星云棋牌官网下载

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            出口定牌加工侵害商标权利人权益的认定

            时间:2018-10-17 来源:国际商务研究 作者:刘乐耀,谢阳 本文字数:12161字

              摘    要: 涉外定牌加工是出口定牌加工的一种类型。法院用于将涉外定牌加工同其他类型出口定牌加工相区分的合理注意义务并无直接法律依据。从目的解释和维持司法实践统一角度认定出口定牌加工不构成商标性使用更为妥当;而且,基于商标保护独立性原则,涉案商标并未在境内发挥识别功能而不会造成混淆与实质性损害,因而逻辑上,同样将产品全部出口境外的出口定牌加工原则上也不构成商标侵权。如果出口定牌加工侵害境内商标权利人在境外相关法域的权益,国内法院可依国际私法规范维护境内商标权利人的境外权益。

              关键词: 出口定牌加工; 合理注意义务; 商标性使用; 混淆; 实质性损害;

              Abstract: OEM is a type of Export Brand Manufacture. Firstly, the court distinguishes the OEM from other types of Export Brand Manufacture through the“reasonable attention obligation”, but in fact there is no direct legal basis for the reasonable attention obligation. Secondly, from the purpose of explaining and maintaining the unification of judicial practice, it is more appropriate to determine that the Export Brand Manufacture does not constitute the trademark use. Besides, based on the principle of the independence of the trademark protection, the recognition function does not play in the territory of the country so it will not lead to confusion as well as substantial damage, and therefore, in principle, Export Brand Manufacture which similarly exported products to overseas logically does not constitute trademark infringement. In the end, if the consignor and manufacturer infringe on the rights and interests of the domestic trademark owners in the overseas relevant jurisdictions, the domestic courts may safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of the domestic trademark owners according to private international law.

              Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 export brand manufacture; reasonable attention obligation; trademark use; confusion; substantial damage;

              一、问题的提出

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              首先,认定商标直接侵权适用无过错责任。换言之,出口定牌加工直接侵权认定中无需考虑过错问题即合理注意义务问题,而实践中部分法院却凭借这一无直接法律依据的合理注意义务,遵循“从结果出发”的思维方式(易健雄,2009),致使《商标法》在出口定牌加工中的适用出现混乱并引发争议。9
             

            出口定牌加工侵害商标权利人权益的认定
             

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              二、出口定牌加工与合理注意义务

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              (一)法院在出口定牌加工案件中对合理注意义务的认识

              1. 法院对合理注意义务的定义

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              2. 法院要求合理注意义务的依据

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              (1)类比境内定牌加工而提出类似要求

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              (2)基于过错责任而提出合理注意要求

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              (二)出口定牌加工中合理注意义务并无直接法律依据

              1. 对“类比境内定牌加工而提出类似要求”之反思

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              2. 对“基于过错责任而提出该要求”之反思

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              三、出口定牌加工与商标性使用

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              (一)法院在出口定牌加工案件中对商标性使用的认识

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              (二)出口定牌加工不构成商标性使用

              1. 涉外定牌加工原则上不构成商标性使用

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              (1)根据平义解释,涉外定牌加工构成商标性使用

              GENJU《SHANGBIAOFA》DI48TIAOGUIDING,SHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGDEGOUCHENGKEFENWEIXINGSHIYAOJIAN19HESHIZHIYAOJIAN,SHIZHIYAOJIANSHIZHI“YONGYUSHIBIESHANGPINLAIYUAN”。GENJUPINGYIJIESHI,“YONGYUSHIBIESHANGPINLAIYUAN”SHIZHIXINGWEIRENDEXINGWEISHIDEGAISHANGYEBIAOSHIJUBEILESHIBIEGONGNENG,JIZAIFUHEXINGSHIYAOJIANDEJICHUSHANG,GAIBIAOSHIJUBEISHIBIEGONGNENGBIANSHISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG,ERGAIGONGNENGFAHUIYUFOUBINGFEISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGSUOYAOKAOLVDEWENTI。JUTIERYAN,“JUBEISHIBIEGONGNENG”ZHIXIANGDESHIMOUYISHIWUDEKEGUANGONGNENG,CEZHONGYUKEGUANCUNZAI,ER“GONGNENGSHIFOUYIJINGFAHUI”ZHIXIANGDESHIRENYUMOUYISHIWUFASHENGLE“JIECHU”CONGERFAHUIGAIGONGNENG,CEZHONGYURENYUSHIWUZHIJIANDE“HUDONG”。ER《SHANGBIAOFA》DI48TIAOZHISHITIDAO“YONGYU”,ZHIXIANGDESHIKEGUANGONGNENG,BINGFEIRENYUSHIWUZHIJIANDE“HUDONG”,YINCI,RUGUODUIGAITIAOKUANZHIJINXINGPINGYIJIESHI,JISHISHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGZHONGSHEANSHANGBIAOBINGWEIFAHUISHIBIEGONGNENG,DANYOUYUSHEANSHANGBIAOYIJINGJUBEISHIBIEGONGNENG,YINERSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG。

