGJIZENGZHANGSHIBURONGFOUDINGDE, DANGENGXIANZHUDETEDIAN, SHIZHEIYISHIQIJINGJIZENGZHANGDECHIHUAN。GENGQUEQIEDISHUO, HUANMANFAZHANSHIXINFANSHIDEDIERGE, YESHIZUIZHONGYAODETEDIAN。TONGYANGSHIKELAFUCI, ZAIKENDINGLEJINGJIDEZENGZHANGHOU, YONGYIXILIEFUZADESHUJUMOXINGDAOCHULEYINGGUOGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIJINGJIFAZHANHUANMANDEJIELUN。JULILAISHUO, TARENWEIYINGGUO1780-1800NIANJIANJINGJIZENGZHANGLVZHIYOU0.35%, ERZAIZHIHOUDE20NIANYEMEIYOUCHAOGUO1.61%, ZHEISHIYINWEIQUANBUYAOSUSHENGCHANLV (TEP) 4ZENGZHANGHUANMANDEYUANGU。1760-1800NIANJIAN, TEPZENGZHANGZHIYOU0.2%.ER1860NIANZUOYOUCAIMIANQIANGDADAO1%.TADEGUJIHELEGUANPAIXUEZHEXIANGBIDILEDAYUE2/3ZUOYOU。[15]YOUCI, TONGGUOYIXILIESHUJUFENXI, KELAFUCIJIANDINGDIZHANZAILELEGUANPAIDEDUILIMIAN, BINGQIEBUWUFENGCIDIXIEDAO:"GONGYEGEMINGSHIQIJINGJIDEZENGZHANGHE'QIFEILILUN'BIQILAIJIANZHIHUANMANLETAIDUO。"[9]CHUKELAFUCIWAI, QITAXINFANSHIDEDAIBIAORENWUYEJIANDINGDIZHICHIHUANMANFAZHAN。AILIKE·QIONGSI (Eric Jones) HELONGDUO·KAMEILONG (Rondo Cameron) DOURENWEIHUANMANGONGYEHUASHICHANGTAI, BAOZHAXINGZENGZHANGJINJINSHIDANGSHIFAZHANDEYIGELIWAI。[9]A·MUSEN (A.Musson) ZEQIANGDIAO, SHIZHI1851NIAN, XIAOFEIPINGONGYERENGRANCANQUEBUQUAN, ERQIETAMENZHONGDEDADUOSHURENGRANCHANSHENGYUXIAOZUOFANGLI;JIUYEMOSHIRENGRANSHIFENDANYI, CHUANTONGDESHOUYIREN、LAOGONG、JIATINGYONGRENWUCHUBUZAI;GONGCHANGZHIDUHEZHENGQIDONGLIDEKUOZHANDOUSHIFENHUANMAN。"1850NIANDEYINGGUOHE1750NIANBIQILAI, JINBUSHIZAIBUDA。"[2]JIAN·DE·FULISIWEILECHANSHUGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIJINGJIHUANMANZENGZHANGDELILUN, BAGONGYEGEMINGZHIYULEYIGEGENGJIAGUANGKUODELISHIKUANGJIAZHIZHONG, ZHICHUCHUANTONGSHANGRENWEIKAISHIYU18SHIJIHOUBANQIDEGONGYEGEMING, SHIJISHANGSHI1500-1800NIANJINGJIHUANMANZENGZHANGDEYIBUFEN, HEZHIQIANDESHIDUANYIYANG, ZHEIZHONGHUANMANZENGZHANGZHUYAOLAIZILAODONGSHIJIANYULAODONGLIANGDEZENGJIA, HESUOWEI"DAGONGYESHIDAI"、JISHUCHUANGXIN、SHEHUIBIANGEMEISHENMEGUANXI。[14]ZHENGRUDAWEI·KANGNADING (David Cannadine) SUOZHICHUDENEIYANG, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOU, YOUXIANZENGZHANGHEHUANMANZENGZHANGCHENGLEZHEIYISHIQIGONGYEGEMINGSHIXUEZHEDEGONGSHI。[2]

