星云棋牌官网下载

<small id='1x41i'></small><noframes id='1x41i'>

  • <tfoot id='1x41i'></tfoot>

      <legend id='1x41i'><style id='1x41i'><dir id='1x41i'><q id='1x41i'></q></dir></style></legend>
      <i id='1x41i'><tr id='1x41i'><dt id='1x41i'><q id='1x41i'><span id='1x41i'><b id='1x41i'><form id='1x41i'><ins id='1x41i'></ins><ul id='1x41i'></ul><sub id='1x41i'></sub></form><legend id='1x41i'></legend><bdo id='1x41i'><pre id='1x41i'><center id='1x41i'></center></pre></bdo></b><th id='1x41i'></th></span></q></dt></tr></i><div id='1x41i'><tfoot id='1x41i'></tfoot><dl id='1x41i'><fieldset id='1x41i'></fieldset></dl></div>

          <bdo id='1x41i'></bdo><ul id='1x41i'></ul>

          1. <form id='4n60b'></form>
              <bdo id='4n60b'><sup id='4n60b'><div id='4n60b'><bdo id='4n60b'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

                • 学术堂首页 | 文献求助论文范文 | 论文题目 | 参考文献 | 开题报告 | 论文格式 | 摘要提纲 | 论文致谢 | 论文查重 | 论文答辩 | 论文发表 | 期刊杂志 | 论文写作 | 论文PPT
                  学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 知识产权法论文

                  中医方剂知识产权保护困境与应对措施

                  时间:2019-02-14 来源:中国卫生法制 作者:沈宇超,姚景曦 本文字数:10953字

                    摘    要: 结合中医药方剂的相关知识,传统中医的纵向和横向发展历史,中医方剂的现状,面对中医方剂保护的困境,提出了对中国传统中医方剂保护的必要性、可能性和现实紧迫性。客观介绍了我国现有的知识产权保护制度,对别国传统中医方剂保护的借鉴,总结了一些保护中国中医方剂知识产权的新见解和新思路,以期中医药方剂知识产权保护在制度方面的建构和完善。

                    关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 中医方剂; 知识产权; 现实困境; 保护; 制度完善;

                    Abstract: Based on the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)prescriptions,the longitudinal and horizontal development history of TCM prescriptions,the current situation of TCM prescriptions,and the dilemma of TCM prescriptions protection,this paper put forward the necessity,possibility and realistic urgency of TCM prescriptions.This paper objectively introduced the existing intellectual property rights protection system in China,drew lessons from other countries′TCM prescription protection,and summarizes some new ideas and ideas on protecting the intellectual property rights of TCM prescription.It is expected to construct and improve the intellectual property system of TCM prescription.

                    Keyword: Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription; Intellectual property rights; Realistic dilemma; Protection; System consummation;

                    一、中医方剂的相关知识

                    (一)传统中医药的概述

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHONGYIYAO,SHIBAOKUOHANZUHESHAOSHUMINZUYIYAOZAINEIDEWOGUOGEMINZUYIYAODETONGCHENG,FANYINGLEZHONGHUAMINZUDUISHENGMING、JIBINGHEJIANKANGDERENSHI,SHIJUYOUYOUJIULISHICHUANTONGHEDUTELILUNJIJISHUFANGFADEYIYAOXUETIXI。ZHONGYIYAOJUYOUZHONGSHIZHENGTI、ZHUYI“PING”YU“HE”、QIANGDIAOGETIHUA、TUCHU“ZHIWEIBING”、SHIYONGJIANBIANDENGTEDIAN[1]。

                    (二)传统中医方剂的概述

                    FANGJI,SHIZAISHENZHENGQIUYIN、QUELIZHIFAZHIHOU,ZUNXUN“JUN、CHEN、ZUO、SHI”DEZUFANGYUANZE,XUANZEQIADANGDEYAOWU,ZAIMINGQUEYONGLIANG、ZHUODINGJIXINGHEYONGFADEJICHUZHIXIAERXINGCHENGDEYAOWUPEIWUZUHE。FANGJISHIZHONGYIZHENLIAOTIXIZHONGDEZHUYAOXINGSHI,SHIZHONGYILI、FA、FANG、YAOZHONGDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。FANGJIYOUBEICHENGZUO“YIFANG”、“YAOFANG”,MINJIANSUCHENG“FANGZI”。FANG,YOUFA、SHUZHIYI。《SUISHU·JINGJIZHI》:“YIFANGZHE,SUOYICHUJICHEN,BAOXINGMINGZHISHUYE”。JI,GUZUOQI,ZHIDIAOHE。《HANSHUYIWENZHI》:“DIAOBAIYAOQIHEZHISUOYI”。ZAOQIDEFANGJIHANYOUYIFANG、YISHU、DIAOJIDENGYI[2]。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   FANGJIZUICHUKENENGSHILINCHUANGYIJIAYOUXIAOANLIDEZHIJIEJIZAI。RENMENZAIZHANGQILINCHUANGSHIJIANZHONGTONGGUOFANFUYANZHENG,BUDUANWANSHANHEZONGJIE,ZHUJIANDECHUDUIYUMOUXIEJIBINGYOUTEDINGLIAOXIAODEYAOWUPEIWUDEZUHE,ERZHEIXIEZUHETONGCHANGYEBEICHENGWEI“CHENGFANG”。LIDAIYIJIACHUANGZHIDEDALIANGCHENGFANGSHIZHONGYILINCHUANGFANGZHIJIBINGDEYOUXIAOGONGJU。

                    方剂既不是随症药物的简单相加,也不是某类药物的简单组合,而是在治法理论指导下,针对病证的病机,有目的地将群药经过合理配伍,构成一内在联系的有机体。方中药物之间存在着复杂的交互配伍相互作用的关系,方剂功效是方内药物共同作用于机体产生的综合效应。凡是一首合格的方剂,首先是安全有效的。临床组方应首先避免任何对患者产生的不利毒副作用,然后才可以追求疗效。方剂中蕴含有重视药物效毒二重性、权衡治疗得失、优化配伍以寻求机体最佳平衡状态等深刻的辩证理念,高度体现了中医以人为本、以病为标的治病原则[3]。
                   