              (2)根据目的解释和为了维持司法实践统一,涉外定牌加工不构成商标性使用

            星云棋牌官网下载   CONGMUDEJIESHIHEWEICHISIFASHIJIANTONGYIJIAODUERYAN,JIANGSHIBIEGONGNENGYIJINGFAHUIZUOWEIRENDINGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGDEQIANTIGENGWEIHESHI。SHIBIEGONGNENGSHISHANGBIAODEJIBENGONGNENG,GAIGONGNENGJIANGSHANGBIAOQUANLIRENDESHANGPINHUOFUWUYUTARENDESHANGPINHUOFUWUXIANGQUFEN,JIJINGYINGZHEJIEZHUSHANGBIAOZAILIUTONGLINGYUZHONGFAHUISHIBIEGONGNENGLAITUIXIAOZIJIDESHANGPIN,CONGERTONGGUOTIGAOBIANJILIRUN、JIANGDICUXIAOCHENGBENDENGFANGSHILAITIGAOSHANGBIAOQUANLIRENDEYINGLINENGLI(Magid and Cox,2006)。YINCI,BAOHUSHANGBIAODESHIBIEGONGNENGSHISHIXIAN《SHANGBIAOFA》LIFAMUDEDEZHONGYAOFANGSHI。CONGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEBENZHIKAN,QINHAISHANGBIAOQUANXINGWEIJIESHIDUISHANGBIAOSHIBIEGONGNENGDEPOHUAI(ZHANGYUMIN,2008)。RUGUOXINGWEIRENLIYONGSHANGBIAODANBINGBUFAHUIQISHIBIEGONGNENG,BINGBUHUIPOHUAISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENYUQISHANGBIAOHUOFUWUZHIJIANDETEDINGLIANXI,BUHUIDUIQUANLIRENZAOCHENGSUNHAI。YINCI,JIUMUDEJIESHIERYAN,RUOXIANGRENDINGMOUYIXINGWEIGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANXINGWEI,QIANTISHISHEANSHANGBIAOSHIBIEGONGNENGYIJINGFAHUILE。20

            星云棋牌官网下载   NEIMEZAISHANGBIAOQINQUANANJIANZHONG,SHANGBIAODESHIBIEGONGNENGFAHUIYUFOU,YINGGAIZAINAYIGEYAOJIANHUOHUANJIEZHONGQUPANDUAN?BIZHERENWEI,CONGWEICHISIFASHIJIANTONGYIJIAODUKAN,ZAIPANDUAN“SHIFOUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG”SHI,PANDUANSHIBIEGONGNENGFAHUIYUFOUGENGWEITUODANG。

              JUTIERYAN,ZAISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGFANGMIAN,SHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGCHULESHEJISHANGBIAOQINQUANWAI,YEHUISHEJIDAO《SHANGBIAOFA》DI32TIAOGUIDINGDE“ZAIXIANSHIYONG”YUDI49TIAOGUIDINGDE“CHEXIAO3NIANBUSHIYONG”DENG。RUGUORENWEISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGBUYISHIBIEGONGNENGDEFAHUIWEIQIANTI,JIRENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGDEHUA,NEIZHEIZHONGRENDINGWUYIHUIDUIXIANJINQITALEIXINGANJIANZAOCHENGYIDINGDECHONGJI。YI“ZAIXIANSHIYONG”WEILI,ZAI“WUYINLIANGPINAN”ZHONG,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANRENWEI,SHANGBIAOZHIYOUZAISHANGPINDELIUTONGHUANJIEZHONGCAINENGFAHUIQIGONGNENG,YINERZAIJINGNEIZHIYOUSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGFANGSHIDEZHUCESHANGBIAOBUSHUYU“YIJINGSHIYONGBINGYOUYIDINGYINGXIANGDESHANGBIAO”。21JIYUCI,RUGUOZAISHANGBIAOQINQUANANJIANZHONGRENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG,ZEYUZUIGAORENMINFAYUANZAI“WUYINLIANGPINAN”ZHONGDEJIELUNBUXIANGFU。

