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                统编版七年级上第一单元课文的整体教学探析

                时间:2019-03-17 来源:语文教学通讯·D刊(学术刊), 作者:夏燕平 本文字数:3487字

                  摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 我国教育家梁启超先生有言:“语文教育不能篇篇文章讲,须一组一组地讲,……要通盘打算,要分期、分类、分组。”2019年9月起在全国推行的统编版语文教材以核心素养为抓手,强调学生在学习过程中的真实体验,关注学科思维的发展,重视提高学生在真实情境中解决问题的能力,关注语文和生活的真正联系,回归本质,回到语文学科的本然和应然。[1]而要实现这一目标,单元整体教学是一个有效的切入点。新教材就是要用单元整体教学的实现,建立教读课和自读课在知识内容和方法策略上的联系。

                  关键词: 新教材; 单元整体教学; 方法策略;

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZHANGQIYILAIWOMENSHIYONGDESUJIAOBANJIAOCAIDANYUANNEIBUJIEGOUWEI:KEWEN+SHICISONGDU+XIEZUO+ZONGHESHIJIANHUODONGHUOKOUYUJIAOJI。YUFA、YUYONG、YUTIZHISHIZAISHUBENDEZUIHOUYIFULUDEXINGSHICHENGXIAN,KEWENCHUYUDANYUANZHONGDEZHUTIDIWEI,JIAOSHIZAIKETANGZHONGDAILINGXUESHENGLIJIEHEGANSHOUKEWEN,CONGERHUODEYIZHONGYINXINGDEYUEDUFANGFA。ERXINJIAOCAIJIWOMENZUIZHIGUANDEGANSHOUSHI,TAYAOQIUWOMENJIAOJIXUESHENGYUEDUDEFANGFAHECELVE,RANGXUESHENGDAIZHENEIHUADEFANGFAQULIJIEHEGANSHOUWENZHANG,SHOUDAODUYIPIANERZHIYILEIDEXIAOGUO。NEIME,RUHEBAYUEDUDEFANGFAGUANCHUANYUZHENGGEDANYUANDEJIAOXUENI?ZHEIYIMINGTIDEYANJIUHETAOLUNYIYISHENYUAN,BIZHEXIANYITONGBIANBANQINIANJISHANGDIYIDANYUANDEKEWENWEILI,DUIQIZUORUXIASIKAO。

                  一、仔细研读教材,形成知识体系

                星云棋牌官网下载   WOMENYIQIANSUOSHIYONGDESUJIAOBANJIAOCAI,QIANGDIAOYUFAXIUCIHEYUWENZHISHIJIANGSHOUBIXU“SUIWENXUEXI”,ZHEISUIRANTIXIANLEYUWENXUEKEDERENWENXINGTEZHI,DANQUESHIJIAOCAIZAIZHISHITIXIDEJIANGOUSHANGBUGANLIZHIQIZHUANGDIJIANGYUWENZHISHI,BUGANFANGSHOUSHEZHIJIBENNENGLIDEXUNLIAN,ZUIZHONGDAOZHIZHISHIDIANHENENGLIXUNLIANDIANBUTUCHU,YEBUCHENGXILIE。JIEGUOJIUSHIJIAOXUETIDUBEIDALUAN,BIYAODEYUWENZHISHIXUEXIHENENGLIXUNLIANDEBUDAOLUOSHI。MOUYIDANYUANZHONGMEIYIKEDAODIYAOSHIXIANSHENMEJIAOXUEMUBIAO,ZHEIGEMUBIAOZAIZHENGGEXIAOXUEHUOZHONGXUEDEYUWENKECHENGZHONGDAODISHISHENMEWEIZHI,TONGGUOZHEIYIDANYUANHUOZHEMOUYIKE,NENGRANGXUESHENGJUTIXUEHUISHENME,DAZHIDADAOSHENMECHENGDU,DOUBUSHIHENQINGCHU。ERTONGBIANBANJIAOCAISHIANZHAO《YUWENKECHENGBIAOZHUN》DEXUEDUANMUBIAOYAOQIU,LAIXIHUANEIXIEZHISHIDEZHANGWOYUNENGLIDEXUNLIAN,BINGJIANGQILUOSHIDAOGEGEDANYUAN。YOUXIEBIYAODEYUFAXIUCIZHISHIZEPEIHEKEWENJIAOXUE,YIBUBAIXINGSHICHUXIAN,NULIZUODAO“YIKEYIDE”。DANZHEIZHONGZHISHITIXISHI“YINZAI”DE,BUSHI“XIANZAI”DE,ZAIJIAOCAIDECHENGXIANHEJIAOXUEZHONGBINGBUKEYIQIANGDIAOTIXI,YIFANGZHIGUODUCAOLIAN。

