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                  撰写国外SCI论文的一些“潜规则”(强烈推荐收藏)

                  时间:2018-12-24 来源:学术堂 作者:学术堂 本文字数:10169字

                    DUIYUSCILUNWENXIEZUODEXINSHOULAISHUO,DUIRUHEGOUSIYUZHUANWENHUIYITOUWUSHUI,DANQISHI,KEJIXINGLUNWENSHIZHENZHENGDEGESHIHUAXIEZUO,NIBUANTAOLUXIE,RENJIAHAIJUEDENIJIAOQINGLE。SUOYI,YOUBIYAOSHUXIKEYANLUNWENGEBUFENXIEZUODEYIXIE“QIANGUIZE”,ZHEIYANGNIHUISHAOZOUHENDUOWANLU。

                  一、写作框架和各部分要求

                    Title: Be short, accurate, and unambiguous; Give your paper a distinct personality; Begin with the subject of the study.
                    Introduction: What is known; What is unknown; Why we did this study?
                    Methods: Participants, subjects; Measurements; Outcomes and explanatory variables; Statistical methods.
                    Results: Sample characteristics; Univariate analyses; Bivariate analyses; Multivariate analyses.
                    Tables and figures: No more than six tables or figures; Use Table 1 for sample characteristics (no P values); Put most important findings in a figure.
                    Discussion: State what you found; Outline the strengths and limitations of the study; Discuss the relevance to current literature; Outline your implications with a clear “So what?” and “Where now?”
                    References: All citations must be accurate; Include only the most important, most rigorous, and most recent literature; Quote only published journal articles or books; Never quote “second hand”; Cite only 20-35 references.
                    Formatting: Include the title, author, page numbers, etc. in headers and footers; Start each section on a new page; Format titles and subtitles consistently; Comply with “Instructions to authors”.

                  sci论文写作

                  二、英文写作的语言技巧

                    1、Introduction

                    A. 如何指出当前研究的不足并有目的地引导出自己研究的重要性。

                    ZAIXUSHUQIANRENCHENGGUOZHIHOU,YONGHoweverLAIYINDAOBUZU,TICHUYIZHONGXINFANGFAHUOXINFANGXIANG。RU:However, little information(little attention/little work/little data/little research……)(or few studies/few investigations/few researchers/few attempts……)(or no/none of these studies……)has(have)been done on(focused on/attempted to/conducted/investigated/studied(with respect to))。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   RU:Previous research (studies, records) has (have) failed to consider/ ignored/ misinterpreted/ neglected to/overestimated, underestimated/misleaded. thus, these previous results are inconclisive, misleading, unsatisfactory, questionable, controversial. Uncertainties (discrepancies) still exist……

                  星云棋牌官网下载   YANJIUFANGFAHEFANGXIANGYUQIANRENYIYANGSHI,KETONGGUOYIXIAFANGSHIQIANGDIAOZIJIGONGZUO:However, data is still scarce(rare, less accurate),We need to(aim to, have to) provide more documents(data, records, studies, increase the dataset)。 Further studies are still necessary(essential)……

                    QIANGDIAOZIJIYANJIUDEZHONGYAOXING,YIBANHAIYAOZAIHoweverZHIQIANJIESHAOYUZIJIYANJIUWENTIXIANGFANHUOXIANGGUANDEWENTI。BIRU:

                    (1)时间问题;
                    (2)研究手段问题;
                    (3)研究区域问题;
                    (4)不确定性;
                    (5)提出自己的假设来验证。

                    RUGUONIYANJIUDEWENTIZAISHIJIANSHANGBIJIAOXIN,NIKEDALIANGTIJISHIJIANJIAOLAOWENTIDEYANJIUJIZHONGYAOXING,RANHOU(However)BIAOMING“DUISHIJIANCHIDUBIJIAOXINDEWENTIYANJIUBUZU”;

                    RUGUONIDESHIYIZHONGXINDEYANJIUSHOUDUANHUOYANJIUFANGXIANG,NIKETICHUDANGQIANLIUXINGDEFANGFAJIQIWUZHIXINGZHI,RANHOU(However)SHUODUINISUOYANJIUDEFANGXIANGFANGFAYANJIUSHENSHAO;RUGUOYANJIUSHEJIQUYUWENTI,JIUXIANZONGJIEXIANGLINQUYUHUOQITAQUYUDEYANJIU,RANHOU(However)QIANGDIAOZHEIYIQUYUDEYANJIUBUZU;

                    SUIRANQIANRENDUIMOUYIWENTIYANJIUHENDUO,DANMUQIANYOULIANGZHONGHUOGENGDUOZHONGGUANDIAN,ZHEIZHONGuncertaintiesHUOambiguitiesZHIDEJINYIBUCHENGQING;RUGUOZIJIDEYANJIUSHIQUANSHIXINDE,MEIYOUQIANRENDEGONGZUOKEDUIBI,NIJIUKEYIZIXINDISHUO“GENJUJIASHETICHUDEGUOCHENG,CUNZAIZHEIZHONGKENENGDEJIEGUO,BENWENJIUSHIYAOZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGJIEGUO”DENGDENG。We aim to test the feasibility (reliability) of the……It is hoped that the question will be resolved (fall away) with our proposed method (approach)。

                    B. 提出自己的观点:

                    We aim to//This paper reports on//This paper provides results//This paper extends the method//This paper focus on……The purpose of this paper is to……Furthermore, Moreover, In addition, we will also discuss……

                    C. 圈定自己的研究范围:introduction的另一个作用就是告诉读者(包括reviewer),你文章的主要研究内容。如果处理不好,reviewer会提出严厉的建议,比如你没有考虑某种可能性,某种研究手段等。为减少这种争论,在前言的结尾就必须明确提出本文研究的范围:(1)时间尺度;(2) 研究区域等。如涉及较长的时序,你可明确提出本文只关心某一特定时间范围的问题,We preliminarily focus on the older (younger)……如有两种时间尺度 (long-term and short term),你可说两者都重要,但是本文只涉及其中一种。研究区域的问题,和时间问题一样,也需明确提出你只关心某一特定区域!