            星云棋牌官网下载   “ZAIXIANSHIYONG”HE“CHEXIAO3NIANBUSHIYONG”DERENDINGZHIXUKAOLVSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGERBUKAOLVHUNXIAO,JIZHEILIANGZHONGANJIANLEIXINGZHINENGZAIPANDUANSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGHUANJIEPINGJIASHIBIEGONGNENGFAHUIYUFOU,YINCI,WEIWEICHIZHEI3ZHONGANJIANLEIXING22SIFASHIJIANDETONGYI,ZAIJIXUYAOKAOLVSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGYOUXUYAOKAOLVHUNXIAOYAOJIANDESHANGBIAOQINQUANANJIANZHONG,ZAIPANDUANSHIFOUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGCIHUANJIELAIPANDUANSHIBIEGONGNENGFAHUIYUFOUGENGWEITUODANG,JISHANGBIAODESHIBIEGONGNENGZAISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGZHONGCAIDEYITIXIAN。23JIYUCI,YOUYUSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGZHONGSHEANSHANGBIAOBINGWEIZAIJINGNEIFAHUISHIBIEGONGNENG,YINCIZAIRENDINGSHANGBIAOQINQUANSHI,YUANZESHANGRENGYINGRENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG。

              DUIYUSHANGSHU“ROADAGEAN”ERSHENFAYUANDEGUANDIAN,24BIZHERENWEI,ZAIJINGNEISHANGBIAOQINQUANANJIANZHONG,YOUYUSHANGPINSHIZAIJINGNEILIUTONG,YINERWUXUDUIBUTONGDEHUANJIEJINXINGBUTONGDEPINGJIA;ERZAISHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGZHONG,SHENGCHANHUANJIEHELIUTONGHUANJIEDEFENLISHIDESHIBIEGONGNENGBINGWEIZAIJINGNEIFAHUI,ERQIEZUIGAORENMINFAYUANYIZAI“ZAIXIANSHIYONG”DENGANJIANZHONGMINGQUESHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG,YINCI,YOUBIYAOZUOBUTONGDEPINGJIA。

              2. 商标性使用问题上,出口定牌加工与涉外定牌加工相同

            星云棋牌官网下载   RUSHANGSUOSHU,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANZHISUOYIFOUDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGSHISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG,YUANYINZAIYUCHANPINQUANBUCHUKOUJINGWAISHIDESHANGBIAOSHIBIEGONGNENGWEIZAIJINGNEIFAHUI。ZAICHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGDEDIERZHONG、DISANZHONGLEIXINGZHONG,DINGPAIJIAGONGCHANPINTONGYANGQUANBUCHUKOUDAOJINGWAI,TONGYANGWEIZAIJINGNEIFAHUISHANGBIAOSHIBIEGONGNENG,YINERYEBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG。ERSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGSHIRENDINGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN(ZHUJIANJUN,2014),CILIANGZHONGLEIXINGYOUYUBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGJIBUFUHESHANGBIAOQINQUANDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN,CONGERBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN。HUANYANZHI,RUGUORENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG,CONGLUOJISHANGJIANG,ZECHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGDEDIERZHONG、DISANZHONGLEIXINGTONGYANGYOUYUCHUKOUWEIFAHUISHANGBIAOSHIBIEGONGNENG,YINGDANGBEIRENDINGWEIBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG。

              ZONGSHANG,SHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGSHIGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEYAOJIAN,ZAIRENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONGDETONGSHI,JIYUTONGYANGLIYOU,JISUOTIEFUDESHANGBIAOYOUYUCHANPINQUANBUCHUKOUDAOJINGWAIERWEIZAIJINGNEIFAHUISHIBIEGONGNENG,CHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGYUANZESHANGYEBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG。

              四、出口定牌加工与混淆和实质性损害

              ZAIYIDINGYIYISHANG,SHANGBIAOQINQUANRENDINGZHONGHUNXIAOYUSHIZHIXINGSUNHAISHIYIGEWENTIDELIANGGEFANGMIAN,XINGWEIRENDEXINGWEIRUGUOZAOCHENGHUNXIAO,YEWANGWANGYIWEIZHEGAIXINGWEIJIANGJIQUANLIRENZAOCHENGSUNHAI。