                星云棋牌官网下载   YINJIAOCAITEDIAN,WOMENYIWANGZAIBEIKESHIXIHUANZUANYANYIPIANKEWEN,BEIHAOYIPIANKEWEN。DANGRAN,ZHEIZHONGDUIJIAOCAIDEJUJIAOSHISHIFENBIYAODE,DANBEIKEYEYAOYOUQUANJUYISHI,BUNENGBEIYIKESHIYIKE,YIDINGYAOYANJIUJIAOCAI,SHULIQI“YINZAI”DEZHISHITIXI,BINGZIRANTIXIANZAIZIJIDEJIAOXUEZHONG。JIAOSHIZAIBEIKEHESHANGKEDEGUOCHENGZHONGYAOSHIKEMINGQUEZHEIYANGDEJIAOXUEMUBIAO,WEIRAOMUBIAOWAJUEWENBENNEIRONG,JINXINGJIAOXUESHEJI,ZUZHIKETANGJIAOXUEHUODONG,JINXINGZUOYEBUZHI,BAMEIYIGEXIAODEXIJIELUODAOSHICHU。DANYUANNEIDEKEWENJIAOXUEYIDINGYAOCHENGXIANTIDU,YILUOXUANSHIZHUBUTISHENG。LIRUDIYIDANYUANDESIPIANKEWENZHONG,YUEDUWENZHANGDEFANGFATONGYANGDOUYOULANGDU,1~3KEWOMENQIANGDIAOLEZHONGYINHETINGLIAN,ZAIDI4KEZHONGCHUXIANLEJIEZOUHEYUNLV,DANZHEIBINGBUYIWEIZHEDUDI4KEDEGUSHISHIWOMENJIUBUXUYAOGUANZHUZHONGYINLE,SUIZHEKEWENDEDIJIN,LANGDUDEJIQIAOSHIBUDUANDIEJIADE。TONGSHI,DANYUANZHIJIANDEJIAOXUEYEYAOYOUCENGCI。DIERDANYUANHEDIYIDANYUANTONGYANGGUANZHULANGDUDEFANGFA,DANTAYAOQIUZAITIHUIHANYUZHIMEIDETONGSHIBAWOGANQINGJIDIAO,ZHEITICHULEGENGGAOCENGCIDEYAOQIU。

                  GUANYU“YANXIXIUCI”,JIAOSHIKEYIJUYUFAXIUCIZHISHI,PEIHEKEWENJIAOXUE,YIBUBAIXINGSHICHUXIAN。LIRU,ZAI《CHUN》DELIANXIZHIHOUBUBAI“BIYU”,ZAI《JINANDEDONGTIAN》DELIANXIZHIHOUBUBAI“BINI”,ZAI《YUDESIJI》LIANXIZHIHOUBUBAI“MINGCI”,BINGJIAODUKEWEN《CHUN》《JINANDEDONGTIAN》HOUMIANDESIKAOTIHETUOZHANTI,ZHEIXIEKEWENHOUDOUYOU12DAOTIANZHAOXIANGGUANDEXIUCIZHISHIDIANLAISHEJI,ZHUYAODEZUOYONGZAIYUFENXIWENBENSUOYONGXIUCIFANGFADEBIAODAXIAOGUO。