                  中医方剂知识产权保护困境与应对措施
                   

                    (三)按时中医方剂的发展历史

                    1、中医方剂的传承历史

                    XIANQIN、LIANGHANSHIQIDE《WUSHIERBINGFANG》SHIXIANCUNZUIZAODEFANGSHU。SHUZHONGJIZAIDEBIJIAOWANZHENGDE189SHOUFANGZHONG,DANWEIYAOFANGDA110SHOU,XIANSHILEFANGJIDEZUCHENGYOUDANWEIYAODAOSHUWEIYAOPEIHEDELISHIGUOCHENG。XIHANZHONGQI《HUANGDINEIJING》ZAIFANG13SHOU,JIXINGYOUTANG、WAN、SAN、DAN、GAO、JIU,QIDUIZHIZEYUZHIFADEZONGJIE,DUIFANGJIFENLEIFANGFAJIZUFANGJIEGOUDENGLILUNDECHANSHU,WEIFANGJIXUEDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHANDIANDINGLELILUNJICHU。DONGHAN《SHANGHANZABINGLUN》ZHANGZHONGJINGZAIFANG314SHOU,BEIZUNWEI“FANGSHUZHIZU”。GAISHUCHUANGZAOXINGDERONGLI、FA、FANG、YAOYUYITI,QIEJIXINGFENGFU,JIANFUYOUFA,WEIFANGJIXUEDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHANDIANDINGLELINCHUANGJICHU。DONGJIN《ZHOUHOUBEIJIFANG》GEHONGDANFANG510SHOU,FUFANG494SHOU,QIZHONGDEYAOFANGFA“JIEYISHIERHOULUZHI”,YONGYAOLIQIU“DANXINGJINGYI,YUEERYOUYAN;LIMOZHIJIAN,GUMIANJIEYAO”,“JIAN、BIAN、LIAN、XIAO”SHIGAISHUDEXIANZHETEDIAN。TANGDAI《BEIJIQIANJINYAOFANG》HE《QIANJINYIFANG》ZAIFANG7 900YUSHOU,SHEJINEI、WAI、FU、ERKE,ZHUANJI“SHIZHI”。《WAITAIMIYAO》ZAIFANG6 800YUSHOU,ZHENGLIBINGBAOCUNLEDAPITANGDAIJIYIQIANDEYIFANG,RU《XIAOPINFANG》《LIUJUANZIGUIYIFANG》《SHENSHIFANG》《CUISHIFANG》《JIYANFANG》,QINGRENXUDACHUNCHENG“ZUANJIZIHANYILAIZHUFANG,HUICUICHENGSHU,ERLIDAIZHIFANGYUYANDABEI……YIQIANFANGLAICIYICUN,QIGONGYIBUKEMIN”。SONGYUANSHIQI《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG》《SHENGJIZONGLU》YOUZHENGFUZUZHIBIANZHUAN,QIANZHEZAIFANG16 834SHOU,HOUZHEJIN2WAN;XUSHUWEI《PUJIBENSHIFANG》、CHENYAN《SANYINJIYIBINGZHENGFANGLUN》、YANYONGHE《JISHENGFANG》、CHENZIMING《FURENDAQUANLIANGFANG》、QIANYI《XIAOERYAOZHENGZHIJUE》《TAIPINGHUIMINHEJIJUFANG》ZAIFANG788SHOU,YOUBEISONGZHENGFUGUANBANYAOJUJIANGSUOZANGYIFANGJINGXIAODINGBIANZUANERCHENG,SHICHENGFANGZHIJIDESHENGCHANGUIFANHUA,SHIWOGUOLISHISHANGDIYIBUYOUZHENGFUZUZHIBIANZHIDECHENGYAODIAN。JINRENCHENGWUJI《SHANGHANMINGLILUN》,SHOUCIYIJUJUN、CHEN、ZUO、SHIFENXILE《SHANGHANLUN》,KAIHOUSHIFANGLUNZHIXIANHE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   JINYUANSHIQILIUWANSU“HANLIANGPAI”《HUANGDISUWENXUANMINGFANGLUN》TICHU“LIUQIJIECONGHUOHUA”,“WUZHIGUOJI,JIEWEIRESHEN”。ZHANGCONGZHENG“GONGXIAPAI”《RUMENSHIQIN》TICHU“HAN、TU、XIABINGYOUXIESHENG,XIEQUERZHENGAN”。LIGAO“BUTUPAI”《PIWEILUN》TICHU“NEISHANGPIWEI,BAIBINGYOUSHENG”。ZHUZHENHENG“ZIYINPAI”《DANXIXINFA》TICHUYANGYOUYUYINBUZULUN、XIANGHUOLUN。MINGQINGSHIQIFANGSHUJUANZHIHAOFAN,FANGJISHUMUJUDA,ZAIYIFANGYILI、FANGJIFENLEI、ZHIFADENGFANGMIANJINRULEYIGEXINJIEDUAN。MINGDAI《PUJIFANG》ZHUXIUZAIFANG61 739SHOU,SHIWOGUOXIANCUNGUJIZHONGZAIFANGZUIDUODEYIBUFANGSHU。《YIFANGKAO》WUKUN“KAOQIFANGYAO,KAOQIJIANZHENG,KAOQIMINGYI,KAOQISHIJI,KAOQIBIANTONG,KAOQIDESHI,KAOQISUOYIRANZHIGU”,SHILISHISHANGDIYIBUFANGLUNZHUANZHE。QITADEYOULUODONGYI《GUJINMINGYIFANGLUN》,WANGZIJIE《JIANGXUEYUANGUFANGXUANZHU》,FEIBOXIONG《YIFANGLUN》。ZHANGJIEBIN《JINGYUEQUANSHU》DE“BAZHEN”FENLEIFA,ZHONGSHIXUZHENG,DUIBUFADEXINGCHENGGONGXIANJIAODUO;CHENGZHONGLING《YIXUEXINWU》TICHU“BAFA”FENLEIFA,HAN、TU、XIA、HE、WEN、QING、XIAO、BU;SHIPEI《ZUJI》SHIYIYUANLIUGUILEIDEDAIBIAO;ZHANGLU《ZHANGSHIYITONG》SHIYIBINGZHENGFENLEIDEDAIBIAO;WANGANG《YIFANGJIJIE》KAICHUANGZONGHEFENLEI(ZHIFA、BINGYIN)FANGJIDEXIANLI;WUJUTONG《WENBINGTIAOBIAN》、LEISHAOYI《SHIBINGLUN》YIZHIFAMINGMING。JINXIANDAISHIQI,FANGLUNZEYINANJINGZHONGYIYAODAXUEZHUBIANDE《ZHONGYIFANGJIDACIDIAN》[1,2]WEIDAIBIAO。

                    2.中医方剂的传播历史

                    ZHONGYIFANGJIDEDUIWAICHUANBOLISHI,YILAIYUZHONGYAOXUEDEHAIWAICHUANBOLUJING。ZUOWEIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUAZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFENHEJIECHUDAIBIAOZHIYIDEZHONGYI,CANYUBINGJIANZHENGLEZHONGHUAWENMINGCENGJINGDEHUIHUANG,ZAIDUIWAICHUANBODEGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHONGYIBUDANZAOFULEGENGDUOREN,YESHIZISHENDEYIBUDUANFENGFU、WANSHAN、FAZHAN。ZHONGYIHAIWAICHUANBODELISHIZUIZAOKEYIZHUISUDAOLIANGHAN,ZAISUITANGSHIQIZHONGYIDEHAIWAICHUANBOKAISHIXINGSHENG,BINGZAISONGJINYUANSHIQIZHANGZUFAZHAN、QUDEFANRONGJUMIAN。DANZAIMINGQINGSHIQI,ZHONGQIDEHAIWAICHUANBOCHIXUFAZHANKAISHIZOUXIAPOLU。DAOLEJINDAI,ZHONGYIDEHAIWAICHUANBOZEJINYIBUQUYUCHENJI。DAOSHANGSHIJIQIBASHINIANDAI,SUIZHEGAIGEKAIFANGFAZHAN,SUIZHEZHONGGUODEJINGJISHILIHEZONGHEGUOLIDEZHENGQIANG,ZHONGYIFANGJIZUOWEIZHONGYAODEZHONGYIYAOZAITIZAIHAIWAIGUANGFANCHUANBO,TONGSHIGEGUOYIWURENYUANLAIDAOZHONGGUOXUEXIZHENJIU、ZHONGYILINCHUANGDEXIAOXITONGGUOGUONEIWAIMEITIDEBAODAO,SHIZHONGYIWEIGEGUORENMINSUOLEJIE,CONGERZAISHIJIEFANWEINEIXINGCHENGLEYIGUXUEXIZHONGGUOZHONGYIDELANGCHAO。CIHOU,GEGUODUIZHONGYIFENFENJIESHOUHEYINJINGUONEI[4],SHIZHONGYIFANGJIBANSUIZHEZHONGYIYAODECHUANBOZAISHIJIEGEDILUODIKAIHUA,SHENGGENFAYA。