              (一)法院在出口定牌加工案件中对混淆和实质性损害的认识

              TONGGUOSHULIJIN10NIANLAIFAYUANYOUGUANSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGANJIANZHONGHUNXIAO、SHIZHIXINGSUNHAIDEPANJUEKEYIFAXIAN,JUEDADUOSHUDESHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGBEIFAYUANRENDINGWEIBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN,LIYOUSHI“BUHUIHUNXIAO”HUO“MEIYOUSUNHAI”,QIGENYUANBIANZAIYUDINGPAIJIAGONGCHANPINQUANBUCHUKOUDAOJINGWAI,JINGNEISHICHANGXIANGGUANGONGZHONGYINMEIYOUZHIJIEJIECHUDAOGAISHANGPIN,NANYICUNZAIFASHENGHUNXIAOHEWURENDEKENENGXING,GUBUHUIPOHUAISHANGBIAODESHIBIEGONGNENG,YEJIUBUHUISUNHAISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAIJINGNEIDEQUANYI。25

            星云棋牌官网下载   ERZAISHAOSHURENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEANJIANZHONG,BUFENFAYUANYIJIAGONGFANGJIJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAOCHENGHUNXIAOHUOSHIZHIXINGSUNHAIWEIYOU,RENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN,ERQIZHISUOYIRENDINGZAOCHENGHUNXIAOHUOSHIZHIXINGSUNHAI,ZHUYAOSHIJIYUYIXIA3ZHONGLIYOU:DIYIZHONGSHI“DONGFENGAN”ZHONGJIANGSUSHENGGAOJIRENMINFAYUANSUOTICHUDE,JIYINNIPTADIGONGSIZHUCE“DONGFENG”SHANGBIAOBUJUYOUZHENGDANGXING,QIFANHUIZHONGGUOWEITUOTIEPAISHENGCHANMINGXIANJISHANGCHAIGONGSIZAOCHENGSHIZHIXINGSUNHAI。DIERZHONGSHIYIJINGWAIGONGZHONGYESHUYU“XIANGGUANGONGZHONG”FANCHOUWEIYOU。RUZAI“ROADAGEAN”ZHONG,ZAISHENFAYUANSUIRANYEYISHIDAOSHANGBIAOBAOHUDULIXINGYUANZEDECUNZAI,DANWEILEBIKAIGAIYUANZE,GAIFAYUANTICHULE“SHANGBIAOFAJIXIANGGUANSIFAJIESHIBINGWEIDUI‘XIANGGUANGONGZHONG’ZUODIYUXIANZHI”DEGUANDIAN。26DISANZHONGSHIYIGUOJIDIANSHANGFADA、GUONEIXIAOFEIZHEKENENGTONGGUOGELEIDIANZISHANGWUWANGZHANJIECHUDAOYICHUKOUZHIJINGWAIDESHANGPINWEIYOU(XUFENGHEWANGZHENGWEI,2015),RU“PEAKAN”ERSHENFAYUANDERENDING。27

              CIWAI,YOUYU《SHANGBIAOFA》DI57TIAODI1XIANGBINGWEIMINGWENJIANG“HUNXIAO”ZUOWEIRENDING“XIANGTONGSHANGPINXIANGTONGSHANGBIAO”QINGXINGXIASHANGBIAOQINQUANDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN,28YINCI,YOUFAYUANRUFUJIANSHENGGAOJIRENMINFAYUANRENWEI,ZAI“XIANGTONGSHANGPINXIANGTONGSHANGBIAO”QINGXINGXIA,SHIFOUZAOCHENGHUNXIAOWURENBINGFEISHIPANDUANGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEYAOJIAN。29

              (二)出口定牌加工没有造成混淆或实质性损害

              JIYUSHANGBIAODULIXINGBAOHUYUANZE,CHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONG“BUHUIHUNXIAO”“MEIYOUSUNHAI”,YINERYUANZESHANGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN。

              1. 混淆与实质性损害是认定商标侵权的要件

              DUIYUHUNXIAO,ZAI“XIANGTONGSHANGPINXIANGTONGSHANGBIAO”DEQINGXINGXIA,YOUFAYUANRENWEISHIFOUZAOCHENGHUNXIAOWURENBINGFEIPANDUANGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEYAOJIAN(ZHANGWEIJUNDENG,2014)。30BIZHEDUICINANYIRENTONG,LIYOUSHI:QIYI,《SHANGBIAOFA》DI57TIAODI1XIANGSHIWEIFALVTUIDINGZAIZHEIZHONGQINGXINGXIACUNZAIHUNXIAOKENENG,YOU《TRIPSXIEDING》DI16TIAODI1KUANZHIGUIDING31YIKEJIANYIBAN。JIRANSHI“TUIDING”,RUYOUTESHUQINGXINGBIANCUNZAILIWAI(ZHANGDEFEN,2014)。ZAISHANGYELINGYUZHONG,JINJINSHIDUISHANGYEBIAOSHIDEFUZHIBINGBUBIRANGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN。32QIER,《SHANGBIAOFA》GUIDINGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEZHUYAOMUDEZAIYUFANGZHIXIANGGUANGONGZHONGDUISHANGPINHEFUWUDELAIYUANCHANSHENGHUNXIAOHEWUREN,YINERRENDINGSHANGBIAOQINQUANXUKAOLVSHIFOUCUNZAIHUNXIAODEKENENGXING。33