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGRUXIEJIANFENGLAOSHISUOSHUO:“YUWENXUEXIFANGFAZHANGWOYUXIGUANYANGCHENGBINGZUIZHONGCHENGWEIYUWENSUYANGSHIBUDUANZHONGFUDIEJIALIANXISHIJIANDEJIEGUO。”

                  二、关注单元导语,确定单元目标

                  温儒敏先生在解读新教材时说,新教材的课文编排有内容单元的主题,这是一条线,但它还有另一条线,即将“语文素养”的各种基本“因素”(包括基本的语文知识、必需的语文能力、适当的学习策略和学习习惯,以及写作、口语训练)分成若干个“点”,由浅入深,由易及难,分布在各单元的课文导引或习题设计之中。[2]
                 

                统编版七年级上第一单元课文的整体教学探析
                 

                  ZONGGUANTONGBIANBANJIAOCAIQINIANJISHANGZHENGBENSHUDENEIRONG,TAZAIYUEDUDEFANGFAHECELVESHANGYANGEZUNXUNLEJIAOYUXUESHANGTICHUDEXUNXUJIANJINYUANZE,YAOQIUJIAOSHIJIAOXUEYAOANZHAOYIDINGDELUOJIXITONG,SHIXUESHENGZHANGWOXITONGDEZHISHIJINENG,PEIYANGXUESHENGYANMIDELUOJISIWEINENGLI。BAMEIGEDANYUANDEDAOYUZONGHEQILAIKAN,HUIFAXIANTADEZHISHIJIANGOUZHENGHAODUIYINGLE《YUWENKECHENGBIAOZHUN》SUOYAOQIUDEYUEDUFANGFAHECELVE。MEIYIGEDANYUANDEYUEDUFANGFAHEXUEXIMUBIAOFEICHANGQINGXI,BINGQIEDANYUANYUDANYUANZHIJIANYEBUSHIGULIDE,ERSHIZHUCENGDIJIN,XINGCHENGTIXI。RUDIYIDANYUANDAOYUXIEDAO:“RIYUEJINGTIAN,JIANGHEXINGDI,CHUNFENGXIAYU,QIUSHUANGDONGXUE,DAZIRANSHENGSHENGBUXI,SISHIJINGWUMEIBUSHENGSHOU。BENDANYUANKEWENYONGYOUMEIDEYUYAN,MIAOHUILEDUOZIDUOCAIDESIJIMEIJING,SHUFALEQINJINZIRAN、REAISHENGHUODEQINGHUAI。XUEXIBENDANYUAN,YAOZHONGSHILANGDUKEWEN,XIANGXIANGWENZHONGMIAOHUIDEQINGJING,LINGLVEJINGWUZHIMEI;BAWOHAOZHONGYINHETINGLIAN,GANSHOUHANYUSHENGYUNZHIMEI。HAIYAOZHUYICHUAIMOHEPINWEIYUYAN,TIHUIBIYUHENIRENDENGXIUCISHOUFADEBIAODAXIAOGUO。”

                  DANYUANDAOYUDEDIYIDUAN,TISHILEBENDANYUANWENBENDENEIRONGHEYUYANTEDIAN;DANYUANDAOYUDEDIERDUANTISHILEDANYUANJIAOXUEZHUYAOMUBIAO:PINWEIYUYAN,QIANGHUALANGDU,YANXIXIUCI。DUIYU“PINWEIYUYAN,QIANGHUALANGDU”,MEIPIANWEN、SHIHOUMIANDELIANXI(“SIKAOTANJIU”HE“JILEITUOZHAN”)DOUYOUYAOQIUXUESHENGPINWEIWENZHONGYUJU(SHIJU)、JILEISHIWENJIAJUHEBEISONGDETIMU,KEYISHUO,“YAOZHONGSHILANGDUKEWEN,XIANGXIANGWENZHONGMIAOHUIDEQINGJING,LINGLVEJINGWUZHIMEI;BAWOHAOZHONGYINHETINGLIAN,GANSHOUHANYUSHENGYUNZHIMEI”DEXUEXIMUBIAOZAIJIAOCAIZHONGYOULEJUTILUOSHI。