                    二、中医方剂知识产权保护的制度

                    (一)中医方剂的专利保护

                    WOGUO1993NIANXIUGAI《ZHUANLIFA》ZHIHOU,DUIZHONGYIYAOYAOPINSHIXINGLEZHUANLIBAOHU。2008NIANZAICIXIUDINGDE《ZHUANLIFA》JIADALEDUIZHONGYIFANGJIJINXINGZHUANLIBAOHUDELIDU,JIANHUASUODUANLEZHUANLIDESHENPILIUCHENGHEZHUANLIWEIQUANDECHENGXU。ZHUANLISHIDUIYUCHUANGSHIRENSUOYOUZHEHUOCHUANCHENGZHEDEXIAOYIBAOHU。SUIZHEJINGJIDEFAZHAN,SUIZHERENMENZHISHICHANQUANYISHIDEBUDUANZENGQIANG,ZHONGYAOZHENGGEXINGYEDEGUANLISHUIPINGFEISUTISHENG,WOGUOZHONGYAOZHUANLISHENQINGDESHULIANGYEZAIBUDUANTIGAO。QIZHONGDEBAOHUDUIXIANGJIKEYISHIZHONGYIFANGJIDEBENSHEN,YEKEYISHIXIANGGUANDEZHIBEIGONGYI。KEYISHUO,ZHUANLIBAOHUSHIBAOHUZHONGYIFANGJIZUIYOUXIAODEFANGFAZHIYI。

                    (二)中医方剂的商标保护商标是生产活动中的一种标志

                    RUGUOSHUO,ZHUANLIDEZUOYONGZHUYAOSHIZAIYUCUJINCHANYEDEFAZHAN,NEIMESHANGBIAODEZUOYONGJIUSHIWEIHUSHICHANGDEZHIXU[5]。1983NIANSHIXINGDE《SHANGBIAOFA》ZHONGMINGQUELEGUANYUYAOPINSHANGBIAO、ZHUCEDEGUIDING。ZAI1993NIANYIJI2001NIANDUI《SHANGBIAOFA》DEXIUGAINEIRONGZHONG,BUDUANDEKUODALESHANGBIAOBAOHUDEFANWEI,DUISHANGPINDESHANGBIAOBAOHUYIWAI,TONGSHIZENGJIALEDUISHANGPINFUWUSHANGBIAODEZHISHICHANQUANBAOHU。ZHEIWUYISHIDUIZHONGYIFANGJIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEYIGELIHAOFANGXIANG。CIWAI,ZHONGYIZHONGDEZHONGGUOCHIMINGSHANGBIAOYEZHIDEYITI。SUOWEIZHONGGUOCHIMINGSHANGBIAO,SHIYIFAYOUYUPUTONGZHUCESHANGBIAODEYIZHONGBAOHUXINGSHI。CHIMINGSHANGBIAOJUYOUYIBANSHANGBIAODEQUBIEZUOYONG,TONGSHIYOUJUYOUZHIMINGDUGAO,YINGXIANGFANWEIGUANG,SHANGYEJIAZHIJUDADETEDIAN,CHUANTONGZHONGYIDECHIMINGSHANGBIAOYIZHISHIBUFAFENZISUOQINHAIDEDUIXIANG。ZHONGYAOCHIMINGSHANGBIAODEBAOHULIDUSHANGXUJIAQIANG。JINNIANLAI,WOGUODUIYIDAPICHUANTONGZHONGYAOCHIMINGSHANGBIAOJINXINGBAOHU,RUBEIJINGDE“TONGRENTANG”,GUANGZHOUDE“PANGAOSHOU”、“CHENLIJI”,ZHONGQINGDE“TONGJUNGE”,TIANJINDE“DARENTANG”DENG[6]。

                    (三)中医方剂的着作权保护

                    XIAYISHANGDEZHEZUOQUANSHIZHIZUOZHEDUIZHONGYIFANGJIXIANGYOURENSHENQUANHECAICHANQUANDEZONGCHENG。WOGUO《ZHEZUOQUANFA》JIQISHISHITIAOLIYU1991NIAN6YUEZHENGSHISHIXING,YU2001NIANXIUGAI,2010NIANXIUZHENG。《ZHEZUOQUANFA》MINGQUELEDUIZHONGYIFANGJIDENGBANQUANJINXINGBAOHU,DAJIQINQUANXINGWEI,YOULIDIWEIHULEZHEZUOQUANRENDEQUANYI。

                    (四)中医方剂的商业秘密

                    WOGUO《BAOHUFANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》ZHONGMINGQUECHANSHULEQINHAISHANGYEMIMIQUANYIDEXINGWEI。GUANGYISHANGZHONGYIFANGJIDESHANGYEMIMIBAOKUOLEZHONGYIYAOFANGJIDEDANFANG、ZHONGYILIAOFA、ZHONGYIFANGJIDEMIFANG、ZHONGYAOCAIDEPAOZHIJISHUDENG。RUZAICHUFANGBAOHUFANGMIAN,GUOJIADE《BAOMIFA》DUI“PIANZIHUANG”、“ANGONGNIUHUANGWAN”、“YUNNANBAIYAO”、“HUATUOZAIZAOWAN”HE“LIUSHENWAN”ZHEI5GEGUOJIAJIBAOMICHUFANGJINXINGLEBAOHU。CONGMUQIANZHONGYIZHISHICHANQUANFAZHANXIANZHUANGLAIKAN,SHANGYEMIMIBAOHURENGSHIZHONGYIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEZUIYOUXIAOTUJINGZHIYI。

                    三、中医方剂知识产权保护的困境[7]