                    D. 最后的圆场:在前言的最后,还可以总结性地提出“这一研究对其它研究有什么帮助”;或者说further studies on……will be summarized in our next study (or elsewhere)。总之,其目的就是让读者把思路集中到你要讨论的问题上来。尽量减少不必要的争论(arguments)。

                  sci写作

                    2、Discussion

                    A. 怎样提出观点:在提出自己的观点时,采取什么样的策略很重要,不合适的句子通常会遭到reviewer置疑。

                    (1)如果观点不是这篇文章最新提出的,通常要用We confirm that……
                    (2)对于自己很自信的观点,可用We believe that……
                    (3)通常,由数据推断出一定的结论,用Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that……
                    (4) 在极其特别时才可用We put forward(discover, observe)……“for the first time”来强调自己的创新……
                  星云棋牌官网下载   (5) 如果自己对所提出的观点不完全肯定,可用We tentatively put forward (interrprete this to…)Or The results may be due to (caused by) attributed to resulted from……Or This is probably a consequence of……It seems that……can account for (interpret) this……Or It is posible that it stem from……

                    YAOZHUYIZHEIXIEJIEGOUYAOHELIDAPEI。RUGUOTONGPIANSHILEIXING1)HE5),NEIZHEIPIANWENZHANGDEYIYIJIUDADAZHEKOU。RUGUOQUANSHI2),KENDINGHUIZAODAOZHIYI。SUOYIYAOZIXIFENXIZIJICHENGGUODECHUANGXINXINGYIJIKEXINDU。

                    B. 连接词与逻辑:星云棋牌官网下载写英文论文最常见的毛病是文章的逻辑不清楚,解决方法如下。

                    (1)ZHUYIJUZISHANGXIALIANGUAN,BUNENGRANGJUZIDULI。

                    CHANGJIANDELIANJIECIYOU,However, also, in addition, consequently, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore, further, although, unlike, in contrast, Similarly, Unfortunately, alternatively, parallel results, In order to, despite, For example, Compared with, other results, thus, therefore……YONGHAOLIANJIECINENGSHIWENZHANGCENGCIQINGCHU,YISIMINGQUE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   BIRU,XUSHUYOUSHIJIANSHUNXUDESHIJIANHUOWENXIAN,ZUIZAODEWENXIANKEYONGAA advocated it for the first time.JIEXIALAIKEYONGThen BB further demonstrated that. ZAIJIEXIALAI,KEYONGAfterwards, CC……

                  星云棋牌官网下载   RUGUOHAIYOU,KEYONGMore recent studies by DD……RUGUOXUSHULIANGZHONGGUANDIAN,YAOBATAMENJIERANFENKAIAA put forward that……In contrast, BB believe or Unlike AA, BB suggest or On the contrary (BIAOMINGQIANMIANGUANDIANCUOWU),RUGUOZHIBIAOMINGLIANGZHONGGUANDIANDUILI,YONGin contrast BB……

                  星云棋牌官网下载   RUGUOLIANGZHONGGUANDIANXIANGJIN,KEYONGAA suggest……Similarily, alternatively, BB……Or Also, BB or BB allso does……BIAOSHIYINGUOHUOZHEQIANHOUGUANXIKEYONGConsequently, therefore, as a result……BIAOMINGDIJINGUANXIKEYONGfurthermore, further, moreover, in addition……XIEWANYIDUANYINGWEN,ZUIHAOSHOUXIANJIANCHASHIFOUJIAOHAODIYINGYONGLEZHEIXIELIANJIECI。

                    (2) ZHUYIDUANLUOBUJUDEZHENGTILUOJI:JINGCHANGWOMENYAOXUSHUYIGEWENTIDEJIGEFANGMIAN。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,YIDINGYAOZHUYILUOJIJIEGOU。DIYIDUANYAOMINGQUEGAOSUDUZHENIYAOTAOLUNJIGEBUFEN……Therefore, there are three aspects of this problem have to be addressed. The first question involves……The second problem relates to……The third aspect deals with……QINGXIDIBAGUANDIANZHUCENGXUSHU。YEKEYIZHIJIEYONGFirst, Second, Third, Finally……DANGRAN,Furthermore, in additionDENGKEYIYONGLAIBUCHONGSHUOMING。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   (3) TAOLUNBUFENDEZHENGTIJIEGOU:XIAOBIAOTISHIBAWENTIFENWEIJIGEPIANDUANDEHAOFANGFA。TONGCHANGDIYIGEPIANDUANZHICHUWENZHANGZUIZHONGYAODESHUJUHUOJIEGUO;BUCHONGSHUOMINGBUFENFANGZAIZUIHOUYIGEPIANDUAN。YIDINGYAOMINGBAI,WENZHANGDEDUZHEFENWEIDUOGEDANGCI;CHULEBENZHUANYEDEZHUANYERENSHIDUDONGYIWAI,YIDINGYAOXIANGBANFANENGRANGGENGDUODEWAIZHUANYERENDUDONG。SUOYIKEYIBATAOLUNBUFENFENWEILIANGBUFEN,YIBUFENTICHUGUANDIAN,LINGYIBUFENXIANGXIJIESHAOGUOCHENGYIJILUNSHUDEYIJU。ZHEIYANGZHUANYEWAIDERENSHIKEYILEJIEWENZHANGDEZHUYAOGUANDIAN,BIJIAOZHUANYEDETAOLUNTAKEYIBATADANGCHENGHEIXIANGZI,ERZHEIYIBUFENBENZHUANYERENSHIKEYIJINYIBUYANJIU。

                    C.讨论部分包括什么内容?