                  ZAIJINXINGDANYUANNEIDEKEWENJIAOXUESHI,WOMENBUJINYAOGUANZHUDANDUDEYIPIANWENZHANG,YEYAOGUANZHUZHENGGEDANYUANNEIWENZHANGYUWENZHANGZHIJIANDEGUANLIAN,SHIDANYUANMUBIAOGUANCHUANSHIZHONG。ZIXIYANDUTONGBIANBANQINIANJISHANGDIYIDANYUANDEKEWEN,SUIRANBIANZHEWEIJIZHEIYIDANYUANDENEIRONGGUANYITONGYIDEZHUTI,DANWOMENBUNANFAXIANBAOKUOGUSHICIZAINEI,TAMENDOUSHIYIXIEJINGWEIZHUDE,DIYI、ERPIANKEWENYESHIYIZHICHUXIANZAIJIAOCAIZHONGDEJINGDIANKEWEN。ZAIZHEILIANGPIANKEWENDEJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,BALANGDU(ZHONGYINHETINGLIAN)、LIANXIANG、XIANGXIANG(GENJUJINGWUXIANGXIANGHUAMIAN)JIYUYANDEPINXI(BIYU、NIREN)RONGRUDAOKETANGHUODONGZHONGQU,SHIXUESHENGZAIYUEDUZIDUKEWEN《YUDESIJI》SHINENGGOUXUEHUIQIANYIYUNYONG,YEJIUDADAOLESHOUZHIYIYUDEMUDE。

                  三、关注助读系统,确定课文目标

                  YIWANGWOMENJIAOSHOUXINKESHI,MUBIAODEQUEDINGXIANGDUILAISHUOBIJIAOSUIYI。BIRUJIAOCAIDEDIYIPIANKEWEN《CHUN》,MEIGEJIAOSHIJIAOXUEMUBIAODEQUEDINGYOUFEICHANGDADECHAYI。BIRUYUYILAOSHIYILANGDUWEIJICHU,YINDAOXUESHENGZIDUFENXIWENZHANG;YUYINGCHAOLAOSHIQIANGDIAO“DUSHUOXIEPINJI”WUBUQU;WANGJUNLAOSHILINGPIXIJING,QIANGDIAOMEIWENSONGDU;YUYONGHAILAOSHIZHUZHANG“XIEDUCHUANG”SHEJIKE……ZUOWEIJIAOXUEJINGYANBIJIAOQUEFADEXINSHOUJIAOSHI,RUHEXUANZEJIAOXUEMUBIAOYOUXIEKUNNAN。JIAOCAIMINGQUEGUIDINGLEJIAOXUEMUBIAO,QIEZAIKEBENDEZHUDUXITONG(DAOYU、YUXI、ZHUSHI、CHATU、LIANXI)ZHONGDOUYOUTIXIAN,YINCIKETANGJIAOXUEHUODONGSHEJIJIUKEYIJINKOUZHEIXIEMUBIAOLAIWANCHENG。

                  第一单元写景诗文
                第一单元写景诗文

                星云棋牌官网下载   CONGKEWENDEBUBAIZHONG,WOMENYEBUNANFAXIANMEIPIANKEWENYUYANSHANGXIDEDIANYINGGAIYOUSUOCEZHONG,CHONGFENLIYONGBUBAILAIZUZHIYOUXIAODEGEXINGHUADEYUYANSHANGXIHUODONGSHIJIAOSHIZAIBEIKEGUOCHENGZHONGYINGGAIKAOLVDEWENTI。