              DUIYUSHIZHIXINGSUNHAI,SUIRAN《SHANGBIAOFA》MEIYOUMINGWENGUIDINGJIANGSHIZHIXINGSUNHAIZUOWEISHANGBIAOQINQUANDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN,DANQIBEIHOULILUNYIJUZHIYIZAIYU“JIFAQINQUAN”——《SHANGBIAOFA》ZHENZHENGFOUDINGDESHIMOUXINGWEIDUIQUANLIRENYOUSHIJIQINHAIZHIYU,JIGAIXINGWEIJIANGHUIJIQUANLIRENDAILAISHIZHIXINGSUNSHI——CUNZAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGWEIXIANZHUANGKUANG(LIUYINGSHUANG,2013)。YINCI,RUGUOXINGWEIRENDEXINGWEIBUJUYOUSHIJIQINHAIZHIYU,NEIMEBINGMEIYOUJINZHIGAIXINGWEIDEBIYAO,JIBUYINGBEIRENDINGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN。

              2. 涉外定牌加工不会混淆、没有损害

              (1)对法院认定造成混淆或实质性损害之反思

              RUSHANGSUOSHU,MUQIANBUFENFAYUANRENWEIZAOCHENGHUNXIAOHUOSUNHAIZHUYAOYOU3ZHONGLIYOU,DANZHEI3ZHONGLIYOUSHIJISHANGNANYICHENGLI。

            星云棋牌官网下载   DUIYUDIYIZHONGLIYOU,JIANGSUSHENGGAOJIRENMINFAYUANDEPANJUEYIBEIZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGAIPAN,BIZHERENTONGZUIGAORENMINFAYUANDEJIELUN,JIMEIYOUZAOCHENGHUNXIAO、WURENYUSHIZHIXINGSUNHAI,YINERBUZAIZHUISHU。ERQIE,RUGUOGUONEIFAYUANTONGGUOPANJUEZHUDONGRENDINGJINGGUOJINGWAIGUANFANGQUERENDEJINGWAIQIANGZHUBUJUYOUZHENGDANGXING,BINGJUCIZUOCHUSHANGBIAOQINQUANPANJUE,ZEKENENGHUIPOHUAISHANGBIAOBAOHUDULIXINGYUANZE,ZHEIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGHUISHEJISIFAZHUQUANWENTI,ERQIEJIJINGWAIBUFENJIYUKUOZHANGSHEWAIGUANXIAQUANDEFAYUANDAILAIGENGDUODE“LIYOU”,YEHUIDUIGUONEIQIANGZHUXIFANGQIYEZHIMINGSHANGBIAODANZAIGUONEIYIJILEIQIZIJISHANGYUDEGAIQIANGZHUZHEDEXINGWEIDAILAIXIAOJIYINGXIANG。

              DUIYUDIERZHONGLIYOU,GAIGUANDIANCUNZAIBUZUZHICHU。JIRANWOGUOFALVBINGWEIMINGQUEGUIDING,JIUXUYAOZUNZHONGSHANGBIAOBAOHUDULIXINGYUANZE,BUYIDUI“XIANGGUANGONGZHONG”ZUOKUODASHENZHILEITUIJIESHI。RUGUOJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAICHUKOUDIBINGMEIYOUSHEANBIAOSHIDEHEFAQUANYI,HELAISUNHAIYISHUO?ZHENGRUSHANGHAISHIDIYIZHONGJIRENMINFAYUANZHICHU,“SHANGBIAOQUANDEDIYUXINGTEDIANJUEDING……ZAIWOGUOJINGWAISHIXIAOFEIZHEDUIQISHANGPINLAIYUANCHANSHENGHUNXIAOHUOWUREN,BINGFEIWOGUO《SHANGBIAOFA》SUONENGGUIZHI。”34

              DUIYUDISANZHONGLIYOU,TONGYANGNANYICHENGLI。QIYI,RUGUOZHEIXIESHANGPINTONGGUODIANZISHANGWUWANGZHANZAIJINGNEIXIAOSHOU,YOUYUCISHISHIBIEGONGNENGZAIJINGNEIFAHUI,ZEKEYIFA35RENDINGJINKOUZHESHENZHISHIDIANSHANGPINGTAIGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANCONGERZUZHIGAISHANGPINZAIJINGNEILIUTONG;QIER,JINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENKEYIFASHENQINGHAIGUANBAOHU,JINZHIGAISHANGPINJINRUJINGNEI。