                    (一)理论上之困境

                    1.主体界定之困境

                    TAOLUNDUIZHONGYIYAOFANGJIDEZHISHICHANQUANDEFALVBAOHUWENTI,ZHUIGENSUYUANJIUSHIYAOQUELINAYIZHUTIDUIXIANYOUDEFANGJINENGGOUZHUZHANGQUANLI、ZHUZHANGHEZHONGQUANLI,YIJINENGYOUCICHANSHENGQUANLIZHUTIDEQUANYIDEFALVBAOHUWENTI。ZAIDANGQIANDEFALVZHIDUDEKUANGJIAXIA,WUQUANLIZHUTISHIZHONGYIYAOFANGJIBAOHUWUFASHISHIDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,ZHONGYIYAODEFANGJISHIWOGUOLAODONGRENMINFANGZHIJIBINGDEZHUYAOYILIAOFANGFADEZHONGYAOZAITI,SHILAODONGRENMINZHANGQIDEYILIAOSHIJIAN,JILEIDALIANGDEYILIAOSHIJIANJINGYAN,BINGYOUZHICHANSHENGDEXITONGDEZHONGYIYAOLILUNZHISHI。KEJIAN,ZHONGYIYAOFANGJIDECHANSHENGHEZUIZHONGXINGCHENGBINGFEIYIJIZHILI,YIRENZHIGONG,ERSHIHENDUORENYIDAIYOUYIDAIDESHIJIAN,JINGGUOQIANBAICISHIJIANJIANYANXIADECHENGGUO。HENDUOSHIHOUFANGJIBAOHUDEZHUTIBIANJIEBUQINGXI,DAOZHILEZAISHIJIANZHONGDUIZHONGYIYAOFANGJIZHISHICHANQUANDEBAOHUNANYIDEDAOJUTIYOUXIAODESHISHI。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHONGYIYAOFANGJIDEQUANLIZHUTIMAODUNCHANGCHANGTIXIANWEIXIAOJICHONGTUHEJIJICHONGTU,JIYAOMEZHAOBUDAOZHONGYIYAOFANGJIDEQUANLIDEZHUZHANGZHE,YAOMEJIUCHANSHENGCHUANGZAOZHEHEBAOCUNZHEHUOZHEYUZHIXIANGGUANZHEDOUZHUZHANGQUANLIDEZHUANGKUANG。CONGFALVDUIZHONGYIYAOFANGJIYUYIBAOHUDEYUANSHIDONGLIHESHEHUIGONGXIAOLAIKAN,RUOWURENDUIZHONGYIYAOFANGJIZHUZHANGQUANLI,KEYIYOUSHEHUIGONGYIZUZHIJINXINGBAOHU,RUODUOGERENZHUZHANGQUANLI,QUANLIZHUTIZIRANYINGDANGSHICHUANGZAOHUOZHEBAOCUNSHOUHULECHUANTONGZHONGYIYAOFANGJIDERENHUOQUNTI,CAINENGFAHUIFALVDUITADEBAOHUZUOYONG,YOUCICHANSHENGZUIDADESHEHUIXIAOYIHEJILIJIZHI,YEFUHEGONGPINGGONGZHENGDEYUANZE。DANBUDEBUTIDESHIZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGYOUHUICHANSHENGZHUDUOWENTI。LIRU,RUGUOGAIFANGJIFEIMOUYIGERENHEQUANTICHUANGZAODE,ERDANGQIANDEBAOCUNZHEJINSHIFANGJIDECHUANCHENGZHE,ERCHUANGZAOZHEDEHOURENYOUCUNZAIDEQINGKUANGXIAGAIRUHEBAOHU?ERZHESHEICHUYUYOUXIANDIWEI、QUANYIRUHEFENPEI?YOURUZAIYIXIEDIQU,CHUANTONGZHONGYIYAODEFANGJISHISHISHIDAIDAILIUCHUANXIALAIDE,MEIJIAMEIHUDOUKEYIZIYOUSHIYONG,ZAIRENMENDENAOHAIZHONGCONGWEIXINGCHENGYOUQUANLIZHUTIDEYISHI,YEHUIYINGXIANGZHONGYIYAOFANGJIQUANLIZHUTIDEQUEDING。ZHEIXIEDOUSHIWOMENZAIJIEDINGCHUANTONGZHONGYIYAOFANGJIBAOHUZHONGJIDAIJIEJUEDEWENTI。

                    2.客体界定之困境

                  星云棋牌官网下载   GENJUFAXUESHANGDUIYUKETIDEDINGYI,ZHONGYIFANGJIZHISHICHANQUANSHIZHIZHONGYIFANGJIDEZHUTIDEQUANLIHEYIWUSUOZHIXIANGDEDUIXIANGHUOZHEBIAODE。DUIYUSUOYOUFALVSHANGDEQUANYIHEYIWU,DOUSHIZAIZHUTIDEQUERENHEFENJIESUOXINGCHENGDE。

                    GENJU《ZHUANLIFA》DIERSHILIUTIAOGUIDING:“YINGDANGDUIFAMINGHUOZHESHIYONGXINXINGZUOCHUQINGCHU、WANZHENGDESHUOMING,YISUOSHUJISHULINGYUDEJISHURENYUANNENGGOUSHIXIANWEIZHUN;BIYAODESHIHOU,YINGDANGYOUFUTU。ZHAIYAOYINGDANGJIANYAOSHUOMINGFAMINGHUOZHESHIYONGXINXINGDEJISHUYAODIAN。QUANLIYAOQIUSHUYINGDANGYISHUOMINGSHUWEIYIJU,QINGCHU、JIANYAODIXIANDINGYAOQIUZHUANLIBAOHUDEFANWEI。YILAIYICHUANZIYUANWANCHENGDEFAMINGCHUANGZAO,SHENQINGRENYINGDANGZAIZHUANLISHENQINGWENJIANZHONGSHUOMINGGAIYICHUANZIYUANDEZHIJIELAIYUANHEYUANSHILAIYUAN;SHENQINGRENWUFASHUOMINGYUANSHILAIYUANDE,YINGDANGCHENSHULIYOU”。ZHEILIXUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI:WOGUODEZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUSHIJIEJIANXIFANGDEZHUANLIBAOHUTIXI,YIZHAOXIFANGGUOJIADEZHUANLIBAOHUTIXIYAOQIUJISHUSHANGCHENGXING,WANZHENG,YOUMINGQUEDEFANWEIHEXIANDING。XIFANGFALVSHANGDEGUIDINGHEXIFANGYIXUESHIYANKEXUECHENGXING、WANZHENG、YOUMINGQUEDEFANWEIHEXIANDINGDETEZHENGSHIXIANGSHIYINGDE,ERZHONGYIFANGJISHIZHONGGUOLAODONGRENMINZAIQIANBAINIANDELAODONGSHIJIANZHONGDUIYISHILINGYUDEJINGYANZONGJIE,BUTONGYUXIYIDESHIYANKEXUE。ZHONGYISHUYUJINGYANKEXUE,ZAICHENGXING、WANZHENG、MINGQUEFANWEIHEXIANDINGYAOQIUSHANG,CUNZAIZHEXIANTIANXINGBUZU,HENNANRANGZHUANLISUOYOURENZAIZUOYONGJIZHISHANGWANZHENGBIAOSHUQINGCHU。GUER,QUANLIKETIJIEDINGZHINANYESHIZHONGYIFANGJIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUZHONGDEYIDAOKAN。

                    3.中医方剂知识产权保护法律关系之内容[8]

                  星云棋牌官网下载   (1)ZHONGYIFANGJIDEJINGSHENXINGQUANYI。1)SHUMINGQUAN。SHUMINGQUANJIBIAOMINGCHUANGZUOQUNTIDESHENFEN,ZHENGMINGGAIQUNTISHIZHONGYIFANGJIDEZHUTIDEQUANLI,YESHICHANQUANBAOHUDEHEXINNEIRONGZHIYI。2)ZUNYANQUAN。ZUNYANQUANJIUSHIBAOHUCHUANTONGFANGJIDEBIAOXIANXINGSHI,BENYIWANZHENGHEBUSHOUWAIQUDEQUANLI。YOUYUCHUANTONGZHONGYIFANGJIDUIWAICHANGCHANGSHIDAIBIAOZHECHUANTONGZHONGYIQUNTI,RUDUICHUANTONGFANGJIDEDAOQIE、SIYILANYONGHUOZHEEYIDIHUI,WANGWANGHUISHANGHAIGAITUANTIDEZIZUNXIN。JINNIANLAI,YIXIEZHONGYIWUYONGLUN、ZHONGYIWEIKEXUELUNSIYIDAJIZHEZHONGYIXUEDEZUNYAN,DUIZHEIXIANGQUANNENGDESUNHAIJIUSHI“ZHONGYIFANGJIBIANDI”XIANXIANGDECUNZAIJICHU。SUOYI,DUIZHONGYIFANGJIDEQUANYIZHUTIYOUBIYAOJIYUCIXIANGQUANYI,YIBAOHUCHUANTONGZHONGYIYAOFANGJIBUSHOUWAIJIEDENIUQU。3)FAZHANQUAN。ZHONGYIFANGJICONGGUZHIJINDOUSHIBUDUANBIANHUAFAZHANDE,BUDUANSHIYINGYISHISHIJIANZHONGCHUXIANDEXINWENTI、XINYIHUO。BAOHUZHONGYIFANGJIDEFAZHANQUAN,SHIFUHEQIKEGUANFAZHANDEGUILVDE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   (2)ZHONGYIFANGJIDEJINGJIXINGQUANYI。1)SHIYONGQUAN。SHIYONGQUANZHUYAOBAOKUOZIWODESHIYONGHESHOUYUTARENSHIYONG。ZIWOSHIYONGSHIZHIZHONGYAOFANGJISUOYOURENSHOUYUGERENHUOZHETUANTISHIYONG,ZHEIZHONGSHIYONGYIBANSHIBUJUYOUSHANGYEXINGZHIDE。SHOUYUTARENSHIYONG,SHIZHIJIANGZHONGYAOFANGJIDESHIYONGQUANZHUANYIYUFANGJISUOYOUDEGERENTUANTIYIWAIDEGERENHUOZHETUANTI。ZHEIZHONGSHIYONGYEBAOKUOLESHANGYESHIYONGHEFEISHANGYESHIYONG,DANZHUYAOSHIZHISHANGYESHIYONG。FEISHANGYESHIYONGTONGCHANGXIANGDANGYUZIDONGSHOUQUAN,SHANGYEXINGSHOUQUANZEYIBANSHIFEIDUZHANXINGSHIYONGQUANDEXUKE,JIZAISHOUQUANYIHOU,ZHONGYIFANGJIJIKEYOUZHANYOURENHUOTUANTISHIYONGHEBEISHOUYURENTONGSHIXIANGYOUDUIQISHIYONGQUAN。2)SHOUYIQUAN。SHOUYIQUANJIZHONGYIFANGJISUOYOUDEGERENHUOZHETUANTIZUZHIZAISHIYONGZHONGYIFANGJIJINXINGSHANGYESHIYONGSHI,YOUCONGZHONGHUOQUBAOCHOUDEQUANLI。GUOJIATONGGUODUIXIANGGUANZHONGYIFANGJIDEXIANGGUANLIFABAOHU,QUEBAOSUOYOURENDESHOUYIQUANYI。