                  四、区分单元课型,迁移阅读技能

                  M.S.JamesTICHULEJIAOYUXINLIXUEZHONGDEQIANYILILUN,JI“ZAIYIZHONGQINGJINGZHONGHUODEDEJINENG、ZHISHIHUOXINGCHENGDETAIDU,DUILINGYIZHONGQINGJINGZHONGJINENG、ZHISHIHUODEHUOTAIDUXINGCHENGDEYINGXIANG”。[3]TONGBIANBANJIAOCAIHEYUANYOUJIAOCAIYIYANG,JIANGMEIGEDANYUANDEKEWENFENCHENGLIANGLEI。YUANJIAOCAIZHONGYONG“JINGDU”HE“LVEDU”LAIQUFEN,CONGYANGEYIYISHANGLAISHUO,YINWEILIANGZHEYOUJIAOCHA,SUOYIBINGBUJINGQUE,TONGBIANBANJIAOCAIYONG“JIAODU”HE“ZIDU”LAIDINGYI。RUHEBACONGJIAODUKEWENZHONGXUEDAODEXUEFANGFAQIANYIYUNYONGDAOZIDUKEWENZHONGQU,SHIZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。

                  YIDIYIDANYUANZIDUKEWEN《YUDESIJI》WEILI,QIANMIANXUESHENGYIJINGZAI《CHUN》HE《JINANDEDONGTIAN》DEXUEXIZHONGXUEHUILEGENJUJINGWUXIANGXIANGHUAMIAN,CONGERFAXIANJINGWUTEDIANDEFANGFA,NEIMEZAIHOUXUJIAOXUEZHONGJIAOSHIJIUBUXUYAOZAIDAIZHEXUESHENGQUYAOWENJIAOZIDIYUEDULE,JIAOXUEHUODONGKEYIKAIFANGYIXIE。BIZHEZAIKEQIANJIXUESHENGCHUSHIRENWUQINGDAN:

                星云棋牌官网下载   RENWUYI:BAWOHUAMIAN,DUCHUGEGEJIJIELIYUDETEDIAN;RENWUER:ZIDUYUEDUTISHI,PINWEIYUYAN;RENWUSAN:TUOZHANYANSHEN,SHANGXILIUZHANQIUDESHIGE《MEITIYANGUONEIMEROURUANDEYANGGUANG》,XUANZEJUTIDEJINGWU,ZHANKAIXIANGXIANGHELIANXIANG,MONIKEWENZHONGDEMIAOXIEFANGFA(DUOGANGUANDEJIAODU),BAZIJIDUIMOUGEJIJIEHUOMOUZHONGJINGWUDEDUTEGANSHOU,YONGFUYOUSHIYIHUOYUNHANZHELIDEHUABIAODACHULAI。

                  ZAIZIDUKEWENDEKETANGSHANG,ZHIXUYAOJIXUESHENGDINGHAOFANGXIANG,JITAMENFANGFA,RANGTAMENXUNZHEFANGFAQUSIKAO,QUTANSUO,ZHEIYANGJIAODUKE、ZIDUKE、KEWAIYUEDUDENEIRONGJIUNENGHENHAODIRONGHEWEIYIGEYOUJIDEZHENGTI,XINGCHENGSANWEIYITIDEWENDINGMOSHI。

                  五、结语

                  TONGBIANBANYUWENJIAOCAISUIRANKEWENPIANMUYOUSUOJIANSHAO,DANQIDUIJIAOSHIHEXUESHENGDOUTICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU。ZUOWEICHUCISHIYONGJIAOCAIDEYIXIANJIAOSHI,YINGZAIBEIKEDEGUOCHENGZHONGTONGGUANKEBEN,XINGCHENGYIGEWANZHENGDEZHISHITIXI,BINGJIANGQILUOSHIDAORICHANGDEBEIKEZHONGQU。ZAIKETANGZHONG,JIAOSHIYINGBAYUEDUDEFANGFAHECELVERONGRUWENBEN,SHOUZHIYIYU,SHIXUESHENGYIKEYIDE。

                  参考文献

                  [1]赵年秀.语文教材单元结构新构想[D].长沙:湖南师范大学,2003.
                  [2]温儒敏.“部编本”语文教材的编写理念、特色与使用建议[J].课程·教材·教法,2016(11).
                  [3]吴庆麟,胡谊.教育心理学———献给教师的书[M].上海:华东师范大学出版社,2003.

                  夏燕平.基于语文新教材单元整体教学的思考——以统编版七年级上第一单元为例[J].语文教学通讯·D刊(学术刊),2020(01):27-29.
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