                    XINFANSHIDEDISANGETEDIANSHIZHEIYISHIQIDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUZHUANJIASHOUCIDUI"GONGYEGEMING"ZHEIGEDINGYIJINXINGLEJIANSHENDESISUOHETANTAO。SHIZHI1967NIAN, LUOBOTE·HATEWEIER (Robert Hartwell) CENGBUWUYIHANDISHUO, ZAITAZHIQIANDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUZHE"DUIGONGYEGEMINGDINGYIDESIKAOZHISHAORANGRENGANDAOCHIJING"[16].DEQUE, XUDUOXUEZHESHIYONGZHEIGEGAINIANJINJINSHIYINWEISHIXUEYANJIUSHANGDEYUEDINGSUCHENG。20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHIHOU, CHENGSHUDEHUANMANZENGZHANGLILUNRANGGONGYEGEMINGSHIDEYANJIUZHUANJIAKAISHIXIXIDISHENSHIXIANG"'GONGYEGEMING'YICIYONGYIMIAOSHUDANGSHIDESHIDAISHIFOUQIADANG"ZHEIYANGDEJICHUWENTI, ERDADUOSHUXUEZHEDUICICHIFOUDINGTAIDU。BIRUAILIKE·QIONGSI (Eric Jones) RENWEI"GONGYEGEMINGYICISHIBUQIADANGDE……ZHEIGECIJIYULEYINGGUOTESHUDEDIWEI, EROUZHOUQITAYIXIEGUOJIAYEJINGLILEXIANGSIDEGUOCHENG……ZHEISHIGEMANZHANGDEGUOCHENG, HENSHAODASHANGYINGGUODEYINJI, DUANLIEXINGCHUHUYILIAODESHAO, LIANXUXING (continuum) ZHANJUZHESHIDAIZHULIU"[9].J·D·KELAKERENWEISUOWEIGONGYEGEMING, GENBENJIUSHIZHONGSHIJITUDIGUIZUCAIFUHEQUANLIDECHUANCHENGYUJIAOJIE, SUOYI1832NIANZHIQIAN, GENBENMEIYOUSHENMEGEMINGKEYAN, GENGMEIYOUGONGYEYINDAODEGEMING。SUOYIGONGYEGEMINGSHIGEGENBENJIUBUGAICUNZAIDEWEIGAINIAN。[9]CHUYISHANGLIANGRENWAI, DUIGONGYEGEMINGGAINIANFANSIZUISHEN、YONGLIZUIQINDEXUEZHEDANGSHUJIAN·DE·FULISI。JIAN·DE·FULISIRENWEI, JIANJINBIANGEDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIDAIYILAIYUZHIQIANSHIDAIDEZHANGQIZHUNBEI, ERQIEZHIQIANSHIDAIDEZENGZHANGFANGSHIHESUOWEI"GONGYEGEMINGSHIDAI"DEJINGJIZENGZHANGFANGSHIBINGWUBENZHIDEBUTONG, SUOYIYINGGAIJIANG1500-1800NIANZUOWEIYIGEZHANGSHIDUANJINXINGFENXI, ZHEI300NIANLAIYIZHIHUANMANJIANJINDEJINGJIXUYAOZAIYIGETONGYIDEWEIDUZHIXIABEILIJIE。WEICI, JIAN·DE·FULISITICHU"QINLAOGEMING" (Industrious Revolution) DEGAINIAN, XIWANGNENGZAIGENGGUOKUODELISHIBEIJINGZHIXIADAITI"GONGYEGEMING".TAZHICHU, 1500-1800NIANJIANJINGJIDEHUANMANZENGZHANGZHUYAOSHIYINWEIYIJIATING (household) WEIDANWEIDELAODONGLIANGDEZENGJIA, ERBUSHIRENHESHENGCHANLIDE"GEMINGXINGTUPO".JIATINGZUOWEIYIGEZUIWEIJICHUDEGONGTONGJUZHUYUZAISHENGCHANDANWEI, ZAIZIYUANDEZHONGXINPEIZHIZHONGQIDAOHEXINZUOYONG。QINLAOGEMINGBENZHISHANGSHIJIATINGCHENGYUANZHIJIANJIUSHIJIANYUQITAZIYUANJINXINGFENPEIDEJUECEGUOCHENG。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG, JIATINGCHENGYUANGONGZUOQIANGDUDA, XIUXISHIJIANBEIJIYADAOSUONENGCHENGSHOUFANWEIDEDIXIAN, XIANGHUBOXUEXIANXIANGYANZHONG, CONGERZAI300NIANDEMANZHANGSHIGUANGZHONGHUANMANCHUANGZAOCAIFU, CIJIXIAOFEI, ZENGJIASHICHANGSHANGSHANGPINZHONGLEI, ZUIZHONGZHISHIJIATINGCHANSHENGXINYUWANGHEXINXIAOFEIXINGSHI, WEIHOUSHIZOUCHUQINLAOGEMINGZUOHAOPUDIAN。[14]ZONGDELAISHUO, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHIHOU, ZHENGRUHATEWEIERGUANCHADAODE, GONGYEGEMING (the Industrial Revolution) ZHEISANGEDANCIDEMEIYIGEBUFENDOUSHOUDAOYANKEDETIAOZHAN:CENGJING, "the"DAIBIAOGONGYEGEMINGZAIYINGGUOZUIDIANXING, DUYIWUER (British uniqueness) ;"Industrial"DAIBIAOGONGYEGEMINGBIANHUADEZUIXIANZHUTEDIAN;"revolution"DAIBIAOBIANHUADESUDUHEQUANMIANXING (speed and comprehensiveness) .XIANZAI, GONGYEGEMINGBUNENGJINJINBEIXIANZHIZAIYINGGUO, YEBUNENGJINJINBEIXIANZHIZAIGONGYEFANGMIAN, FAZHANSUDUGENGSHICHENGBUSHANGGEMING。[9]