                    (1)主要数据及其特征的总结;
                    (2)主要结论及与前人观点的对比;
                    (3) 本文的不足。

                    DUIDISANDIAN,YIBANZUOZHEKANLAIBUKEQU,DANSHISHISHANGJICHUWENZHANGDEBUZUQIAQIASHIBAOHUZIJIWENZHANGDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。RUGUOKEYIYINZANGWENZHANGDELOUDONG,JUEDEBIERENKANBUCHULAI,SHIFEICHANGBUMINGZHIDE。

                    SUOWEIBUZU,BAOKUOYIXIANEIRONG:(1)YANJIUDEWENTIYOUDIANPIANMIAN,TAOLUNSHIYIDINGYAOSHUO,It should be noted that this study has examined only……We concentrate (focus) on only……We have to point out that we do not……Some limitations of this study are……

                    (2)JIELUNYOUXIEBUZU,The results do not imply……The results can not be used to determine(or be taken as evidence of)……Unfortunately, we can not determine this from this data……Our results are lack of……

                  星云棋牌官网下载   DANZHICHUZHEIXIEBUZUZHIHOU,YIDINGYAOMASHANGZAICIJIAQIANGBENWENDEZHONGYAOXINGYIJIKENENGCAIQUDESHOUDUANLAIJIEJUEZHEIXIEBUZU,WEIBIERENHUOZHEZIJIDEXIAYIBUYANJIUDAXIAFUBI。Not withstanding its limitation, this study does suggest……However, these problems could be solved if we consider……Despite its preliminary character, this study can clearly indicate……

                    YONGZHONGWENLAISHUOZHEISHIZUOYOUFENGYUAN,BASHENGAORENXIANGDAODEWENTITIQIANJIYIGEJIAODAI,TONGSHIBIAOMINGNIYIJINGZAISIKAOZHEIXIEWENTI,DANSHIYOUYUWENZHANGZHANGDU,SHIYANJINDUHUOZHESHIYANSHOUDUANDEZHIYUE,ZANSHIBUNENGHUIDAZHEIXIEWENTI。DANTONGGUONIDEYIXIEJIANYI,ZHEIXIEWENTIZAIJIANGLAIDEYANJIUZHONGYOUKENENGSHIXIAN。

                    3、Others

                  星云棋牌官网下载   A. WEISHIWENZHANGQINGCHU,DIYICITICHUGAINIANSHI,ZUIHAOYIKUOHUJICHUJIAOXIANGXIJIESHI。RUWENZHANGYONGLEHENDUOAbbreviationKEYONGLIANGZHONGFANGFAJIEJUE:(1) ZAIWENZHANGZUIHOUJIASHANGGEAppendix,BASUOYOUAbbreviationLIEBIAO;(2) ZAIBUTONGYEMIANSHANGBUSHIDIJICHUAbbreviationDEHANYI,YONGLAITIXINGDUZHE。

                    B. JUEDUIBUNENGQUANMIANFOUDINGQIANRENDECHENGGUO,JISHIZAINIKANLAIQIANRENDEJIELUNWANQUANBUDUI。ZHEISHIDUIQIANRENGONGZUOZUIQIMADEZUNZHONG,YINGWENJIAOZUOJIBIERENDEGONGZUOcredits.SUOYIWENZHANGBUYAOCHUXIANFEICHANGnegativeDEPINGJIA,BIRU

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Their results are wrong, very questionable, have no commensence, etc.YUDAOZHEILEIQINGKUANG,KEYIWANZHUANDITICHU:Their studies may be more reasonable if they had……considered this situation.Their results could be better convinced if they……Or Their conclusion may remain some uncertanties.

                  审稿人

                  三、撰写外刊论文的体会

                  星云棋牌官网下载   YOURENGUINALEWAIKANLUNWENZHUANXIEDEWUGEJIBENYAOQIU,JI5C:ZHENGQUE(correctness)、QINGCHU(clarity)、JIANJIE(concision)、WANZHENG(completion)HEYIZHIXING(consistency) .ZHIYOUMANZUZHEI5DIAN,CAISUANSHIYIPIANHEGEDEWAIKANWENZHANG。

                    1、Introduction:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   IntroductionSHIWAIKANWENZHANGZUINANXIEDEBUFENZHIYI(LINGWAIJIUSHIDiscussion)。ZHONGWENWENZHANGDEQUEXIANJIUZAIYUIntroductionMEIYOUNEIHAN,GUOYUJIANDAN,MEIYOUZHENZHENGTIXIANLUNWENDEYANJIUQICHUHECHUANGXINYAOSU。WAIKANLUNWENDUIYUIntroductionDEYAOQIUSHIFEICHANGGAODE,YIGEHAODEIntroductionXIANGDANGYUWENZHANGCHENGGONGLEYIBAN。SUOYIDAJIAYINGGAIZAIIntroductionDEZHUANXIESHANGXIAGONGFU。YAOXIEHAOIntroduction,ZUIZHONGYAODESHIYAOBAOCHIXIANMINGDECENGCIGANHEJIQIANGDELUOJIXING,ZHEILIANGDIANSHIJINMIJIEDE,JIZAIFUHELUOJIXINGDEJICHUSHANGJIANLICENGCENGDIJINDEGUANXI。

                    A. CHANSHUZIJIYANJIULINGYUDEJIBENNEIRONG。YAOJINLIANGJIANJIEMINGLE,BULUOSUO;XUZHIKANWENZHANGZHEDOUSHIGAILINGYUDEZHUANJIA,SUOYIYIXIEXIANERYIJIANDEZHISHIYAOYONGGAIKUOXINGDEERBUSHIXUSHUXINGDEYUYANLAIMIAOSHU。