                    4.保护期限之困境

                    ZHISHICHANQUAN,YECHENGQIWEI“ZHISHISUOSHUQUAN”。ZHIQUANLIRENDUIQIZHILILAODONGSUOCHUANGZUODECHENGGUOXIANGYOUDECAICHANQUANLI,DANYIZHAOFALVGUIDINGTAYIBANZHIZAIYOUXIANSHIJIANNEIYOUXIAO。GENJUWOGUO《ZHUANLIFA》GUIDING,FAMINGZHUANLIQUANDEQIXIANWEI20NIAN,SHIYONGXINXINGZHUANLIQUANHEWAIGUANSHEJIZHUANLIQUANDEQIXIANWEI10NIAN,JUNZISHENQINGRIQIJISUAN。ZHUCESHANGBIAOYOUXIAOQI,SHIZHIZHUCESHANGBIAOZHUANYOUQUANDEBAOHUQIXIAN。GENJUWOGUO《SHANGBIAOFA》DEGUIDING,ZHUCESHANGBIAODEYOUXIAOQIWEI10NIAN,ZIHEZHUNZHUCEZHIRIQIJISUAN。ZHUCESHANGBIAODEYOUXIAOQIJIEMAN,XUYAOJIXUSHIYONGDE,YINGDANGZAIQIMANQIAN6GEYUENEISHENQINGXUZHANZHUCE;ZAICIQIJIANWEINENGTICHUSHENQINGDE,KEYIJIYU6GEYUEDEKUANZHANQI。KUANZHANQIMANRENGWEITICHUSHENQINGDE,ZHUXIAOQIZHUCESHANGBIAO。MEICIXUZHANZHUCEDEYOUXIAOQIWEI10NIAN。XUZHANZHUCEHEZHUNHOU,YUYIGONGGAO。ZUOZHEWEIGONGMINDEQIXIAN:BAOHUQIWEIZUOZHEYOUSHENGZHINIANJISIWANGHOU50NIAN,JIEZHIYUZUOZHESIWANGHOUDI50NIANDE12YUE31RI;RUGUOSHIHEZUOZUOPIN,JIEZHIYUZUIHOUSIWANGDEZUOZHESIWANGHOUDI50NIANDE12YUE31RI。ZUOZHEWEIFARENHEQITAZUZHIDEQIXIAN。BAOHUQIWEI50NIAN,JIEZHIYUZUOPINSHOUCIFABIAOHOUDI50NIANDE12YUE31RI;DANZUOPINZICHUANGZUOWANCHENGHOU50NIANNEIWEIFABIAODE,ZHEZUOQUANFABUZAIBAOHU。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHISHICHANQUANDEBAOHUSHIDUIZUOZHEZHISHICHENGGUODEKENDING,DIAODONGLERENMENCONGSHIWENYICHUANGZUOHEKEJIYANJIUDEJIJIXING。TASHIYINGSHIDAIDEFAZHAN,NENGGOUCUJINSHEHUIZIYUANDEYOUHUAPEIZHI,SHIYIGEGUOJIA、YIGEMINZUJINBUDELINGHUN。ERZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUQIXIANDESHEZHISHISHIANSHIGAOJIEHOULAIRENBUNENGANYUXIANZHUANG,GULI、BIANCEJIRENZHEJUYOUJIXUCHUANGXINDEJINGSHEN。ZAIZHISHICHANQUANQIXIANSHEZHISHANG,WOGUOJIEJIANLEXIFANGGUOJIADUIZHISHICHANQUANQIXIANDESHEZHI。JIEJIANERLAIDEXIFANGGUOJIADUIZHISHICHANQUANQIXIANXIANGDUIJIAODUAN,ERCHUANTONGZHONGYIFANGJISHIQIANBAINIANLAIZHONGHUAMINZUZAIYILIAOSHIJIANZHONGDEBUDUANJILEI、BUDUANJINGYANZONGJIEDEJIEGUO。CHUANTONGZHONGYIFANGJIRUGUOKEBANDEANFALVTIAOWENKENENGDADUOYIJINGCHAOGUOLEQIBAOHUQIXIAN。SUOYI,ZAIXIANDAIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUZHIDUZHIXIA,CUNZAIZHEBAOHUQIXIANYUZHONGYIYAOFANGJITEDIANBUFUDEKUNJING[9]。

                    (二)中医方剂现实之困境

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHONGYIFANGJIZAIWOGUOYIJINGYOUSHUQIANNIANDELISHI,SHIZHONGGUORENMINZAILISHIZHANGHEZHONGTONGJIBINGZUODOUZHENGDEJINGYANZONGJIE。JINGGUOZHANGQIDELINCHUANGYILIAOSHIJIANHEYANZHENGZHUBUXINGCHENGLEYITAOWANZHENGDEDUTELILUNTIXI。SUIZHEJINDAIXIFANGYIXUEKAISHIJINRUZHONGGUO,XUNZHENGYIXUEZHUJIANZHANJUJINXIANDAIYIXUEDEZHULIU,FANGJIZUOWEIFUZAYAOWUPEIWUDEZHILIAOXINGSHIERBUBEIZHULIUYIXUESUORENKE,ERZHUJIANSHUAILUO。YOUQISHIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGYIXUEDUTEDESHICHENGMOSHIHE“ZHONGYIBUCHUANZHIMIZAIYUYAOLIANG”DEZHISHIBAOHU,SHIDEHENDUOFANGJIDEZUCHENG、YONGFAHAIMEIGONGZHIYUZHONGJIUXIAOSHIZAILISHIDEZHANGHEZHIZHONG。GENGHEKUANGSUIZHEQUANQIUHUAQUSHIDEJIAQIANG,GEGEGUOJIADUIZHONGYIYAOBUDANGSHIYONG、BUDANGZHANYOUHEGUODUKAIFADEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。YINCI,ZHENDUIZHONGYIFANGJIDETEDIAN,CAIQUSHIYIDEBAOHUCUOSHIDUIYUFANGJIDEKECHIXUFAZHANSHIHENYOUBIYAODE[10]。