              (2)对学者认为造成损害之反思

              CHUSHANGSHULIYOUWAI,ZHANGWEIJUNDENG(2014)XUEZHERENWEI,FAYUANRENDINGDINGPAIJIAGONGBUGOUCHENGQINQUANHUIXISHENGJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENDELIYIJIXUKESHIYONGFEI。NEIMEZAISHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGANJIANZHONG,JINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENSHIFOUYOUQUANSHOUQUXUKESHIYONGFEI?BIZHERENWEIWUQUANSHOUQU,LIYOUSHI:QIYI,BINGFEIRENHESHANGYEXINGLIYONGSHANGYEBIAOSHIXINGWEIJUNXUYAOZHIFUXUKESHIYONGFEI,LIRUMIAOSHUXINGSHIYONG;QIER,BUTONGYUZHUANLIFABAOHUCHUANGZAOXING,36SHANGBIAOFABAOHUDESHISHIBIEGONGNENG,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGERYAN,SHANGBIAOBAOHUDESHIJINGGUOSHIYONGSUOZHUJIANLEIJIQILAIDESHANGYU(ZHANGYUMINHECAOBO,2013),ZAISHANGBIAOQINQUANANJIANZHONG,DUISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENJIUJIDESHIJIYUSHANGBIAOQUANLIRENBAOHUSHANGYEXINYUDEQUANLI。37ERZAISHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGZHONG,YOUYUCHANPINQUANBUCHUKOUDAOJINGWAI,BUHUIDUIJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENDEJINGNEISHANGYUCHANSHENGBULIYINGXIANG,MEIYOUPOHUAIQISHIBIEGONGNENG,ZHEIYUZHUANLIFASUOBAOHUDECHUANGZAOXINGSHIYOUSUOBUTONGDE。HUANYANZHI,ZHIYOULIYONGGAISHANGBIAOZAIJINGNEIFAHUISHIBIEGONGNENG,SHANGBIAOQUANLIRENCAIYOUQUANSHOUQUXUKESHIYONGFEI。JIRANJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENWUQUANSHOUQUXUKESHIYONGFEI,NEISHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGBIANMEIYOUYINCIZAOCHENGSUNHAI。

              3. 在混淆与损害问题上,出口定牌加工等同于涉外定牌加工

            星云棋牌官网下载   DIERZHONG、DISANZHONGLEIXINGYUSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGCUNZAIXIANGTONGZHICHU,JUNSHIJIANGCHANPINQUANBUCHUKOUDAOJINGWAI。YOUYUZAOCHENGHUNXIAOYUSHIZHIXINGSUNHAISHIRENDINGGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUANDEYAOJIAN,RURENDINGSHEWAIDINGPAIJIAGONGYOUYUWEIZAIJINGNEILIUTONGERWEIZAOCHENGHUNXIAOHUOSHIZHIXINGSUNHAI,CONGLUOJISHANGJIANG,DIERZHONG、DISANZHONGLEIXINGXIANRANYIBUHUIZAIJINGNEIZHIJIEYINQIXIANGGUANGONGZHONGHUNXIAO,MEIYOUPOHUAISHIBIEGONGNENG,BINGMEIYOUJIJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENDAILAIFALVYIYISHANGDESUNHAI。YINCI,CHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGYUANZESHANGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN。

              五、结语

              RUSHANGSUOSHU,JIYU“FEISHANGBIAOXINGSHIYONG”“BUHUIZAOCHENGHUNXIAO”HE“MEIYOUZAOCHENGSHIZHIXINGSUNHAI”DENGYUANYOU,CHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGYUANZESHANGBUGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIMOUXIETEDINGQINGXINGXIA,GUONEIFAYUANYIKEWEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENTIGONGYIDINGDESIFAJIUJI。LIRU,JINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAIJINGWAIMOUFAYUTONGGUOZHUCE、SHIYONGHUOZHEQITAFANGSHIYIFAHUODETEDINGSHANGBIAODEQUANYI,ERJIAGONGFANGDINGPAIJIAGONGDECHANPINZAIGAIJINGWAIFAYUHUIQINFANDAOGAIQUANYI,ZECISHIJINGNEIFAYUANKEYIJUXIANGGUANGUOJISIFAGUIFAN,JIEHEBEIQINGQIUBAOHUDIFALV,38RENDINGQIGOUCHENGSHANGBIAOQINQUAN,CONGERYAOQIUQICHENGDANTINGZHIQINHAI、SUNHAIPEICHANGDENGMINSHIZEREN。HUANYANZHI,GUONEIFAYUANTONGGUOXIANGGUANGUOJISIFAGUIFAN,KEWEIJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENTIGONGYIDINGDESIFAJIUJI,HAIGUANYIKEJUCIYIFAJINZHIXINGWEIRENDECHUKOU,CONGERWEIHUJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAIJINGWAIZHUCEDIDESHANGBIAOQUANYI。