                    B. WENXIANZONGJIEHUIGU。SHIIntroductionDEZHONGTOUXIZHIYI,YAOTEBIEZHEZHONGBIMOLAIMIAOXIE。YIFANGMIANYAOBAGAILINGYUNEIGUOQUHEXIANZAIDEZHUANGKUANGQUANMIANGAIKUOZONGJIECHULAI,BUNENGYOUSIHAODEYILOU,TEBIESHIZUIXINDEJINZHANHEGUOQUJINGDIANWENXIANDEYINYONG(ZHEISHILIANGGEZUIRONGYICHUWENTIDEDIFANG,YAOJILIBIMIAN;YIDANSHENGAORENZHICHUZHEILIANGGEMAOBING,HENKENENGYIWEIZHEBIAOMINGNIZUODEBUGOUSHENRUHUOQUANMIAN,FUMIANZUOYONGFEICHANGMINGXIAN)。LINGYIFANGMIAN,WENXIANYINYONGHESHUJUTIGONGYIDINGYAOZHUNQUE,QIEJIBIMIANPIANMIANZHAILUBUFENJIEGUOERBUFANYINGWENXIANDEZONGTIJIEGUO;YINYONGDESHUJUYEYAOZHENGQUE,TEBIESHIJIANJIEYINYONGDESHUJU(JIBUSHICONGYUANWENXIANZHONGCHADAO,ERSHICONGBIERENWENXIANZHONGFAXIANDELINGYIPIANWENXIANDESHUJU);SHUJUCHUCUOHUIDAOZHIWENZHANGDEYINXIANGTECHA!CIWAI,YINYONGWENXIANSHIZHUYIFANGZHIZAOCHENGCHAOXIDEYINXIANG,JIBUYAOYUANWENCHAOLU,YAOYONGZIJIDEHUAJINXINGZONGJIEMIAOSHU。RUGUOSHENGAORENZHENGHAOSHIWENXIANDEYINYONGZHEDEHUA,YUANWENZHAOCHAODEJIEGUOYIDINGHUIHENZAOGAO。

                    C. FENXIGUOQUYANJIUDEJUXIANXINGBINGCHANMINGZIJIYANJIUDECHUANGXINDIAN。ZHEISHIZHENGGEIntroductionDEGAOCHAO,YINERYAOSHENZHIYOUSHEN。CHANSHUJUXIANXINGSHI,XUYAOKEGUANGONGZHENGPINGJIABIERENDEGONGZUO,BUYAOBATAIGAOZIJIYANJIUDEJIAZHIJIANLIZAIBIANDIBIERENDEGONGZUOZHISHANG(ZHEISHIZHONGWENWENZHANGYIFANDEMAOBING),WAIKANLUNWENXIEZUOWANWANBUKERUCI,YIDINGYAOZUNXUNSHISHIQIUSHIDEYUANZELAIFENXI。ZAICHANSHUZIJIDECHUANGXINDIANSHI,YAOJINJINWEIRAOGUOQUYANJIUDEQUEXIANXINGLAIMIAOSHU,WANZHENGERQINGXIDIMIAOSHUZIJIDEJIEJUESILU。XUYAOZHUYIWENZHANGDETANZIBUYAOPUDETAIDA,YAOZHUAZHUYIDIANJINXINGSHENRUDECHANSHU。ZHIYAONENGGOUHENHAODEJIEJUEYIGEWENTI,JIUSHIPIANHAOWENZHANG;CHUANGXINXINGMIAOSHUDEYUEDUOYUEDA,YUERONGYIBEISHENGAORENZHUAZHUBABING。ZHONGWENWENZHANGDETEDIANSHICHUANGXINXINGYAODUOYAODA,ERYINGWENWENZHANGDETEDIANQIAQIAXIANGFAN,SHENRUXITONGDEJIEJUEYIDAOLIANGGEWENTIJIUSUANXIANGDANGBUCUO。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   D. ZONGJIEXINGMIAOSHULUNWENDEYANJIUNEIRONG,KEYIFENWEIYIERSANSIDENGJIGEFANGMIANLAIMIAOSHU,WEIIntroductionZUOZUIHOUDESHOUWEIGONGZUO。 ZHICI,IntroductionDEXIEZUOSUANSHIDAGONGGAOCHENG。DANSHIXIEWANZHIHOU,HAISHIYAOSHENZHIYOUSHENDEZIXIXIUGAI,ZHUOMOMEIYIGEJUZISHIFOUBIAODADEQIADANGZHUNQUE,ZHEIDUIIntroductionDEXIUGAIWANSHANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。

                    2、Methods

                  星云棋牌官网下载   MethodsBUFENMIAOSHULUNWENSHIYANGUOCHENG,ZHEIYIGUOCHENGDEXIEZUOXIANGDUIJIAOWEIJIANDAN,DANSHIXUZHUYIDEWENTIBUSHAO,ZHONGYAODEZAIYUWANZHENGHEKEXUE。WANZHENGJIUSHISHIYANDANGZHONGDEMEIYIGEHUANJIEDOUYAOZHUYIDAO,BUYAOGUCISHIBI,YILOUYIXIEZHONGYAONEIRONG。MethodsBUFENKEANSHIYANDUIXIANG、SHIYANSHEBEI、SHIYANCAILIAO、SHIYANJILU、SHIYANFENXIFANGFADENGLAIZUZHIXINGWEN。ZHIYAONENGZAIYIXIA4GEFANGMIANZUODAOWANZHENGHEKEXUEDEMIAOSHU,XIANGXINXIEHAOMethodsBUSHIZHUYAOWENTI。