                    四、中医方剂知识产权保护的必要性

                    (一)经济角度分析

                  星云棋牌官网下载   JINNIAN,SUIZHEGUOJIA“ZHENXINGZHONGYIYAOSHIYE”ZHANLVEDEZHUBUSHISHI,ZHONGYIYAOCHANYEFASHENGLEJUDABIANHUA。JIEZHIDAO2017NIANWEIZHI,WOGUOZHONGYIYAODESHICHANGGUIMOYIJINGGAODA17 500YIYUAN,QIZHONGZHONGYIYAOGONGYEZONGCHANZHIDADAO8 442YIYUAN,YUEZHANZHENGGEYIYAOGONGYEZONGCHANZHIDE1/3。ERFANGJIZUOWEIZHONGYIYAOCHANYEZHONGDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,SUIZHEZHENGGECHANYEDEFAZHAN,DUIJINGJIDEJINBUZUOCHULEBUKEMOMIEDEGONGXIAN。ZAIRIBEN,JIEZHIDAO2012NIAN8YUE,YONGYULINCHUANGYILIAODEHANFANGZHIJIYIJINGDUODA148ZHONG,ERZHEIXIEHANFANGZHIJIDADUOCHUZIWOGUODEJINGDIANFANGJIZHEZUO,RU《SHANGHANLUN》《JINKUIYAOLVE》《QIANJINYAOFANG》《QIANJINYIFANG》《HEJIJUFANG》DENG,BINGYOUDALIANGDERIBENHANFANGYAOJUZHICHENGKELIJI,ZAIRIBENDEDAOGUANGFANYINGYONG[11]。2016NIAN,RIBENSUOYOUHANFANGZHIJIDEXIAOSHOUEYIJINGDADAOLE11.9YIMEIJIN。RIBENSUOSHENGCHANDEZHIJI,BUJINZAIBENGUOXIAOSHOU,ERQIEYUANXIAOOUMEI,SHENZHIYELIUXIANGLEZHONGGUOSHICHANG。ZUIXIANZHEDELIZIJIUSHINIANXIAOSHOUEKEDA1YIMEIYUANDE,YIMOFANGWOGUO《YAOLIANQIMI》ZHONGLIUSHENWANZUFANGERZHICHENGDEJIUXINDAN。FANGJISHIYIGEFENGFUDEBAOKU,YOUXIAODEJIAYIKAIFAHELIYONG,DUIYUZHENGGECHANYEJINGJIDECUJINDOUSHIWUFAGULIANGDE[12]。

                    (二)文化角度分析

                    ZHONGYIYAOSHIZHONGHUAMINZUWENHUAYICHANDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,LIZUYUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUA,JINGGUOQIANNIANDEFAZHAN,ZHUJIANXINGCHENGZIJIDELILUNTIXI。ERZHONGGUOCHUANTONGWENHUA,ZAOYIGUANCHEDAOZHONGYIYAODEFANGFANGMIANMIAN,FANGJIZHIZHONGYEWUSHIWUKEXIANLUCHUCHUANTONGWENHUADEHENJI。YIZUIJIBENDEFANGJIPEIWUYUANZEWEILI,FANGJIPEIWUYUANZEJIANGJIU:“JUNCHENZUOSHI”。《SUWEN·ZHIZHENYAODALUN》YUE:“ZHUBINGZHIWEIJUN,ZUOJUNZHIWEICHEN,YINGCHENZHIWEISHI”,JISHIZAIFANGJIDEPEIWUZHIZHONG,LEIBIGUDAIWANGCHAODEJUNCHENZHIDU[13]。ERCHUCIZHIWAI,XIANGZHENWUTANG、DAXIAOQINGLONGTANG、BAIHUTANGZEDAIYOUZHONGGUOGUDAITIANWENXUEDETESE;ZHANGJIEBINDEZUOGUIWANHEYOUGUIWANFANYINGCHUGUDAIXIANRENDUIYUYINYANGDERENSHI;LIUYISANHEJIAOTAIWANZEQUXIANGYUZHOUYIZHIZHONG;GUILUERXIANJIAO、TIANWANGBUXINDANJITUOLEGURENDESHENHUAYIXIANG。CONGYUYANDESHIYONGFANGMIAN,YUPINGFENGSAN、ZHOUCHEWANYUNYONGLEXIUCI;XIAOYAOSANHESHIXIAOSANZEBAOHANLEQINGGANYIXIANG。CHANSHENGYUCHUANTONGWENHUADEZHONGYIYAOXUEZAOYICHENGWEICHUANTONGWENHUABUKEFENGEDEYIGEBUFEN,FANGJINAIZHIZHONGYIYAOYECHENGZAIZHEFENGFUDECHUANTONGWENHUA。WOMENDUIYUZHENGGEZHONGYIYAODEYANJIUHEBAOHU,YESHIDUIYUCHUANTONGWENHUADEBAOHU[14]。

                    (三)自身发展角度分析

                    ZHONGYIXUEZUOWEIZHONGGUODECHUANTONGYIXUE,JINGLILESHUQIANNIANDESHIJIANHEJINGYANZONGJIE,XINGCHENGLEYI“LI、FA、FANG、YAO”WEIHEXINDEZHENLIAOTIXI。QIZHONGFANGJIZUOWEIZHONGYIXUEDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,CONGZUICHUMAWANGDUIHANMUCHUTUDEJINZAIFANG283SHOUDE《WUSHIERBINGFANG》,DAO“FANGSHUZHIZU”DE《SHANGHANZABINGLUN》;CONGJITANGYIQIANFANGJIZHIDACHENGDE《WAITAIMIYAO》,DAODIYIBUGUANXIUFANGSHU《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG》;CONGMINGQINGDEZHUZHONGFANGLUNZAIDAOJINXIANDAIDEFANGJILILUNTIXIDEWANSHAN。SHULIANGDEZENGJIA、JIXINGDEFENGFU、LILUNTIXIDEWANBEI,CAIZHUJIANXINGCHENGXIANDAIYIYISHENGHUIDEFANGJI。FANGJIDEMEIYICIFAZHAN,DOUSHIDUIZISHEN、DUIZHONGYIXUEDECUJIN[15]。