                    TONGGUOYISHANGFENXIKEYIQINGCHUDIKANCHU, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUQIANGDIAOJINGJIFAZHANDEHUANMANZENGZHANG, QIANGDIAOZAICIJICHUSHANGDUIGONGYEGEMINGGAINIANDEQUANMIANFENXI5.ZHEIXIEYANJIUZHONGDEYIZHIXINGYIJIHEZHIQIANLIANGDAZUIZHUYAOYANJIULIUPAI (LEGUANPAI, BEIGUANPAI) DEMINGXIANBUTONGSHIDETAMENZICHENGYIGEZHENYING, XINGCHENGLEXINDEYANJIUFANSHI。

                    三、对新范式的评价

                    20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUXINFANSHIWUYISHIYIBIBAOGUIDECAIFU。XINCAILIAO、XINFANGFA、XINSIWEI、XINJIELUNDECHUXIANRANGXUEZHEMENRENQINGLEZAICIZHIQIANGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUDEQUEDIANHEBUZU, YEWEIJINHOUDEJIXUYANJIUPUPINGLEDAOLU。DANBIZHEZAICIXIWANGNENGDUOTANTANXINFANSHIDEQUEDIANHEJUXIANXING, DUIZHEIXIEQUEDIANDERENZHENFANSIJIANGSHISHIWEILAIYANJIUGENGJIAKEGUANDEQIANTIZHIYI。YIBIZHEJIAN, XINFANSHIDEJUXIANXINGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIYIXIASIGEFANGMIAN:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIAN, SHIYONGDEDANGANSHUJUBENSHENCUNZAIXIANTIANBUZU。LISHIXUEJIADEXUESHUSHENGYASHIHEZILIAOYUDANGANJINMILIANXIZAIYIQIDE, SOUJIDAODEDANGANSHUJUYOUZISHENQUEXIANSHIMEIGELISHIXUEJIADOUHUIYUDAODESHIQING。DANDUIYU20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUDEGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUZHELAISHUO, ZHEIGEQUEXIANYOUQIZHIMING, YINWEITAMENDEYANJIUFANGFAWANQUANYILAIYUSHUJUDELIANGHUA, SHUJUDEQUESHIHUOZHEBUKEKAOHUISHITAMENBUDEBUMIANDUI"QIAOFUNANWEIWUMIZHICHUI"DEGANGAJINGDI。GENJULINDETE (Lindert) GUSUAN, DUIYUDAXINGGONGYE、NONGYEYUSHANGYETUANTILAISHUO, DUISHENGCHANLVDEJISUANWUCHAKENENGHUIGAODA60%;ERYANJIUGONGYEGEMINGSHIQIXIEJIANG、MUJIANGDENGDESHENGCHANLV、SHENGCHANCHENGBENDENGWENTI, QINGKUANGJIBENSHANGJIUBIXIACAIHAOYIDIANDIAN。[15]WUGUAIHUJIULIANKELAFUCIZHEIYANGDEXINFANSHIZHINIUERZHE, YEBUDEBUCHENGRENZIJIDEYANJIUHENDUOJIELUNJINJINSHI"ZUIKAOPUDECAICE" (best guess) , ERFEIZHAODAOLEQUEQIEDEZHENGJU (definitive evidence) .[6]