                    A. SHIYANDUIXIANGYIBANSHIREN、DONGWUHUOYIXIEZUZHIDENG,TAMENDEJIBENXINXIYAOMIAOSHUMINGQUE;CIWAIYAOZHUYIGUOWAIKANWUDADUODUIQIANCHEDAORENHUODONGWUDESHIYANDOUYOUYIXIETEDINGYAOQIU,YOUXIESHIBUYUNXUZAIRENHUODONGWUSHENSHANGJINXINGDESHIYANCAOZUO,ZHEIXUYAORENZHENYUEDUTOUGAOKANWUZHONGGUANYUSHIYANDEXIANGXIGUIDING;RUGUOWEIFANZHEIYIGUIDING,KENENGHUIBUJIESHOUPINGSHENHUOFABIAO。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   B. SHIYANSHEBEI,YAODUIYIQIXINGHAO、SHENGCHANCHANGJIA、SHIYANGUOCHENGZHONGDEYONGTUDENGZUOXIANGXISHUOMING;SHIYANSHEBEIZHIJIANDELIANJIEYAOKEXUEZHENGQUE,BUYAOJIRENHUNLUANHUOCAOZUOCUOWUDEGANJUE。SHEBEISHIYONGSHIYIXIEBIYAODEBUZHOUBUKEHUOQUE,YOUQISHIKENENGDUISHIYANJIEGUOZAOCHENGTEDINGYINGXIANGDECAOZUOGENGYAOXIANGXISHUOMING。ZHEIYANGZUODEHAOCHUSHIWEILEZAIDiscussionZHONGNENGGOUJINXINGDUIYINGDEFENXI。BIRU,YIXIESHEBEIZAISHIYONGQIANYAOXIAOZHENG(calibration),YOUDEYAOQIUMEIJIEDUANSHIYANZHIHOUDOUYAOZHONGXINXIAOZHENG,YIBAOZHENGJIEGUODEZHENGQUEXING;YIDINGYAOXIANGXISHUOMINGNIDECAOZUOBUZHOUHUOXIAOZHENGGUOCHENG,BIANYUPINGSHENRENFENXINIDEJIEGUO。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   C. SHIYANCAILIAO,BUTONGXUEKEYOUBUTONGYAOQIU。ZONGTISHANGLAISHUOYAOZHUYISHUOMINGCAILIAOXUANZEDEBIYAOXING,YEJIUSHIDUIWEISHENMEYAOXUANZEZHEIZHONGCAILIAO,ZUIHAOYOUYIDINGDESHUOMING。RUGUOZHEIDIANMIAOSHUBUQING,KENENGHUIDAOZHIZHENGGESHIYANGUOCHENGBUCHENGLI。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   D. SHIYANGUOCHENG,JIUSHIQINGCHUMIAOSHUSHIYANDEZHENGGECAOZUOLIUCHENG,YIBANYAOFUYISHIYANLIUCHENGTUJINXINGSHUOMING。LIUCHENGTUDEHUAFAHENDUO,YOUWENZISHIDE,YOUWENZIHESHIYITUJIEHEDE,BUTONGSHIYANYOUBUTONGZUOFA。YIBANLAISHUO,KENENGHOUZHEDUOYIXIE(SHIYANXINGXUEKEYOUQIRUCI),YINWEIZHEIYANGNENGSHIPINGSHENRENDUISHIYANGUOCHENGYIMULERAN。RUGUOSHIYITUHUADEPIAOLIANG,HAIKEYIZENGJIAYIXIEYINXIANGFEN。MIAOSHUSHIYAOYOUXIANMINGDECENGCIGAN,DUIMEIGEBUZHOUZHIJIANDESHUNXUHEGUANLIANYAOMIAOSHUQINGCHU,BUYAOZAOCHENGSHIYANGUOCHENGHUNLUANBUKANDEYINXIANG,YINWEIPINGSHENRENZUIZHONGPANDUANNIDESHIYANSHIFOUHELI,SHICONGZHEIGEGUOCHENGMIAOSHUDELAIDE。

                    3、Results

                  星云棋牌官网下载   YOURENBAResultsHEDiscussionFANGZAIYIQIXIE,DANSHIDADUOSHULUNWENDOUSHIFENKAIDE。ZHEILIANGZHONGZUOFAQUJUEYUWENZHANGDELEIXING。RUGUONIDEJIEGUOZAIFENXIDETONGSHIJINXINGTAOLUNGENGJIAHESHI,BINGBUSHIHEDANDUNACHULAIFENXI(HUOZHESHINEIYANGZUOHENKUNNAN,DAOZHIDiscussionCHENGWEIJILEISHI),HEZAIYIQISHIHESHIDE;FANZHIJIUYINGGAIFENKAIXIE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   A. ResultsDEYAOQIUSHIXIANGSHIZHUNQUE。ZHUNQUESHIJIEGUOBIXUSHIZHENSHIDE,BUNENGWEIZAOHECUANGAI。XIANGSHISHITIGONGZUIQUANMIANDEFENXIJIEGUO,BAYIQIECONGSHIYANZHONGDEDAODEJIEGUODOUTIGONGJIDUZHE,BUYAOGUYIYINMANHUOYILOUMOUXIEZHONGYAOJIEGUO。CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGLAISHUO,JIEGUOBUGOUXIANGSHIBINGBUDAOZHILUNWENZHIJIEBEIJU,DANJIEGUODEZHENSHIXINGBEIHUAIYIWENZHANGJIUKENDINGBEIJU。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   B. JIEGUOTIGONGYIBANSHIBIAOHETU。BUTONGZAZHIDUITUBIAOYAOQIUBUWANQUANYIZHI,YINGGENJUZAZHIYAOQIUFENBIEDUIDAI。BIAOGENENGQINGXIZHANSHILUNWENHUODEDEDIYISHOUJIEGUO,BIANYUHOURENZAIYANJIUSHIJINXINGYINYONGHEDUIBI。TUSHINENGJIANGSHUJUDEBIANHUAQUSHILINGHUODEBIAOXIANCHULAI,GENGZHIJIEHEFUYUGANRANLI。TUBIAOJIEHE,NENGQUZHANGBUDUAN,SHIJIEGUOZHANXIANGENGFENGFU。MUQIAN,DAJIAYUELAIYUEXIHUANTIGONGGEZHONGGEYANGDETU,DANZAZHIQUEYAOJINLIANGXIANZHITUDEGESHU;YINWEIHUIZENGJIAPAIBANDEKUNNAN,BANMIANFEIHECHUBANSHEDEZHICHUYEJIUHUIZENGJIA。YINCI,JIANYIDAJIAZAITIGONGTUSHI,JINLIANGYONGZUISHAODETUTIGONGZUIDUODEXINXI,ZUIDUOBUCHAOGUO8GE。TUPIANTAIDUOXIANDELUOSUOHELEIZHUI,ZHUBIANBUHUIXINSHANG;BIYAOSHIKEYONGBIAOGETIDAIYIXIETU。TUPIANGESHIYAOQIUMEIGEZAZHIBUTONG,YONGtifGESHIJIAODUO,BUTUIJIANYONGbmp(jpgGENGBUNENGYONG)。YOURENSHUOYONGSHILIANGTUQINGCHUXIE,QISHIHEtifMEISHENMEQUBIE,ZHIYAOZUGOUQINGXIJIUXING。HEIBAITUPIANKEMIANFEI,CAISETUPIANJUEDUIYAOSHOUFEI,ERQIEJIAGEBUFEI。