                    (四)社会效益角度分析

                    FANGJIYEZAIYIZHICONGGEGEFANGMIANTUIDONGZHESHEHUIDEFAZHAN。YISONGDAIWEILI,SONGDAIWEIZHONGGUOGUDAIJINGJIGAODUFANRONGDECHAODAI,ZAISONGDAICHUXIANDE1 000YUBUYIXUEZHEZUOZHONGBAOHANLEDALIANGDEFANGSHU,RU:《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG》《TAIPINGHUIMINHEJIJUFANG》《SHENGJIZONGLU》《PUJIBENSHIFANG》《JISHENGFANG》《JIANYAOJIZHONGFANG》《TAIYIJUFANG》《SUSHENLIANGFANG》DENG。ZHEIXIECHANSHENGYUGAODUJINGJIJICHUZHIXIADEFANGSHU,BUJINYONGYUSHEHUIDEYILIAOBAOJIAN,ERQIECUJINLEGUOJIAZHENGTONGYIXUEZHISHIDECHUANBO。YUANFENGSANNIAN(1080NIAN),HUANGZHOUMINBINGYI,ZHANGJIDAXING。SUSHIYONGSHENGSANZIFANGZHILIAO,“SUOHUOBUKESHENGSHU”。SONGDAIGUOJIAZHENGFUHEDIFANGGUANLIDUIYUFANGJIDEZHONGSHIDUISHEHUIDEJINBUHEMINSUDEJINHUACHANSHENGLESHENYUANDEYINGXIANG。XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIYIHOU,FANGJIZAISHEHUIYILIAOSHIYEFANGMIANYEQIDAOGUOJUZUQINGZHONGDEZUOYONG。SHANGSHIJIWUSHINIANDAI,BAIHUTANGBEIYONGYUZHILIAOHUABEIDIQULIUXINGDEYINAOQUDEXIANZHEXIAOGUO。2003NIAN“FEIDIAN”ZAIBIANZHENGZHUNQUEYIHOUYUNYONGWENBINGXUEPAIDEFANGJILAIJINXINGZHILIAO,YEDUIJIBINGQIDAOLEJIJIDEZHILIAOZUOYONG,QIEFUZUOYONGYUANXIAOYUJISUZHILIAO。ERZAIRIBEN,HOUSHENGSHENG1994NIANJIANGXIAOCHAIHUZHIJIYONGYUGAISHANGANBINGHUANZHEGANGONGNENGBINGQUDELIANGHAODELIAOXIAO。YINCI,XIAOCHAIHUZHIJIYECHENGWEIRIBENXIANDAIGUOJIAYAODIANZHONGDESHOUWEIHANFANGZHIJI。WULUNGUJINZHONGWAI,FANGJIDOUYIZHIZAICUJINZHEDANGSHI、DANGDIDESHEHUIFAZHAN,ERZHEIZHONGJIJIZUOYONGYEJIANGHUIYIZHIYANXUDAOWEILAI。

                    五、中医方剂知识产权保护的新思路

                    (一)其他国家中医方剂知识产权保护的经验

                    1.日本知识产权保护体系。

                    RIBENZHENGFUYU1885NIANJIANLILEZHENGSHIDEZHUANLIZHIDU。DANZAOQIDERIBENJINJINDUIYUYAOPINDEZHIZUOFANGFAJINXINGZHUANLIBAOHU,ZHIDAO1986NIANCAIDUIYAOYONGZHIWUTIQUDEZUFANGRUSHAOYAOGANCAOTANG、GUIZHITANGDENGJINXINGZHUANLIBAOHU[16]。RIBENHANFANGZHIJIQIYEZHUYAOYOUJINCUNSHUNTIANTANG、XIAOTAILANGHANFANGZHIYAOJIZHONGFANGYAOPINSANJIA,QIZHONGYIJINCUNSHUNTIANTANGCHANPINZUIDUO。YIJINCUNSHUNTIANTANGWEILI,QIXIANGSHIJIEZHISHICHANQUANJUSHENQINGDEPCTZHUANLIZAI2012NIANJIUYIJINGDADAO68XIANG。JIANGYANJIUNEIRONGFABIAOZAIGUOJIXINGDEQIKAN、BAOZHIHUOHUIYISHANGYEBEIYONGLAIZUZHITARENHUOQUZHUANLIQUAN。SHANGSHIJIQISHINIANDAICHUQIDIZIJIAOSHOUFABIAODE“JINCUNXIAOCHAIHUKELIDUIMANXINGGANYANYOUZHILIAOXIAOGUO”LUNWENJIUYUJINCUNSHUNTIANTANGDEZHUANLIBUJUXIXIXIANGGUAN。ZHIHOU,ZAI2010NIANDEDDWSHANGJINCUNSHUNTIANTANGYIGONGFABIAOLE14XIANGGUANYULIUJUNZITANG、6XIANGGUANYUDAJIANZHONGTANGHE1XIANGGUANYUSHAOYAOGANCAOTANGDEYANJIU。QICI,JINCUNSHUNTIANTANGSHIFENZHONGSHISHANGBIAOZAIHAIWAIDEJISHISHENQINGHEZHUCE[17]。

                    2.美国专利局于1976年授权了第一批中医药相关专利。

                    ZHIHOUZHUANLISHUMEINIANDOUYIYIDINGDESUDUZENGZHANG。ERJIEZHIDAO2009NIAN,ZAIMEIGUOSHOUYUZHONGYIYAOZHUANLIDESUOSHUGUOJIAZHONG,MEIGUOPAIMINGDIYIWEI157JIAN,YICIWEIZHONGGUOTAIWAN35JIAN,HANGUO28JIAN,RIBEN24JIAN,ZHONGGUODALU17JIAN[18]。

                    (二)中医方剂知识产权保护的出路

                    1.国内中医。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   YAOTIGAOZHONGYIFANGJIDENGXIANGGUANRENYUANDEBAOMIYISHI,ZENGQIANGZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEFALVYISHIYIJIPUJIRUHEBAOHUDEFANGSHI[19]。YAOJIANGZHONGYIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUTIGAODAOZHANLVEGAODU,SHULIQIGUOJIALIYIZHISHANGDEGUANNIAN,BAOHUZHONGHUAMINZUDEGONGTONGLIYI。YAOJIAQIANGXIANGGUANRENCAIDEPEIYANG,PEIYANGZHUANYEBAOHUZHISHICHANQUANRENCAI,YITIGAODUIZHONGYIYAOZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEZONGHESHUIPING。TONGSHI,KEYISHELIZHUANXIANGJIJINZIZHUZHIDU,TONGGUODUOZHONGTUJINGCHOUCUOZHONGYIYAOZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUFAZHANJIJIN,YONGZUOZHONGYIYAOZHISHICHANQUANDEPEIXUNXUANCHUANHETUIGUANGYINGYONGDENG[20]。JIANLIZHONGYIFANGJIDEBAOHUMULUSHUJUKU,KAIZHANDIAOCHAFENXI,JIANLIZHONGYIYAOZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUMULUSHUJUKU。