                    QICI, YANJIUZHEBENSHENDESIWEILOUDONG。ZILIAOQUEFAYUBUZHUNQUEGURANSHIJIDAWENTI, XINFANSHIDAIBIAOZHEMENYANJIUDESIWEILOUDONGYEBURONGHUSHI。BIRU, BAOKUOKELAFUCI、RUIGELI、LINDETE、WEILIANMUSENDENGRENZAINEIDEXUEZHEZAIYANJIUGONGYEGEMINGSHIQISHENGCHANLVZENGZHANG、JIATINGSHENGHUOSHUIPING、GONGCHANGZHIDUNEIBUJIEGOUDENGWENTISHI, DOUJINJINKAOLVLEDANGSHICHENGNIANNANXINGDECHANCHU、GONGZIFENPEIHEGONGLINGDENGQINGKUANG, QUEDUIYOUGUANNVGONGHETONGGONGZAIQIZHONGBANYANDEJIAOSEZHIRUOWANGWEN, ZHEIBUFENCAILIAOQUESHIHENSHAOYEHENNANZHAODAO。BIJING, ZAINVGONGHETONGGONGDESHIYONGFANGMIAN, GONGYEGEMINGSHIQIDADAOLEYIGEGAOFENG。HAOWUYIWEN, DUIZHEIBUFENRENYANJIUDEQUESHIJIANGZAOCHENGZHONGDADEYANJIUWUCHA。[15]ZAIRU, GONGYEGEMINGSHIQI, YINGGUOGEDIFAZHANSHUIPINGBUYI, ERQIEXUDUODIQUDOUXINGCHENGLEZIJIDUTEDEGONGYETIXI。NAYUEKEJUN (Yorkshire) LAISHUO, TADEJINGJIZENGZHANGHENDACHENGDUSHANGYILAIYUCHENGYIXINGYEDEFAZHAN、ZUZHIFANGSHIDEBIANGEYIJIGONGYEYUSHANGYEDEJINMILIANXI。[15]DANXINFANSHIDEDAIBIAORENWUMEN (KELAFUCISHOUDANGQICHONG) WANGWANGDOUZAISHIYONGHONGGUANJINGJIXUEFANGFA, ZHILIYONGQUANGUOXINGDESHUJU, ZAIGUOJIADEKUANGJIAXIAJINXINGYANJIU。ZHEIZHONGYANJIUFANGFAGENBENWUFABAWOGUOJIANEIDIQUFAZHANDEHUOLIHEDUTEXING, SHIDETAMENBUNENGWANQUANDONGXIGONGYEGEMINGDEDIQUXINGTEDIAN, JINERHULVEYIXIEDIQUDEFEISUFAZHAN, SHIZIJIDEYANJIULILUNDADAZHEKOU。YOUSHANGKEZHI, XINFANSHIDEQUEXIANHETADAIBIAORENWUDESIWEILOUDONGYOUZHEMIQIEDEGUANXI。

                    ZAICI, XINFANSHIDEYANJIUFANGFADANYI, YANJIUNEIRONGZHIXIANYUJINGJIWENTI。LISHIXUEYANJIUDANGRANXUYAOJIEJIANBAOKUOJINGJIXUEZAINEIDESHEHUIKEXUEDEYANJIUFANGFA, DANJUEBUNENGBEIZHEIXIEFANGFAZHUDAO。KELAFUSI、LINDETE、AILIKE·QIONGSIDENGRENDOURENWEIYANJIUGONGYEGEMINGHEYANJIUJINGJISHIFOUZENGZHANG、ZENGZHANGFUDURUHESHIYIHUISHI, SUOYIDUITAMENLAISHUO, GONGYEGEMINGYANJIUJIBENDENGTONGYULIANGHUAJINGJIZENGZHANGWENTI。[6]DANLISHIXUEBIJINGYOUQIDUTEZHICHU, TAGUANZHUDESHIJINGJIYUNXINGJIEGOUDEBIANHUA, GUANZHUDESHIZHEIXIEBIANHUAYUSHENGHUOZAIQIZHONGDERENDEHUDONG, GUANZHUDESHIGUOQUDESHEHUI, GUANZHUDESHILENGBINGBINGDESHUJUBEIHOUTUIDONGSHEHUIFAZHANHUOHOUTUIDEYUANYIN。GONGYEGEMINGSHIDEYANJIUYESHIRUCI。JIURUKUZINIECI (Simon Kuznets) SUOYAN:"ZHEIYISHIQI6WENHUAHUANJING (cultural milieu) DEBIANHUA……KENENGBICHUXUYUZIBENDEJILEIGENGJIAMANZHANGYEGENGJIATONGKU……GENGNENGDAIBIAOZHEIGESHIDAI。"[6]SUOYISHIYONGDANYIDEJINGJIFANGFAJINXINGDANYIDEJINGJIZENGZHANGYANJIUZHUDINGZHISHIGUANZHONGKUIBAO, BUNENGDUIGONGYEGEMINGJINXINGQUANMIANDELIJIE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZUIHOU, KEGUANDESHIXUEYANJIUBUNENGHEXIANXINGDEYISHIXINGTAIWENTIJIUCHANZAIYIQI。BUFENXINFANSHIDEDAIBIAORENWUSHIDAIZHEDUIMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEHEHUIGESHIXUEDE"NUQI"LAIYANJIUGONGYEGEMINGSHIDE。BIRUJ·D·KELAKE, DANGTAHAISHIGEYANJIUSHENGDESHIHOU, MAKESIZHUYISHIXUEHEHUIGESHIXUECHONGCHIZHEYINGGUOSHIYANJIUDEGEGEJIAOLUO。QIANPIANYILVDEYANJIUFANGSHISHIDENIANQINGQIECAIHUAHENGYIDEKELAKEDUIZHEILIANGZHONGDANGSHIQIZHIPEIDIWEIDESHIXUEYANJIUFANGFASHIFENBUMAN。DANGTAZHONGYUZAIXUEJIESHENGMINGQUEQIHOU, MAKESIZHUYISHIXUEHEHUIGESHIXUESUOZUIWEIZHONGSHIDELIANGCIGEMING---YINGGUOGUANGRONGGEMINGHEGONGYEGEMINGJIUCHENGLETABISHENGGONGJIDEMUBIAO。TASHENZHIBAGONGYEGEMINGSHUOCHENGSHIJIAGEMING (spurious revolution) , YINGGAICONGLISHIZHONGWUQINGDEMOQU。[9]ZHEIZHONGBEIFENNU、BEIYISHIXINGTAIWENTICHONGHUNTOUNAODESHIQINGSHILISHIXUEYANJIUDEDAJI, YESHIBUGUANNAGESHIXUEXUEPAI、NAZHONGSHIXUEYANJIUSICHAODOUYINGGAIJIELIBIMIANDE。