                    C. ResultsHEDiscussionFENKAIXIESHI,ResultsBUFENJINLIANGBUYAOSHEJIDUIJIEGUODEPINGLUN,ZUIDUOSHIZONGJIECHENSHUJIEGUOJIUKEYILE。FOUZEZAOCHENGZHEILIANGBUFENDENEIRONGZHONGDIE,XIANDELEIZHUI,CONGERDUIDiscussionBULI。JIEGUODEMIAOSHUYEYAOZHUYICENGCIANPAI,YAOANZHAOTIAOLIXINGYAOQIUFENBIEMIAOSHU,XIANDELUOJIXINGJIAOQIANG。BUYAOLUANQIBAZAO,JIANGDILUNWENDEKEDUXING。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   D. ResultsZHONGDADUOYAOTIGONGTONGJIJIEGUO。FANGCHAFENXIDEJIEGUOXINGSHIYAOGENJUKANWUDEGESHIJICHU,YOUDEYAOQIUDUIFENXIZHI、ZIYOUDUHEGAILVDOUYAOXIANGXIDEJICHU,YOUDEZHIYAOFENXIZHIHEGAILVJIUKEYILE。GAILVKEYIYONGp=0.02HUOZHEp<0.03DENGXINGSHIJICHU,ZIYOUDUDEBIAODAYEYOUTESHUYAOQIU。ZHEIXIEXIJIEWENTISUIRANGUANXIBUDA,DANSHIZHUYIGESHITONGYI,BUYAOLUANQIBAZAOGEZIWEIZHAN。TONGJIFENXIJIEGUOGUODUOSHI,KEYONGBIAOGEJICHU,JUTIKECANZHAOSPSSRUANJIANFENXIZHIHOUDEJIEGUO。RUGUOLUNWENJIEGUOBUFENTONGPIANDOUSHITONGJIFENXIDESHUJU,HUIXIANDELINGLUANBUKAN,BIAOGEKEYIBIMIANZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG。

                  科研

                    4、Discussion

                  星云棋牌官网下载   IntroductionHEDiscussionSHIZUINANXIEDELIANGBUFEN。DiscussionZHISUOYINANXIE,SHIYINWEIZHEILIMIANZUINENGGOUXIANSHIYIGEZUOZHEYANJIUWENTIDESHENDUHEGUANGDU。SHENDUJIUSHILUNWENDUIYUTICHUWENTIDEYANJIUDAOLEYIGESHENMEYANGDECHENGDU,GUANGDUZHISHIFOUNENGGOUCONGDUOGEJIAODULAIFENXIJIESHISHIYANJIEGUO。YAOXIEHAODiscussion,DAGAIKEYIFENWEIXIAMIANLIANGGEBUZHOU:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   A. XUANZEYAOSHENRUTAOLUNDEWENTI。ResultsZHONGYOUDEJIEGUOSHIZHONGYAODE,YOUDEZEKEYIBIDAIGUO。XUANZEHESHIDEJIEGUOZAIDiscussionBUFENJINXINGSHENRUTAOLUN,SHIXIEHAOGAIBUFENSHOUXIANYAOMIANLINDEWENTI。YIBANLAISHUO,KEGENJURUXIAYUANZELAIPANDUAN:RUGUONIDEJIEGUOTIXIANLESHIYANDEDUTEXING,SHIQITAYANJIUZHONGMEIYOUDEDAODE,NEIZHEIGEJIEGUOJIUSHIYAOZHONGDIANTAOLUNDEWENTI;YOUXIEJIEGUOHEQIANRENDEYANJIUYIZHI,BINGMEIYOUXIANZHEXINGCHAYI,JIUYINGGAIYIBIDAIGUOERWUXUSHENRUTAOLUN。DiscussionDEYIGEZHONGYAOZUOYONGJIUSHIYAOTUCHUZIJIYANJIUDECHUANGXINXING,BINGTIXIANCHUXIANZHEQUBIEYUTARENDETEDIAN,QUBIEDAHEXIAOSHILINGWAIYIGEWENTI,ZHONGYAODESHIYAOYOUQUBIE、QUBIEJIUSHICHUANGXIN。