                    2.全球化视野下的中国中医方剂的知识产权保护[21]。

                    JINGJIQUANQIUHUADEQUSHIHEXINSHIJIZHONGGUO“RUSHI”SUODAILAIDEQUANQIUHUASHIYEXIA,ZHONGYIFANGJIDEBAOHUXUZUNSHOUGUOJISHEHUIGONGTONGZHIDINGDECHANQUANSHANGYEMAOYIDENGGUIZE。DUIYUZUIFUZHONGHUAMINZUTESE,ZAIGUOJISHEHUI、GUOJISHICHANGZHONGZUIFUJINGZHENGLIDECHUANTONGCHANYE———ZHONGYICHANYEERYAN,ZHONGYIFANGJIBAOHUSHIYIJIANRENZHONGDAOYUANDESHI。YIFANGMIAN,XIANGGUANZHONGYIYAOQIYEJIQIYEDEKEXUEYANJIUGONGZUORENYUANSHOUXIANYAOBUDUANZENGJIADUIZHONGYIFANGJIBAOHUDEYISHI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIDANGQIANGUOJIHUANJINGZHIXIA,XIANSHIZHONGSHIXINGDEZHISHICHANQUANZHIDUSHIDEDAOSHIJIEGEGUOYOUQISHIQIZHUYAOCHANYUZHIDINGHEZHUDAOZHEDEXIFANGFADAGUOJIACHONGFENRENKEDE。CONGGUOJIADEJIAODULAIKAN,ZHIDINGYIGEQIEHEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDE,TONGSHIWEISHIJIEGEGUOSUOJIESHOUHEPUBIANRENKEDEXINZHISHICHANQUANZHIDUCONGZHIDUDEZHIDINGFANGMIAN、YUNXINGDECHENGBENFANGMIAN、XIAOYIDESHOUHUOFANGMIANSHIBUXIANSHIDE,BUGUOWOMENYINGGAISHIDUDEQUXIUGAIWOGUOZHISHICHANQUANZHIDU,TEBIESHIZHUANLIBAOHUDEZHIDU。YIFANGMIANBUQUWEIBEIGUOJIJINGJIFAZHONGDETRIPSXIEYI,TONGSHILIYONGTRIPSXIEYIZHONGDEDANXINGTIAOKUAN,LIRU“QIANGZHIZHIXINGXUKE”、“ZHUANLIJISHUBAOHULIWAI”、“ZHUANLIJISHUFANWEI”、“FAMINGZHUANLIDINGYI”ZHONGDETIAOKUANDUIGUONEIZHONGYIYAOFANGJIZHUANLIJIYUQIESHIYOUXIAOBAOHU[22]。KEKAOLVYIZUOWEIYIGELIYIZHENGTI,TICHUXIUGAIZHISHICHANQUANZHIDUDEMOUXIENEIRONG,SHIZHONGYIFANGJIBAOHUFUHEMINZUDUOYANGXINGSHENGWUJISHUDEDUOFANGMIANXINGHEWENHUADEDUOYUANXINGDEYAOQIU,YIQIQUDIKANGXIFANGGUOJIAXIANZAISUOWEIWEIHUDEZHISHICHANQUANZHIDUZHONGMOUXIEBUHEQINGLIDETIAOKUAN。ZHONGYIYAOSHENGCHANQIYEHEZHONGYIFANGJIYANFAJIGOUYEYINGDANGBUDUANJIAQIANGKEJIJISHUCHUANGXIN,ZAIZHONGYIYAODEYUNYONGHEDUIYUANYOUTIQUJISHUSHANGJINXINGCHUANGXIN,ZAIZHIZUODEGONGYISHANGYAOXIAZUGONGFU,ZAIGEGEFANGMIANNULIGONGGUAN,BUDUANGONGKEMUQIANWOGUOZHUANLISHENQINGKUNNANDEPINGJING[23]。

                    六、结语

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2019NIAN5YUE25RI,DI72JIESHIJIEWEISHENGDAHUISHENYITONGGUOLE《GUOJIJIBINGFENLEIDISHIYICIXIUDINGBEN(ICD-11)》,SHOUCINARULEQIYUANYUZHONGGUODECHUANTONGYIXUEZHANGJIE,JIANGDALICUJINZHONGYIYAODEGUOJIJIAOLIUYUHEZUO。ERFANGJIZUOWEIZHONGYIYAODEZHUTI,ZHONGYIZHENLIAOXITONGDEZHUYAOSHOUDUAN,ZAIZHONGYIYAOZOUXIANGSHIJIEDEGUOCHENGZHONGJIANGQIZHEJUZUQINGZHONGDEZUOYONG。MUQIANZHONGYIYAODEGUOJIHUAZHANLVERENGCHUYUQIBUJIEDUAN,FANGJIDEGUOJIHUAYUZHISHICHANQUANLINGYUYEYIPIANKONGBAI。RUHEZAIFANGJIMAICHUGUOMENZHIQIANYINGZAOYIGELIANGHAODEJIAOLIUHUANJING,JIANLIWANSHANDEFANGJIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUTIXI,SHIMUQIANZUIJINPOYESHIZUIXUYAOKAOLVDENEIRONG。FANGJIZUOWEIYIGEBAOKU,DUIWENHUA、JINGJI、SHEHUIDEYINGXIANGZHIJUDANANYIXIANGXIANG。RUHEDUIFANGJIJIAYIYOUXIAODEKAIFAHELIYONG,RUHEDUIFANGJIJINXINGYOUXIAODEBAOHU,JIANGHUIYINGXIANGXIANZAISHENZHIWEILAIZHONGYIYAOGUOJIHUAZHANLVEDEFAZHANJINCHENG。

                    参考文献

                    [1]李飞.方剂学[M].北京:人民卫生出版社(第1版),2002:6-11.
                    [2]许济群,王绵之.高等中医药院校教学参考丛书《方剂学》[M].北京:人民卫生出版社(第2版),2008:16.
                    [3] 单冬冬.中医特点及中医现代化之浅见[J].中华中西医志,2006,7(14):12.
                    [4]刘国伟,李琳.中医在五个典型历史时期的海外传播概述[J].中医临床究,2015(3):2.
                    [5] 江建中.知识产权:理论法条案例[M].南京:东南大学出版社(第1版),2016:121.
                    [6]田艳.传统文化产权制度研究[M].北京:中央民族大学出版社,2011:65-72.
                    [7] 王晓天,王承华,袁红梅,等.中国实验方剂学志[J].Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulate Vol.19No.15Aug.2013.
                    [8]李宗友,雷燕.中医知识产权保护的战略研究[J].中国中医药信息杂志,2005(11):4.
                    [9]宫斯宁.中药专利保护中的相关问题分析及对策[J].长春中医学院学报,2006,22(1):7.
                    [10]郝明虹,曹宝成.中药品种保护的回顾与展望[J].中国中医药信息杂志,2005,12(1):11.
                    [11]潘万旗,路玫,郭德欣.基于文化弘扬与临证处方能力提升的留学生本科层次《方剂学》教材编写[J].中医药管理杂志,2015,23(19):29-31.
                    [12]张林熹.“深度翻译”与中医方剂的文化意象传递[J].中国中西医结合杂志,2016,36(10):1252-1254.
                    [13]肖月园,杨志波.日本汉方医学发展带来的启示[J].中国中西医结合皮肤性病学杂志,2018,17(6):554-558.
                    [14]韩毅.宋代地方官吏应对瘟疫的措施及其对医学发展的影响[J].中原文化研究,2017,5(2):84-94.
                    [15]李冀.连建伟.方剂学[M].北京:中国中医药出版社,2016:61.
                    [16]江茹,沈爱玲.日本汉方药的专利保护政策及其借鉴意义[J].现代中药研究与实践,2012,26(2):76-78.
                    [17]翁丽红,林丹红.传统医药企业知识产权战略分析———以日本津村株式会社为例[J].福建中医药大学学报,2013,23(4):66-69.
                    [18]傅俊英,曹燕.美国专利局授权的中医药专利分析[J].中国中医药信息杂志,2010,17(8):1-3.
                    [19]孟锐,陈凤龙.我国制药企业药品专利相关问题初探[J].中国药房,2005,16(19):1449.
                    [20] 朱秋琦.中药方的知识产权保护现状及方式的探讨[J].中华现代医院管理杂志,2007,5(8):1.
                    [21]张新国,石秀芹,冯建波.关于中药知识产权保护有关问题的思考[J].中国发明与专利,2008(6):52.
                    [22] 薄智云.中医走出去需加强知识产权保护[N].人民日报,2015-02-19(13).
                    [23]雷燕,李中友,蔡仲德,等.关于加强中医知识产权保护的战略思考[J].世界科学技术,2007(6):6.

                    沈宇超,姚景曦.知识产权视角下中医方剂的保护[J].中国卫生法制,2020,28(01):49-55.
                    相近分类:
                    • 成都网络警察报警平台
                    • 公共信息安全网络监察
                    • 经营性网站备案信息
                    • 不良信息举报中心
                    • 中国文明网传播文明
                    • 学术堂_诚信网站

                    百胜棋牌---首页_欢迎您 百灵拼三张-Welcome 蓝洞棋牌官网送3金币---首页_Welcome 035棋牌手游官网 亲朋棋牌官方下载完整版-首页