                    ZHENGSHIZISHENCUNZAIDEQUEDIANHEJUXIANXING, 20SHIJI70NIANDAIHOUGONGYEGEMINGSHIYANJIUDEXINFANSHICAINENGYONGYOUJIANSHIDEJICHU, BUZHILUNWEIKONGDONGWUWUDEQINGTAN。

                    参考文献
                    [1] KUHN T.The Structure of the Scientific Revolution[M]. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1996.
                    [2] CANADIANE D. The Present and the Past in the English Industrial Revolution[J]. Past and Present, 1991, (103) :131-172.
                    [3] ROSTOW W. Getting from Here to There[M]. New York:McGraw-Hill, 1978.
                    [4] BLOCH M. The Historians'Craft, translated by P. Putnam[M].Manchester:Manchester Press, 2011.
                    [5] ANDERSON M. Quantitative History[M]//William Outhwaite, Stephen Turner. The Sage Handbook of Social Science Methodology. London:Sage Publication Ltd, 2007.
                    [6] HOPPIT J. Counting the Industrial Revolution[J]. The Economic History Review, 1990, (43) :173-193.
                    [7]陈志武。量化历史研究告诉我们什么?--第一期量化历史讲习班综述[J].量化历史研究, 2014, (1) :273-290.
                    [8][英]赫伯特·巴特菲尔德。历史的辉格解释[M].张岳明, 刘北城, 译。北京:商务印书馆, 2012.
                    [9] HARTWELL R. Was There an Industrial Revolution?[J]. Social Science History, 1990, (14) :567-576.
                    [10] 王觉非。欧洲史论[M].南京:南京大学出版社, 2006.
                    [11] WEBB B. My Apprenticeship[M]. Manchester:University of Manchester Press, 1985.
                    [12]舒小昀。工业革命定义之争[J].史学理论研究, 2006, (3) :113-123, 160.
                    [13] LANDES D. The Unbound Promethus:Technological Change in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present[M]. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2003.
                    [14] VRIES J D. The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution[M]. The Journal of Economic History, 1994, (54) :249-270.
                    [15] BERG M, HUDSON P. Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution[J]. The Economic History of Review, 1992, (45) :24-50.
                    [16] HARTWELL R.The Cause of the Industrial Revolution in England[M]. London:Routledge, 1967.

                    注释
                    1 David Canndine认为整个工业革命史的研究都在极大的程度上受到当时学者所处的社会经济条件的影响, 详情请见:Canadiane D.The Present and the Past in the English Industrial revolution.Past and Present, 1991, Vol.103:P131-172.
                    2 德国兰克学派是当时统治英国史学界的史学学派。
                    3 克拉夫茨是20世纪70年代后新范式最主要代表人物之一。
                    4 全部生产要素 (Total Factor Productivity) , 指的是产出增长率超出要素投入增长率的部分, 通常也叫技术进步率, 是衡量纯技术进步的一个标准。
                    5 大多数学者持否定或者有保留的否定态度。
                    6 指工业革命时期。

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