                    B. DUIXUANZHONGDEWENTIANYIDINGCENGCICONGDUOGEJIAODUJINXINGTAOLUN,SHUOLIYAOYOUGENJU、WENTIYAOJIANGQINGCHU、JIANGTOUCHE。XUANZEDEWENTIYOUSHIBUZHIYIGE(DUOSHUQINGKUANGSHI2GEYISHANG),YINCIYAOANYIDINGCENGCIMIAOSHUQINGCHU。YIBANLAISHUO,BAZUIZHONGYAODEFANGZAIZHONGJIAN,CIZHIDEFANGKAITOUHEMOWEI。FANGZAIZHONGJIANNENGJIANGPINGSHENRENDEQINGXUDAIZHIGAOCHAO,QIANMIANSHIPUDIAN,HOUMIANSHIZONGJIE。ZHEIYANGDESHUNXUSIHUGENGHESHI。WENTIWULUNDAXIAO,SHIFOUZHONGYAO,DOUYAOCONGDUOGEJIAODUZHANKAISHENRUTAOLUN:(1)SHOUXIANYAOYOULEISIJIEGUODEDUIBI,SHUOMINGZIJIJIELUNDEDUTEXING;(2)QICIYAOXITONGCHANSHUWEISHENMEHUIYOUZHEIYANGDEJIEGUO,FANGFAYOUDUOZHONG(CONGSHIYANSHEJIJIAODU,CONGLILUNYUANLIJIAODU,CONGFENXIFANGFAJIAODU,HUOJIEJIANBIERENFENXIFANGFADENGDENG)。ZHONGYAODESHIJIANGZHEIGEWENTISHENRUCHANSHUQINGCHU,BUNENGRANGRENYOUYIYOUWEIJINZHIGAN(YAOZUODAOZHEIDIANDEQUEHENKUNNAN,YINWEIPINGSHENRENZONGHUITICHUXINDEWENTI,WOMENZHIKENENGJINLIANGZUODAOZHEIYIDIANBALE)。

                    C. DiscussionBUFENHAIYAOZHUYIBAOCHIHEResultsDEYIZHIXING!JIUSHIJIEGUOHETAOLUNYAOYIYIDUIYING。QIANWANBUYAOCHUXIANANTAOLUNDENEIRONGKEYITUICHUYUSHIYANXIANGFANDEJIELUNZHEIZHONGQINGXING,NEIZHENGMINGNIDETAOLUNSILUSHICHEDIDESHIBAIHUONIDESHIYANYAGENERJIUSHISHIBAIDE。SUOYIDiscussionDEWENZIMIAOSHUHEYUYANBIAODADEJINGQUEXINGYOUWEIZHONGYAO。YOUYUZHONGYINGWENBIAODADEBUTONG,ZAITOUGAOZHIQIANYAOJINLIANGBIMIANCHUXIANBIAODASHANGDEWUJIE,RUGUOLUNWENYINCIBEIJUSHIHENYUANWANGDE。

                    5、Acknowledge & References

                  星云棋牌官网下载   AcknowledgeZHUYAOFENWEILIANGGE:DIYISHIBIAOMINGYANJIUDEJIJINLAIYUAN,ZHONGGUOYIBANDOUSHINature Science Foundation of China(NSFC,GUOJIAZIRANKEXUEJIJIN),MEIGUODADUOSHINational Institute of Health(NIH,MEIGUOGUOJIAWEISHENGYANJIUYUAN)。XIEJIJINSHIYIBANYAOBIAOZHUQINGCHUJIJINHAOMA(Grant Number),ZHIYOUZHEIYANGCAISUANSHIGAIXIANGJIJINDEYANJIUCHENGGUO,YEKEYISUANZUOSHIYANSHIDEYANJIUCHENGGUO。XUZHIMEIYOURENHEYIXIANGYANJIUCHENGGUOSHIZAIMEIYOUZIJINZIZHUDEQINGKUANGXIAWANCHENGDE,SUOYIZHEIYIDIANFEICHANGBIYAO。DIERSHIDUICANYURENYUAN(MEIYOULIEZAIZUOZHEZHONGDEYANJIURENYUAN)HEDANWEIBIAOSHIGANXIE,RUGUOTONGGUOYISHENHEZUIZHONGJIESHOUFABIAO,HAIYAOTIANSHANGDUIeditorHEanonymous reviewersDEGANXIE,ZHEISHIJIBENLIMAO。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ReferencesZHONGYAOZAIYUGESHI。BUTONGZAZHIDUICANKAOWENXIANGESHIYAOQIUBUYIYANG,JUTIXIALAIYOUSUOQUBIEDEKEYIFENWEI:ZUOZHEDEXIEFA,YOUDESHIJIANXIEZAIQIAN,YOUDEJIANXIEZAIHOU,YOUDEJIANXIEYOUDIAN,YOUDEJIANXIEMEIYOUDIAN;WENZHANGDEMINGZI,YOUDEYAOJIASHANGYINHAO,YOUDEMEIYOUYINHAO;QIKANDEXIEFA,YOUDEYAOJIANXIE,YOUDEYAOQUANCHENG,YOUDEYAOXIETI,YOUDEZEBUXUYAO;NIANHEQIJUANHAODESHUNXU,YOUDESHINIANZAIQIAN,YOUDESHINIANZAIHOU;QIKANLUNWEN、SHU、XUEWEILUNWEN、HUIYILUNWEN,SIZHONGYINYONGDEGESHIGEBUXIANGTONG;WENXIANDEPAILIESHUNXU,YOUDESHIANZHAOZIMUDESHUNXU,YOUDEZESHIANZHAOZAILUNWENZHONGCHUXIANDESHUNXUYONGALABOSHUZIPAIXU。JIBENSHANGJIUSHIZHEIXIEWENTI,KANLAIHENSHISUOSUI,DANSHIRUGUONIDECANKAOWENXIANPAILIEDELUANQIBAZAO,NEIJIUHUISHIDEPINGSHENRENDUINILUNWENDEYINXIANGHENCHA,RENWEINIMEIYOURENZHIZUZHIHEZHUANXIELUNWEN,ZAOCHENGYIDINGDEFUMIANYINGXIANG。SUOYI,SHIQINGSUIXIAO,YINGXIANGQUEDA,HAISHIYAORENZHENZUZHIWEIHAO。