              JINGGUOZHEIXIENIANDESHIJIAN,JINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENYINGDANGYISHIDAO,RUGUOZAIYIMOUXIEFAYUNEIGUANYUGAISHANGBIAODEQUANYI,JIUYINGJIJITONGGUOZHUCEHESHIYONGDENGFANGSHIYIFAZAIDANGDIHUODEHEFAQUANYI,ERBUSHIZHIWANGZAIJINGNEIJINZHICHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGNENGYILAOYONGYI。RUGUOJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAIJINGWAIFAYUMEIYOUYIFAHUODEGAIBIAOSHIDEXIANGGUANQUANYI,JINGNEIWAIQITAZHUTIDOUHENKENENGYIZHAODANGDIFALVHUODEGAISHANGYEBIAOSHIZAIDANGDIDEQUANYI,DAONEISHIJINGNEISHANGBIAOQUANLIRENZAIGAIFAYUJIUHENKENENGHUIMIANLIN“DONGFENGAN”YUANGAODEKUNJING,QISUOSHENGCHANDECHANPINWUFATONGGUODANGDIHAIGUAN,NANYIJINRUDANGDISHICHANG。BENWENZHUYAOSHICONGLUOJIHELIFAMUDEJIAODUTANTAOCHUKOUDINGPAIJIAGONGJINGYINGMOSHIYUSHANGBIAOQINQUANZHIJIANDEGUANXI,WEIBIJINSHANJINMEI,QIWANGNENGWEIXIANGGUANYANJIUHESIFASHIJIANDAILAIYIXIEQIFA。

              参考文献

              [1]刘迎霜.国际贸易中涉外贴牌生产中的商标侵权问题研究[J].国际贸易问题, 2013,(5).
              [2]沈强.涉外定牌加工中的商标侵权问题——对我国《商标法》第五十二条第(一)项的理解与适用[J].国际商务研究, 2009,(5).
              [3] 宋健.对涉外定牌加工商标侵权“合理注意义务+实质性损害”判断标准的解读——以“东风”案为例[J].知识产权, 2016,(9).
              [4] 徐枫,王正伟.对涉外定牌加工行为的再思考——以知识产权海关保护执法实践为视角[J].知识产权,2015,(7).
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              注释