                    CIWAI,LUNWENZAIZHUANXIESHIYAOZISHIZHIZHONGDOUYONGYINGYUXIE,QIANWANBUYAOXIANXIEZHONGWENZAIYICHENGYINGWEN。ZHEIYANGXIECHULAIDEWENZHANGKENDINGSHIZHONGBUZHONG,YINGBUYING,ERQIEJIDALANGFEIJINGLI。NINGKEYIKAISHIXIEDEYUFACHAYIXIE,MANMANXIUGAIDOUBIZHEIZHONGXIEFAHAO。RUGUOYOUTONGZHUANYEYINGYUBIJIAOHAODERENBANGZHUDEHUA,ZHEIYANGXIEHAIHUIGENGSHENGSHI。XIEZUOSHIXINGWENSHITAIYAOZHUYI,ZHONGWENMEIYOUSHITAIWENTI,YINGWENYOU,ERQIEYAOQIUHAIXIANGDANGYANGE。YIBANLAISHUO,DADUOSHUQINGKUANGXIASHIGUOQUSHITAI,ZAIIntroductionWENXIANHUIGU,MethodsZHENGGEBUFEN,ResultsJIEGUOZONGJIE,DiscussionZHONGDEDABUFEN,DOUYONGGUOQUSHITAICHENSHU。QITAQINGKUANGXIAKEYIYONGYIBANSHITAILAIMIAOSHU。SHITAIZHIJIANDEJIEXIANSHIBIJIAOYANGEDE,ZUIHAOSHIZIXIDETONGDUGUOWAIDELUNWEN,HAOHAOFENXIYIXIA,HUOZHERANGYOUJINGYANDERENBANGNIBABAGUAN,ZHEIYANGBIJIAOHAOYIXIE。

                  四、Writing Skills in English for Research Paper

                    写paper注意九个环节:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Preparation, Structure, Title, Abstracts, Introduction, Conclusion, Body of Paper, Recision, Acknowledgement.PreparationJIUSHISHOUJIZILIAO,ZHAOCHULINGGANHEFANGXIANG,ZHUYAOYIKAODESHIjournal in library.StructureSHIZHONGDIAN,paperDEstructureYINGGAISHILIANGGEtriangleZUCHENGDE:SHANGMIANYIGEDAOSANJIAO,XIAMIANYIGEZHENGSANJIAO,YISIJIUSHIXUANTIYAOKUAN(wide),YANJIUFANGXIANGYAOZHAI,RANHOUZUIHOUDEconclusionYOUFASANKAILAI。ZAIpaperDEbodyQIANHOUDOUBIXUYOUdeclarative statement,YONGZUISHAODEZIJUBIAODACHUZIJIDEGUANDIAN,XIYINDUZHE。

                    Title必须清晰简短(clear,short),表达出自己唯一的topic以提升读者的兴趣(promote the interest of reader),然而title中切记不能出现abbreviation和自己的result.

                    Abstracts是paper的一个缩写(miniature of whole paper)星云棋牌官网下载,一定要简明扼要(less than 200 words,one paragraph),按照paper的顺序介绍主要研究对象(subject)、实验设计(design)、实验步骤(procedures)以及最后结果(results),这种介绍必须让非专业的人员 (non-specialist) 能够看懂。

                    Introduction同样要保证简短星云棋牌官网下载,顺序是一般背景介绍、别人工作成果、自己的研究目的及工作简介,其中介绍别人工作时只需介绍和自己最相关的方面(very relevant),而对自己的工作介绍不用说明细节,因为这个要放到body中去。不要忘记在介绍自己工作之前要有一个declarative statement.

                    Body部分可以分为methods、result和discussion三个部分:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ①Methods,XIANGJINDEJIESHAOZIJIDESHIYANFANGANYIBIANYUTARENNENGGOUZHONGFUZIJIDESHIYANGUOCHENG,DUIYUTONGYONGDESHIYANFANGANKEYIJIANLVE,ZHONGDIANYAOFANGDAOZIJIDEDUCHUANGFANGANSHANGMIAN(own procedures),ANZHAOSHIYANDEXIANHOUSHUNXUJIESHAO,WEILEWENZHANGDEYUEDUFANGBIAN,BUYAOSHIYONGGUODUOCENGCIDEsubheadings,BIRUsubsubsubsectionDENGDENG。

                    ②Result,SHIYONGtext、table、figureDENGSHOUDUANBIAODACHULAI,QIZHONGtableBUYAOSHIYONGGUODUO,ERfigureBIXUBAOZHENGTUXIANQINGCHU、ZHUJIEMINGQUE,BIYAODESHIHOUHAIYAODUIYUZIJIDEresultZHONGDEYIXIEJIELUNJINXINGJIESHISHUOMING。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ③Discussion,ZHEIGEBUFENSHIWEILEYIHOUDEstudy,ZAIQIZHONGTICHUZIJIDEproblemHUOZHESHIhypothesis,HEBIERENDECHENGGUOJINXINGBIJIAO,ANSHIZIJIDEZHUYAOSHOUHUO,WEIHOUMIANDEconclusionZUOZHUNBEI。

                    Conclusion中不要包含body以外的information星云棋牌官网下载,保持brief、neat和concise,一定要舍得结束自己的paper;如果自己的paper只是project的一部分,稍做说明。Revison是在写完之后回头看看是否有逻辑上的错误,是否考虑到了读者兴趣,自己的declarative statement是否令人满意,

                    Brevity is the soul of literary construction.

                    Acknowledgement,不要忘记,这个反应了一个人的个人品质。

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