              1即最高人民法院(2016)民再339号民事判决,该案二审为江苏省高级人民法院(2015)苏知民终字第00036号民事判决。
              2出口定牌加工案件中直接利益主体有3方,分别是境内商标权利人、境内加工方和出口境外的定作方。而由于实践中境内商标权利人直接向加工方主张权利,因此本文所言“定牌加工”均指加工方的出口定牌加工行为,不包括定作方的相关行为。
              3如果加工方由于定作方拒收等缘故而在境内许诺销售、销售这些产品,即使是少量,那么该加工方将由于在境内销售导致商标识别功能发挥而构成商标性使用,进而很可能被认定构成商标侵权。
              4如东莞市中级人民法院(2017)粤19民终7430号民事判决。
              5详见下文提及的最高人民法院于2009年出台的《关于当前经济形势下知识产权审判服务大局若干问题的意见》。在实践中,除了使用“合理注意义务”,法院还会使用“必要的审查注意义务”“合理审查义务”等词汇,但这些词汇区别不大,因此本文统一使用“合理注意义务”一词。
              6最高人民法院(2014)民提字第38号民事判决。
              7如广东省高级人民法院(2011)粤高法民三终字第467号民事判决等。
              8司法实践中,有被告亦对此认定提出质疑,如宁波市北仑区人民法院(2018)浙0206民初451号民事判决。
              9通过梳理现有判决不难发现,当部分法院为了得出“出口定牌加工构成商标侵权”之结论时,会认定其没有尽到合理注意义务,而当法院为了得出“出口定牌加工不构成商标侵权”之结论时,会认定其尽到合理注意义务。但是,“商标性使用”与“混淆”是认定商标侵权的构成要件,不管是否尽到合理注意义务,判断商标侵权之时无法绕开这些构成要件。于是,便出现了同样是定牌加工,同样是将产品出口境外,法院判决却自相矛盾,造成在商标法框架内的紊乱现象。如下文所述,当法院为了得出“出口定牌加工不构成商标侵权”之结论时,会以不构成商标性使用为由;而当个别法院为了得出“出口定牌加工构成商标侵权”之结论时,会尽量不提商标性使用,或是直接认定该行为构成商标性使用,与最高人民法院的认定相悖。下文的“混淆”和“实质性损害”也面临如此问题,详见下文论述。
              10根据《侵权责任法》规定,造成损害是侵权的构成要件之一。为了让读者更好地理解“实质性损害”在本文的重要性,本文使用“要件”一词。
              11《意见》第18条提出,“妥善处理当前外贸‘贴牌加工’……应当结合加工方是否尽到必要的审查注意义务……”。
              12参见浙江省高级人民法院(2016)浙民再121号民事判决。
              13例如,根据北京市高级人民法院于2006年出台的《关于审理商标民事纠纷案件若干问题的解答》规定,要先考虑境内委托方在境内是否构成侵权,在构成侵权的前提下,加工方才需要以尽到合理注意义务为由进行抗辩。此种类型下,会出现这种“加工方需要以尽到合理注意义务为由进行抗辩”的原因,无非是行政管理的“纰漏”和“撤销、无效”等缘故。
              14参见福建省高级人民法院(2016)闽民终1357号民事判决。
              15参见宁波市中级人民法院(2015)浙甬知终字第7号民事判决。
              16北京市高级人民法院曾经于2004年发布的《关于审理商标民事纠纷案件若干问题的解答》第13条明确规定:“定牌加工是基于有权使用商标的人的明确委托……不可能造成相关公众的混淆、误认,不应当认定构成侵权”。该条规定在2006年被删除。
              17参见深圳市中级人民法院(2016)粤03民终7603号民事判决,又如“东风案”中最高人民法院的观点。
              18另外,浙江省高级人民法院在另一个案子中也如此认定,参见浙江省高级人民法院(2014)浙知终字第25号民事判决。
              19形式要件是指将商标用于商品、商品包装或者容器以及商品交易文书上,或者将商标用于广告宣传、展览以及其他商业活动中,即客观上的商业使用行为。
              20对于不涉及出口的一般商标侵权案件,即使该产品未流入市场,但由于不加阻止便会流入境内市场,只是时间差问题,因此可视为商标性使用。出口定牌加工产品流入的是境外市场而非境内市场,因此两者存在本质的不同。
              21参见最高人民法院(2012)行提字第2号行政判决。
              22即“在先使用”“撤销3年不使用”和“商标侵权”案件。
              23参见山东省高级人民法院(2012)鲁民三终字第81号民事判决。
              24即“商标性使用行为是一种客观行为,不应因为使用人的不同或处于不同的生产、流通环节而作不同的评价。”
              25如宁波市中级人民法院(2017)浙02民终4182号民事判决。
              26该法院以“境内商标权利人的商品也销往同一境外市场足以使境外相关公众产生混淆误认”为由认定会损害国内商标权利人利益。参见浙江省高级人民法院(2016)浙民再121号民事判决。
              27参见上海知识产权法院(2016)沪73民终37号民事判决。
              28《商标法》第57条第1项规定:“未经商标注册人的许可,在同一种商品上使用与其注册商标相同的商标的”。
              29参见福建省高级人民法院(2016)闽民终1357号民事判决。
              30参见福建省高级人民法院(2016)闽民终1357号民事判决。
              31《TRIPS协定》第16条第1款规定,“……将相同商标同用在相同商品或服务上,应推定为混淆可能性……”。
              32See Quality Inns Int’l, Inc. v. Mc Donald’s Corp., 695 F. Supp. 198, 223(D. Md. 1988).
              33参见上海市高级人民法院(2009)沪高民三(知)终字第65号民事判决。
              34参见上海市第一中级人民法院(2012)沪一中民五(知)终字第110号民事判决。
              35如《电子商务法》第41~45条之规定。
              36因此,以生产经营为目的的制造甚至是使用行为需要向专利权人缴纳许可使用费。
              37See Hanover Star Milling Co. v. Metcalf, 240 U.S. 403, 426, 36 S. Ct. 357, 365, 60 L. Ed. 713(1916).
              38如《涉外民事关系法律适用法》第48条规定,“知识产权的归属和内容,适用被请求保护地法律。”第50条规定,“知识产权的侵权责任,适用被请求保护地法律,当事人也可以在侵权行为发生后协议选择适用法院地法律。”

              刘乐耀,谢阳.出口定牌加工商标侵权认定问题探析[J].国际商务研究,2019,40(05):74-84.
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